Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION II. NEED FOR A MOCK DISASTER DRILL MANUAL Overview of the Manual Scope and Purpose of the Manual Applicability of the Manual III.
INTRODUCTION TO MOCK DRILLS Purpose of Mock Drills and Exercises Types of Drills and Exercises Important Players in a Drill/Exercise IV. GUIDELINES FOR DRILL DESIGN Scope Purpose Statement Objectives Scenario Narrative Drill Activity Termination Expected Actions/Roles and Responsibilities Expected Response/Evaluation Criteria V. GUIDELINES FOR DRILL CONDUCTION Pre-drill Briefing Drill Initiation Drill Activity VI.
GUIDELINES FOR DRILL EVALUATION Evaluation Team Elements for Evaluation Critiquing Mock Drills Mock Drill Evaluation Report VII. CASE STUDIES FOR MOCK DRILLS IN SPECIFIC SETTINGS Urban Setting Rural Setting Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 2 Industrial Setting (Onsite/Offsite) School Setting Health Care Setting VIII. ANNEXURES Checklist for DMTs/CTFs Checklist for ESF Teams Template for Evaluation of Mock Drills Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 3 I.
INTRODUCTION A disaster is defined as ca serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental ... more. less.
losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources. d A disaster is the product of a hazard such as an earthquake, flood or windstorm coinciding with a vulnerable situation in a community, village, city or geographic area. India has been traditionally vulnerable to the risk of natural disasters due to the unique geo-physical profile of the country. Approximately 85% of the country 9s land area i.e.<br><br> 22 States are prone to various forms of natural disaster including floods, cyclones and earthquakes. In the past decade, India has witnessed a number of major natural disasters including the cyclone in Orissa (1999), the earthquake in Gujarat (2001), and the tsunami in Tamil Nadu (2004), causing massive losses to lives, property and precious resources. Disaster management is very essential in India due to this unique vulnerability profile of the country.<br><br> Disaster management is a set of policy, administrative decisions and operational activities which pertain to the various stages of a disaster at all levels. It can serve to reduce or mitigate the risks associated with natural disasters. Phases of a disaster Disasters can be viewed as a series of phases on a time continuum.<br><br> There are three key stages of activity that are taken up within disaster management (Figure I) 3 I. Pre-Disaster (Before a disaster strikes): In this stage, risk reduction activities known as mitigation and preparedness activities are carried out. These activities are undertaken to reduce human and property losses caused by the hazard and to ensure that these losses are minimized when the disaster strikes.<br><br> Mock drills are carried out in this phase of the disaster cycle (Box 1). II. Disaster Response (During a disaster): In this stage, emergency response activities are carried out.<br><br> These are activities undertaken to ensure that the immediate needs of the community are met and suffering is minimal. III. Post-Disaster (After a disaster): Response and recovery activities are carried out at this stage to achieve early recovery and to prevent exposure to the earlier vulnerable conditions.<br><br> Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 4 Figure 1: Phases of the Disaster Risk Management Cycle An effective disaster management policy is crucial for India 9s development as it is the poor and underprivileged that form the most vulnerable groups and are the worst affected by natural disasters. The Government 9s earlier approach was to focus mainly on disaster relief and recovery measures, while largely ignoring the pre-disaster phase of the disaster cycle. However, in the wake of the recent devastating disasters in the country, and the gradual realization that disasters serve to further retard socio-economic development, there has been a growing shift in the Government 9s approach to disaster management.<br><br> This new approach emphasizes disaster preparation, mitigation and preparedness to reduce people 9s vulnerability to the risk of disasters. Box 1 : Pre Disaster Phase of the Disaster Management Cycle Awareness Generation about disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation measures Plan Preparation at various administrative levels i.e. States, Districts and Communities Training and Capacity Development Conduction of Mock Drills Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 5 Effective response to challenging situations and conditions is vital for ensuring personal safety and protecting lives, property, facilities, equipment, infrastructure and the environment.<br><br> Personnel, communities, departments, incident commanders etc must be able to take immediate actions necessary to safely mitigate the consequences of an unexpected or abnormal and potentially dangerous condition. The process presents a challenging management problem and becomes even more complex when all emergency management disciplines come together into one integrated system for managing emergencies. Drills and exercises focus on those actions which are necessary to respond to an emergency.