Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Sim ple Machines and Sailing Ships The Big I dea Why learn about Simple Machines here at the Charlestow n Navy ? Innovations in water transportation have been pivotal to human movement around the world and to local and regional economic growth. These successes were all tied to machines.
Ships are very complicated machines themselves and offer opportunities for learning technology. The two ships at the Navy Yard are great examples: the USS Constitution (which reflects the state-of-the-art when built and benefited from many engineering advances while also reflecting ancient technologies); and the USS Casein Young (which reflects a more contemporary level of machinery). Other resources here, including the cranes and the USS Constitution Museum, are also powerful props.
About Lorraine In addition to working with adults around teaching science to children, I teach science to all the students attending the Manning Elementary School (Boston Public Schools) in Jamaica Plain. Education is my second career; I first worked in engineering (Go UMASS). You can contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org Contents (this packet) Machines and Tools cThe Simple Six d Reducing Friction Navy Yard Scavenger Hunt Tool-Using Animals Massachusetts Science and Engineering Standards Thoughts about Pedagogy Inquiry & cWorkshop ... more. less.
d during science Science Notebooks cThink It before you Name It d Student Discourse Organizing Student Groups Glossary Resources (books, web sites, & supplies) Appendix A: Schematics cthe simple six d pulley systems and about levers Worksheet Appendix B: about the USS Constitution Statistics (related to simple machines) Lignum Vitae Copyright © Lorraine S.<br><br> Theroux, 2005 Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Machines and Tools A tool is a device that helps us to do work. Humans have been using them for thousands of years. Essentially, 8simple machine 9 is a fancy term for talking about basic tools.<br><br> We know the ancient Egyptians used simple machines to build the pyramids; we just don 9t know exactly which ones. They makes it easier or even, sometimes, just possible to move or lift something. Simple Machines are getting more attention ever since they appeared in the K-5 portion of the current version of the Massachusetts Science and Engineering Learning Standards and in the MCAS (they 9ve been a part of physics courses for a long time).<br><br> c The Sim ple Six d There are six kinds of simple machines (according to most sources). (When you combine two or more of these together, you get what is a Complex Machine.) Once you know 2 or 3 of them, it takes little time to be able to identify the remaining three. To help remember what they are, I group them into the 83 straight ones 9 and the 83 that have curves 9.<br><br> The straight ones I nclined Plane: a sloping surface which generally doesn 9t move as it is used. Wedge : a small version of the inclined plane that works by moving an object OR by keeping an object from moving. It lifts or splits objects.<br><br> A thick wedge needs more effort to move it. A thinner one is easier, but needs to be longer. Lever: a bar which rests on a support (the fulcrum).<br><br> It lifts objects. The circular ones Pulley: a wheel which carries a rope in a grove along its edge. Some pulley setups are used for changing direction of a force.<br><br> Other kinds are used for lifting. Wheel and Axle: a large wheel and a small wheel (the axle) which turn together. If they do not turn together, then it is technically not a wheel and axle simple machine, nor is a single wheel alone.<br><br> Screw : a central shaft with a continuous thread running along it. It pulls one thing towards another. (Think of it as a lever wrapped around a central shaft.) I ncreasing and reducing friction Friction is a resistance to motion between two objects that are touching.<br><br> It has the effect of slowing things down (or making them harder to move). Friction is often a good thing in machines. It is what keeps cars on the road.<br><br> It is used to slow down objects, like parachutes. It lets us use erasers to clean up our work. This can be very easily explored with ramps by changing the surface.<br><br> Add sandpaper, aluminum foil, water, oil, and bearings (little balls or wheels) between the object and ramp. Copyright © Lorraine S. Theroux, 2005 Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Suggested Activity: Navy Yard Scavenger Hunt Visit the Constitution Museum and find the large model of the USS Constitution on the 1 st floor.<br><br> Look for these exam ples of simple m achines: 1. The rudder is a lever. The ship 9s wheel is a wheel-and-axle.<br><br> The two are connected by a series of pulleys. 2. Pulleys are located throughout the rigging.<br><br> 3. The anchor is pulled up by using a large wheel (the capstan), turned by crew using long poles (as levers). 4.<br><br> The bow of the hull is a wedge. 