<br><br> Regular drills and exercises can help communities, governments, industrial bodies, corporate sectors and other sectoral agencies to test, evaluate and continually improve their emergency management systems. Drills and exercises should ideally test all the phases of disaster management. Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 6 II.<br><br> NEED FOR A MOCK DISASTER DRILL MANUAL The manual has been prepared to facilitate the effective design and implementation of drills and exercises specifically intended for testing emergency preparedness and response. It is based on a detailed examination of over 400 drills which have been organized by various Government agencies, private sector, communities and schools across different multi-hazard prone areas. This manual has been prepared under the Government of India-UNDP Disaster Risk Management Programme.<br><br> The programme aims at sustainable disaster risk reduction through capacity building focusing on the pre-disaster phase of the Disaster Management cycle. Some of the processes and structural frameworks described in this manual are being established under the DRM Programme for effective disaster risk management, for e.g., the Disaster Management Committees and Task Forces at various levels are part of the systems that are being put in place under the DRM programme. However, the manual is designed to be a general guideline and resource material.<br><br> The approaches outlined in this manual are not regulatory requirements, but rather recommendations for emergency planning and response. The manual also provides guidance for the development of new drills and exercise programmes that will play a role both in training as well as evaluating emergency operations across different sectors. Overview of the Manual The following sections contain information on the necessity for mock drills in disaster management including guidelines for design, conduction and evaluation of the drills.<br><br> The manual also provides case studies for conducting mock drills in specific settings 3 Urban, Rural, Industrial, Educational and Health Care. Scope and Purpose of the Manual To provide information and guidance for development or redesign of drill programmes To assist with training and testing for disaster management through mock drills To suggest processes for the preparation, conduct and evaluation of mock drills and exercises Applicability of the Manual In order to respond effectively to emergencies, a multi-sectoral approach is needed. All sectors including urban, rural, industrial, corporate, health and education sectors should develop and implement disaster management programmes, plan detailed disaster response procedures, and provide adequate training and access to emergency equipment.<br><br> The recommendations contained in this manual are intended to assist in reviewing and supplementing the procedures for mock disaster drills including sector specific requirements. The information provided can be applied to a variety of situations. Regardless of the method used or the particular setting, the drill scenario should meet the needs of the operating personnel.<br><br> Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 7 III. INTRODUCTION TO MOCK DRILLS Purpose of Mock drills and Exercises Mock-drills help in evaluating response and improving coordination within various government departments, non-government agencies and communities. They help in identifying the extent to which the SOPs and Plans are effective and also aid in revising these if required.<br><br> These drills enhance the ability to respond faster, better and in an organized manner during the response and recovery phase. Drills/Simulations/Exercises are based on a set of assumptions about the circumstances during a disaster: A high level of tension and anxiety under which the concerned personnel would operate both at the central and field levels Highly unreliable information which requires critical assessment Criticality of time where rapid decisions must be taken Necessity for coordination among technical personnel and government officers, who do not usually interact Prominence of political and social factors in the aftermath of a disaster Therefore, the emphasis is not on specific solutions, but on the approach to organizing information and establishing priorities which would lead to efficient solutions. The approach for conducting a mock-drill varies as per the complexity of scenario depending upon the potential hazards, response system of the institution and the target community.<br><br> Therefore, to ensure proper implementation of a drill programme, roles and responsibilities (SOPs) of the concerned personnel, departments, corporate bodies, stakeholders, and mechanisms for conducting the drill should be delineated clearly. Regardless of the size, complexity and risk involved in the implementation of the drill, an effective drill/exercise programme should have the following essential elements as pre- requisites: Emergency Response Plan: explaining institutional response structure, emergency response functions and standard operating procedures for various departments Team personnel at head quarter and field level trained on their standard operating procedures Trained quick response teams in various possible operations like search and rescue, law and order, fire-fighting, medical, water arrangements, relief and shelter and electricity restoration etc Updated database of resources 1 , equipment and manpower available Updated Emergency Directory with important contact details of members of Incident Management Team and Emergency Response function Mock-drill Scenario and detailed action plan for Mock-drill Evaluation formats for concerned departments and definite criteria for evaluation Observers and Qualified evaluators 1 For guidelines on resource inventories refer to www.idrn.gov.in Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 8 Lessons learnt from the actual drills and exercises would be useful to revise operational plans and serve as a basis for the training of various stakeholders across different sectors. The drills and exercises will help to - Identify planning gaps Revise SOPs to enhance coordinated emergency response Increase public awareness and community readiness Enhance capacities of professionals, departments and trained volunteers Test plans and systems in simulation exercises Types of Drills and Exercises There are several different types of drills and exercises.<br><br> 1. Drill: A drill is a supervised activity with a limited focus to test a procedure that is a component of the overall emergency management plan. That is, drills usually highlight and closely examine a limited portion of the overall emergency management plan.<br><br> For example, a disaster management unit might conduct a drill for the use of a radio system with those responsible for communicating on it. Drills are designed to impart specific skills to technical personnel (e.g., search and rescue, ambulance, firefighting). A perfect drill is one that leads to a flawless repetition of the intended task under any circumstance.<br><br> 2. Tabletop Exercise: A tabletop exercise uses written and verbal scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the emergency management plan and procedures and to highlight issues of coordination and assignment of responsibilities. Tabletop exercises do not physically simulate specific events, do not utilize equipment, and do not deploy resources.<br><br> In a tabletop exercise, a facilitator usually coordinates discussion. 3. Functional Exercise: A functional exercise simulates a disaster in the most realistic manner possible without moving real people or equipment to a real site.<br><br> A functional exercise utilizes a carefully designed and scripted scenario, with timed messages and communications between players and simulators. The emergency operations center (EOC) 4the facility or area from which disaster response is coordinated 4is usually activated during a functional exercise and actual communications equipment may be used. 4.<br><br> Full-Scale Exercise or Field Exercise: It tests the mobilization of all or as many as possible of the response components, takes place in creal time, d employs real equipment, and tests several emergency functions. Full-scale exercises are generally intended to evaluate the operations capability of emergency management systems in a community and to evaluate interagency coordination. While these exercises cannot realistically reproduce the dynamic and chaos of real life disasters, they are useful when intended to detect the inevitable errors, lack of coordination, or deficiencies of the simulated response.<br><br> A critical evaluation is the essential conclusion of these exercises. Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 9 This manual deals with the design, conduction and evaluation of Full Scale Exercises/Field Exercises. Important Players in a Full Scale Drill/Exercise The Incident Command System (ICS) 2 is an emergency management framework, adaptable to any scale of natural or man-made emergencies.<br><br> The ICS seeks to strengthen the existing disaster response management system by ensuring that designated controlling/responsible authorities at different levels are backed by trained Incident Command Teams whose members have been trained in the different facets of disaster response management. Basic Functions of IC system: " Maintain integrated communication flow during emergency " Manage the incident scene " Facilitate procedure and protocols to be followed by ESF departments " Adopt a comprehensive resource management approach " Monitor functional areas during the post- disaster phase The ICS has an integrated organizational structure with the following five command functions 3 : i) Incident Commander ii) Operations iii) Planning iv) Logistics v) Finance/Administration During a mock drill, the key players in ICS would be the following: Incident Commander 3 The incident commander 9s role is to supervise the simulation or overall conduct of the exercise, to make sure that the exercise proceeds as planned and that the objectives are achieved. The incident commander monitors the sequence of events, supervises the inputs of messages received and conducts a de-briefing and critique (verbal & written) with all personnel involved.