5. How many more can you find?<br><br> Tool-Using Anim als Finding animals that use tools is exciting for scientists. Check out these sites (you can also find these and similar articles more easily by inserting these titles into Google): Chimps Shown Using Not Just a Tool but a "Tool Kit" http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/10/1006_041006_chimps.html Tool Making Chimps http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/news/02/pr0242.htm & http://www.units.muohio.edu/dragonfly/tools/chimptools.shtml The crows who know how to make tools http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml= /news/2005/01/13/ncrow13.xml&sS heet= /news/2005/01/13/ixhome.html Copyright © Lorraine S. Theroux, 2005 Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Meeting The State Learning Standards Grades 6-8 Physical Sciences 3 Motion of Objects Learning Standard 11: Explain and give example of how the motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion, and speed.<br><br> Grades 3-5 Technology/Engineering 3 Materials and Tools Learning Standard 1.3: Identify and explain the difference between simple and complex machines, e.g. hand can opener that includes multiple gears, wheel, wedge gear, and lever. Modeled Pedagogy I nquiry : In Massachusetts 9 standards, the skills of science include: Asking questions about objects, organisms, and events, using tools (to help observe or measure), recording observations, and answering the questions.<br><br> Inquiry usually means students are asking questions and then working to answer them. In Guided Inquiry, the teacher cplants seeds d to ensure students are working with content required by the standards. c Workshop d during science: Science is naturally taught in a workshop approach.<br><br> Workshop usually consists of these components: a short cmini lesson d, some guided practice and then independent group work, conferring, and sharing. Student Grouping: During Guided Reading Instruction , students are carefully grouped according to the needs and performance level of students. Students benefit from similar grouping during science.<br><br> I do not use any formal tools; I generally group students based on what they need from me in order to develop as scientists and critical thinkers. These groupings are often VERY different from those for reading instruction. Concept Developm ent Com es First (OR cThink It before you Name It d) : Research into how children learn best shows that students expand their vocabulary more effectively if they have some conceptual framework before they are exposed to the formal language for the concept.<br><br> If you 9re not sure, do some research yourself: try it at least twice and then judge its effectiveness, particularly with the middle group of students. Student Discourse: one m ethod is Pair-Share: During general whole-group discussions, only a few students contribute. During Pair-Share, all students are expected to participate in the discussion.<br><br> Here 9s I include it. I give the class one or two questions to use in interviewing a partner (always two students to a team 3 I partner with any 8extra 9 student). After about 90 seconds, I remind them to switch roles.<br><br> Then, during a whole-class sharing, I ask for volunteers to tell us what the partner said. The students learn this technique very quickly, enjoy it, and our whole-class discussions are full of succinct and well thought-out comments. Student Notebooks: There is some research that shows the implementation of an inquiry-based science program that includes science notebooks has a great impact on overall student learning.<br><br> There are many kinds and forms of notebooks 3 it appears that the kind emphasizing 8showing thinking 9 rather than 8showing writing skills 9 is more beneficial. Background on this is available at my web site (this section is still being written this winter): http://scienceforall.com/whyteachscience/why_teach_science.html Copyright © Lorraine S. Theroux, 2005 Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Glossary 3 General Effort: the amount of force.<br><br> Force: a push or a pull that makes an object move or a resistance to movement. Friction: a force that resists motion. It acts to slow down the movement of an object.<br><br> It results in some of the moving energy being turned into heat energy. Load: the object (it 9s mass or weight) that needs to be moved. Machine: something that helps us do work, like lifting and moving heavy objects.<br><br> Tradeoff : as a machine decreases your effort, it increases the distance you have to travel. When using machines there is a relationship between distance and effort. As the machine decreases your effort, it increases the distance you have to go.<br><br> Explore this while using inclined planes. An inclined plane is a sloping surface such as a ramp. It is easier to push or roll a load up a ramp instead of straight up, but it means you move it farther.