<br><br> At the village level, the head of the village is in charge. Simulators 3 Simulators cact as d and on behalf, of the agencies and services that would normally interact with the players at the Emergency Operating Centre (EOC). The method of interaction is normally pre-scripted but responses could be spontaneous.<br><br> Participants 3 The participants should be from community volunteers, DMT members and ESFs, led by decision makers from various departments. 2 Text extracts taken from 8Basic Incident command system (ICS) 9 FEMA and 8Guide for all hazard emergency operations planning 9, FEMA, 1996 3 The ICS will not put in place any new hierarchy or replace the existing system but it will reinforce it. When an ICT is deployed for an incident, all concerned agencies of the Government will respond as per the assessment of the Team Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 10 Observers/Evaluators 3 Their role is to observe the actions and decisions of the players, in order to later report what went well and what did not.<br><br> The main focus is on the performance of functions and or/agencies, institutions and facilities being tested, keeping in mind the objectives of the exercise. Quick Response Teams : Quick response teams are technically trained teams formed by the nodal authority of disaster management. These teams are resourceful and perform several emergency response actions at the incident site for immediate recovery of the affected areas.<br><br> Community Task Forces - Disaster Management teams (DMTs) /community task forces (CTFs) are the community volunteer groups, which perform their roles as per the simulated disaster scenario during the drill. The DMTs/CTFs should consist of the following groups: i. Early Warning/Communication ii.<br><br> Evacuation and Temporary Shelter Management iii. Search & Rescue iv. Damage Assessment v.<br><br> First-Aid/Medical Health/ Trauma Counseling vi. Water & Sanitation vii. Relief (Food & Shelter) Coordination Note: The number of teams may vary as per the multi-hazard scenario in the area The community themselves are the first responders for carrying out rescue and emergency services.<br><br> Community taskforces initiate responses at field level where specialized quick response teams join them for faster recovery. The field level team leaders of ESFs and local incident commander coordinate with community taskforces and quick response teams to understand the requirements of the situation and provide essential assistance to perform operations. Plan for Emergency Support Functions 3 The ESF Plan document outlines the objective, scope, organization, setup and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for each ESF that is to be followed by the respective ESF agencies when the response plan is activated.<br><br> SOPs provide a basic concept of the operations and responsibilities of Disaster Management Teams, Nodal and Secondary Agencies. The Emergency Support Function Teams (ESFs) could be as follows: i. Communication ii.<br><br> Evacuation iii. Search and Rescue iv. Medical Health/Trauma v.<br><br> Equipment Support vi. Helplines, Warning Dissemination (Media) vii. Drinking Water viii.<br><br> Electricity ix. Relief (Flood and Shelter) x. Debris and Road Clearance Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 11 xi.<br><br> Law and Order xii. Transport xiii. Other Functions Prior to conducting the drill, the drill team members should be trained in the duties, responsibilities and activities related to their respective positions in the conduct of the drill.<br><br> Training may also be accomplished during the pre-drill briefing where each team member 9s duties should be individually addressed. In addition to training of these teams, additional people should be trained to account for any mishap. A checklist of activities to be carried out by each of the task forces during various phases of the disaster is attached as Annexure I .<br><br> A checklist for each of the Emergency Support Function (ESF) Teams is also provided in Annexure II . Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 12 IV. GUIDELINES FOR DRILL DESIGN All drills should be conducted in accordance with a drill scenario as approved by the implementing agencies of Disaster Management; members of the EOCs; ESFs of all line departments; voluntary agencies such as Civil Defence, NSS, NYKS, Bharat Scouts and Guides, Red Cross; Industrial Safety Managers/Technical Experts; and groups or individuals specifically identified to conduct the drills.<br><br> The number of controllers, simulators and evaluators are decided based on the type of drill to be conducted, the scenario and the resources available to conduct the exercise (personnel, equipment, funding etc). Scope 3 Defines the boundaries of the drill 4 . While conducting the mock drill, the scope could also include the possible collateral 5 hazards associated with the main hazard that triggers other events.<br><br> The following five aspects should be considered while defining the scope - 1. Hazards 3 Identify one specific hazard/collateral hazards for the exercise 2. Geographic area 3 Identify a defined location for the event and identify a hazard impact scenario 3.<br><br> Agencies and personnel 3 Identify which agencies will participate and the personnel required 4. Exercise type 3 Identify the type of exercise to be conducted based on realistically achievable results within the drill scenario 5. Operating Procedures 3 Identify SOPs as per the scenario to test emergency response functions and coordination Statement of Purpose 3 It is a statement to communicate the scope of the exercise to the entities participating in the mock drill.<br><br> Objectives 3 Objectives should be clear, concise, specific, performance based and attainable. The number of objectives needed for an exercise may vary according to the scale and expected output of the exercise. Objectives can be classified into cgeneral/functional/specific d.<br><br> General objectives will provide the overall scope of the exercise with reference to the community, agency, institution, industry or organization (for example: the community of Nari village will respond and recover from the flash floods). Functional or specific objectives form the core of the mock drill. These further define the statement of purpose for the exercise by clearly describing the expected outcomes (performance) of the disaster management functions being tested.<br><br> Scenario narrative 3The scenario narrative describes the events leading up to the time the exercise begins. It sets the scene for later events and also captures the attention of the participants. It could include answers to questions such as: What event How was the information relayed 4 The scope could vary depending on the hazard scenario 5 For instance, collateral seismic hazards which could result in consecutively occurring events such as fault rupture, liquefaction, soil differential compaction, landslides, and flooding Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 13 What damages have been reported What was the sequence of events Was there any advance warning issued and how long before the event What factors influence emergency procedures Drill Activity 3 Activities should be planned in such a way that it should provide sufficient scope to test the pre-identified Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), drill scenario and the needs of the identified participants (e.g.<br><br> members of ESF teams, schools, industries, public/commercial settings). Termination 3 States the event(s) that indicate when the drill should be concluded once all the required and expected actions have been completed. In case of safety problems, procedure violation or an emergency, the drill may be prematurely terminated.<br><br> Expected actions/roles and responsibilities 3 Describes the expected response to actions undertaken. Each ESF and its respective team members should be listed by name so that there is no confusion as to who is responsible for each function. Expected response/evaluation criteria 3 The expected response is already pre- identified and defined in a procedure.<br><br> Specific areas need to be identified for evaluation in the design stage of the mock drill. Details of the procedure must be included so that evaluation is properly carried out. The criteria for evaluation should focus on response recovery based on the hazard scenario stimulated and emergency functions conducted.<br><br> Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 14 V. GUIDELINES FOR DRILL CONDUCTION When conducting drills, a set process should be followed in order to minimize risks of injury to personnel, damage to equipment or the environment. Participating organizations such as the fire department, police, traffic authorities, hospitals and emergency response units should be informed.<br><br> They should be notified before the commencement of the drill, and should respond accordingly as required by the drill scenario. They should also be informed as to how they will be notified in the event of an actual emergency. Pre-drill Briefing The drill coordinator should hold a pre-drill briefing with the participating agencies, observers/evaluators to explain the scene and the ground rules for executing the drill.<br><br> Operational procedures should be reviewed and safety precautions should be considered and reviewed with the participants. The pre-drill briefing should include the outline of the drill procedure and should clearly specify the inputs required by the participating agencies in terms of human resource support/equipment support. In a scenario which has a potential to cause damage to the habitat, it is important to involve the community and discuss the possible chain of events with them.<br><br> Drill Initiation The drill should be initiated by the incident commander in accordance with the planned drill scenario. The exact actions (such as alarm or announcement) for the initiation should be identified. Drill Activity After the drill is initiated, every activity and response should be carried out according to the scenario and respective SOPs.<br><br> Methods for receiving and delivery of messages can be verbal or written; on paper, by telephone, radio or fax. These messages are directed specifically to individuals/primary agencies that are responsible for coordinating responses with secondary agencies. From the message input, participants should determine the expected response and consequently coordinate internally and externally with the concerned agencies/individuals to take the necessary actions.