<br><br> Work: using force to move an object. Movement is essential. If you push on a tree all day and it doesn 9t move, then you did no work.<br><br> Com plex m achines: a device with at least 2 simple machines. E.g. scissors are a complex machine because it has a pair of levers and its cutting edge is a wedge.<br><br> The straight-sided simple machines I nclined Plane: a sloping surface which generally doesn 9t move as it is used. Wedge : a small version of the inclined plane that works by moving an object OR by keeping an object from moving. It lifts or splits objects.<br><br> A thick wedge needs more effort to move it. A thinner one is easier, but needs to be longer. Lever: a bar which rests on a support (the fulcrum).<br><br> It lifts objects. The circular simple machines Pulley: a wheel which carries a rope in a grove along its edge. Some pulley setups are used for changing direction of a force.<br><br> Other kinds are used for lifting. Wheel and Axle: a large wheel and a small wheel (the axle) which turn together. If they do not turn together, then it is technically not a wheel and axle simple machine, nor is a single wheel alone.<br><br> Screw : a central shaft with a continuous thread running along it. It pulls one thing towards another. (Think of it as a lever wrapped around a central shaft.) Copyright © Lorraine S.<br><br> Theroux, 2005 Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Glossary 3 Specific to Sailing Ships Block and tackle: A housing with one or more pulleys built into it along with the rope. Capstan: a wheel and axle system used to pull up anchor line or chain. The capstan was turned by the crew by inserting levers into notches along the wheel.<br><br> Dead Eye: similar to a pulley, except it has no moving parts. It works the same way. Quoin: A wedge used to raise the level of a gun Propeller : on ships with an engine, a screw is turned by an engine and it pulls the boat through the water.<br><br> Running Rigging: the ropes used to lift, trim, or lower sails along with the block and tackles that assist by reducing the effort. Ship 9s Wheel: A wheel and axle that is connected by lines and/or levers to the rudder. Standing Rigging: ropes, wires, and chains, kept tight with dead eyes and turnbuckles, which support masts and yards.<br><br> Copyright © Lorraine S. Theroux, 2005 Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Books for Children Fowler, Allan; Simple Machines (part of the Rookie Read-About Science series); 2001; Grolier VanCleave, Janice; Machines (part of the Spectacular Science Projects series); 1993; John Wiley & Sons. Lots of great ideas for teachers, too.<br><br> Walker, Sally M, Feldman, Roseann; Learn About the World of Physics Series: includes Inclined Planes and Wedges, Levers, Pulleys, Screws, Wheels and Axles, and Work . 2002; Lerner Publications. Weitzman, David; Old Ironsides: Americans Build a Fighting Ship .<br><br> 1997; Houghton Mifflin. Wells, Robert E; How Do You Lift a Lion? ; 1996; Albert Whitman & Company Teacher Guides Albert, Toni; Simple Machines , Grades K-3, Carson-Dellosa, 1994.<br><br> Great and interesting worksheets, and uses easy-to-find materials. Zike, Dinah; Pocket Science: Simple Tools & Machines , Grades 2-5, Ideal School Supply Company, 1987. This also does a good job.<br><br> Students make paper models of many of the machines. I think it is out of print. Levers and Pulleys ; Grades 5-6; FOSS (Full Option Science System); Delta Education.<br><br> 2000. The series of kits from FOSS are excellent. The guide comes with the kit; purchasing it separately is difficult ($150.00!) Web Sites Tool Making Chimps: http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/news/02/pr0242.htm & http://www.units.muohio.edu/dragonfly/tools/chimptools.shtml Official Web Site of the USS Constitution http://www.ussconstitution.navy.mil/ US Navy Fact File on the USS Constitution http://www.chinfo.navy.mil/navpalib/factfile/ships/oldiron.html EdHeads Simple Machines (great interactive site) http://www.edheads.org/activities/simple-machines/ Simple Machines WebQuest, 2002.<br><br> http://www.42explore.com/smplmac.htm This WebQuest is designed for students; its links and bibliography include classics and are up-to-date. Many of the links are for web pages designed for children. Work Is Simple With Simple Machines http://www.ed.uri.edu/SMART96/ELEMSC/SMARTmachines/machine.html Copyright © Lorraine S.<br><br> Theroux, 2005 Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Sources for Supplies Spools, wire, and short dowels are commonly found in large craft stores. Spools, dowels, and other wooden supplies are much cheaper if purchased from this specialty house: How ee 9s I nc .; http://www.rbdesigns.com/howee/ 2220 S. Prosperity Ave.<br><br> Joplin, Missouri 64801 Phone: 417-623-0656 Pulleys and spring scales are found in most science supply catalogs. The following two are fast and have fair prices: Learning Things , Inc, http://www.learningthings.us/acatalog/ Learning Things, Inc. 4381 34th Street South St.<br><br> Petersburg, FL 33711 ETA/ Cuisenaire http://www.etacuisenaire.com/ 500 Greenview Court Vernon Hills, IL 60061 800-445-5985 Copyright © Lorraine S. Theroux, 2005 Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Copyright © Lorraine S. Theroux, 2005 Cut on the dashed lines.<br><br> Fold on the dotted lines. Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Three Kinds of Levers Hint: Rem em ber FLE (based on the m iddles). Class 1 levers have the fulcrum in the middle.<br><br> Class 2 levers have the load in the middle. Class 3 levers have the effort in the middle. Examples of Class 1 Levers: See Saw Pry Bars Scissors Examples of Class 2 Levers: Wheel Barrow Nutcracker Examples of Class 3 Levers: Tweezers Hammer (F= elbow) Fly Swatter Copyright © Lorraine S.<br><br> Theroux, 2005 Simple Machines and Sailing Ships One Pulley Two Pulleys Copyright 2005 © Lorraine S. Theroux Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Copyright © Lorraine S. Theroux, 2005 Copyright © Lorraine S.<br><br> Theroux, 2005 Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Copyright 2005 © Lorraine S. Theroux Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Copyright © Lorraine S. Theroux, 2005 Copyright © Lorraine S.<br><br> Theroux, 2005 Simple Machines and Sailing Ships Sim ple Machines - Data Sheet Scale reading 1. Scale w ith no load (adjust as necessary until it is zero) 2. Lift load straight up I nclined Planes 3.<br><br> Pull load up a shallow ramp 4. Pull load up a steep ramp 5. Optional: friction Reducing friction (describe method and ramp) Increasing friction (describe method and ramp) Pulleys (getting the cord to stay in the groove is tricky and may take at least 3 hands plus patience!) 6.<br><br> Lift load with one fixed pulley 7. Lift load with one movable pulley 8. Lift load with two pulleys, pulling up 9.<br><br> Lift load with two pulleys, pulling down Copyright 2005 © Lorraine S. Theroux Simple Machines and Sailing Ships USS Constitution Statistics (related to sim ple m achines) cSome of the blocks and many of the lignum vitae dead eyes removed from the CONSTITUTION when dismantled in 1992, were found to be usable, some of which required repairs and a number were renewed. Deadeyes and wood blocks were either refurbished or manufactured in-house.<br><br> The wood blocks were manufactured of ash with lignum vitae sheaves, common bushing. In some cases cast iron sheaves were substituted. Running blocks were either refurbished or purchased from Dauphinee & Sons, Limited, Nova Scotia, Canada.<br><br> Running rigging (rigging that is used for hoisting and lowering): 229 blocks with approximately 8 miles of running rigging has been installed. Standing Rigging (rigging that holds things up and together): 440 blocks The six sails [made for the bicentennial] represent Constitution's battle configuration, and represents 12,225 square feet, approximately 35% of Constitution's total sail area of 42,710 square feet. The main topsail is Constitution's largest sail, measuring 56 feet wide at the head, 50 feet high at the leeches, and 74 feet wide at the foot.<br><br> Sails used in the Rehabilitation and Restoration of Constitution: Fore Topsail: 800 pounds, 2640 sq. ft. Main Topsail: 1080 pounds, 3400 sq.<br><br> ft. Mizzen Topsail: 500 pounds, 1620 sq. ft.<br><br> Spanker: estimated 400 pounds, 1690 sq. ft. Jib: estimated 350 pounds, 1720 sq.<br><br> ft. Flying Jib: 280 pounds, 1180 sq. ft.<br><br> Synthetic material was selected, based on cost, weight, availability, intended longevity of the sail material. OCEANUS a synthetic cloth closely resembling natural cotton duck material. d Source: http://www.maritime.org/conf/conf-otton-mat.htm Lignum Vitae d Lignum-vitae, «LIHG nuhm VY tee,» is the name of two species of trees that produce extremely hard wood. The trees grow in the West Indies, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America.<br><br> They are sometimes called guayacans. The Latin words lignum vitae mean wood of life. The trees were so named because resin made from their wood was used to treat rheumatism, catarrh, and skin diseases.<br><br> The heartwood of lignum vitae is the most useful part of the tree. This wood is so heavy that it sinks in water. The wood is olive-brown in color and contains an oily resin that acts as a lubricant when the wood is used for bearings.<br><br> The grain of lignum vitae interlocks and makes it practically impossible for the wood to be split. Lignum vitae is used for the stern propeller-shaft bearings in steamships, for the sheaves and blocks of pulleys, and for mallets, furniture casters, and band saw guides. d Source: "Lignum-vitae," Discovery Channel School, original content provided by World Book Online, Contributor: Jim L. Bowyer, Ph.D., Director, Forest Products Management Development Institute, Univ.<br><br> of Minnesota., July 21, 2001. http://www.discoveryschool.com/homeworkhelp/worldbook/atozscience/l/323690.html Copyright © Lorraine S. Theroux, 2005<br><br>