<br><br> During the drill, evaluators document all activities based on the criteria of the drill scenario. Each drill should have specified areas of evaluation so that all actions required are observed and evaluated. Necessary evaluation formats should be circulated in advance to the concerned participating agencies.<br><br> The drill scenario should be allowed to continue till completion of the stated objectives or as stated by the incident commander. An abnormal termination is possible when actions taken by operating personnel would adversely affect the safety of the participants or cause damage to the facility, equipment or environment. Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 15 VI.<br><br> GUIDELINES FOR DRILL EVALUATION Evaluation process is an important component of the drill. It is the act of observing and recording mock drill activity, by comparing the performed actions against the drill objectives. Evaluation serves three functions: To evaluate personnel actions To evaluate the ability of the responding agencies to implement a plan To check the effectiveness of the standard operating procedures During the pre-drill briefing, the drill planner, incident commander and evaluation team will review the drill activity and SOPs.<br><br> An evaluation worksheet outlining the action processes to be observed as per the set timeline decided in the scenario exercise should be circulated. After the drill, an evaluation report will be prepared and the comments can be incorporated into the SOPs. Evaluation Team 3 The team members may be identified from within or outside the participating agencies.<br><br> The incident commander may also serve as an evaluator. The size of the evaluation team will depend on the complexity and scale of the drill. Evaluators should be familiar with the local emergency management system, have expertise and knowledge of the plan and have analytical skills in keeping with the exercise design.<br><br> Elements for Evaluation The evaluators should consider the following elements in their evaluation 1. Notification, alerting and mobilization of disaster response personnel Adequacy of alerting procedures Timely activation and staffing of response facilities Accurate and timely assessment of emergency situation 2. Emergency response facilities Timely activation Adequate personnel as per the Response Plan Adequate response equipment 3.<br><br> Disaster preparedness plans and procedures Assigned task forces, personnel 9s demonstrated familiarity with the plans and standard operating procedures Following the set process of the procedures and plans 4. Communications capabilities between response facilities Adequate timely communication with field teams Use of primary and back-up communication systems Satisfactory handling of messages and communication from the EOC to the field site and vice-versa Adequate communications between emergency support functions Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 16 5. Situation assessment To be able to demonstrate timely and coordinated information exchange between response facilities To be able to assess the emergency situation, classify the situation and develop initial mitigation/restoration activities in a timely and accurate manner 6.<br><br> Overall adequacy of the drill scenario to assess the response plan, facilities, resources, personnel/task forces according to functional areas and standard operating procedures Critiquing Mock drills Following the drill, the incident commander will hold a session to critique the drill along with the evaluators and drill team. The critical analysis highlights the successes, shortcomings of the drill scenario, personnel 9s actions, equipment accessibility etc. The critique includes an analysis of the expected versus the actual operating actions including a critical evaluation of the response mechanisms and response time.<br><br> The process should first involve self-evaluation by the participants, then a discussion of the evaluation notes, checklists, actions taken and the overall drill performance. Lessons learnt should be generated and shared with all the participating agencies to ensure maximum training and for future reference. The incident commander shall make the final determination of whether the drill objective was met or not.<br><br> Mock Drill Evaluation Report The evaluation report summarizes the development, conduct and results of the drill/exercise. The report should present an overall evaluation of the exercise, state whether the exercise objectives were achieved, and cite any areas of noteworthy performance, discoveries, determinations, problems, and solutions identified as a result of the exercise. A template of the evaluation report is given in Annexure III .<br><br> Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 17 VII. CASE STUDIES FOR MOCK DRILLS IN SPECIFIC SETTINGS Five specific settings will be covered in this section. A structural framework for each setting is briefly outlined, which enlists the main bodies responsible for undertaking the mock drill in each setting.<br><br> A case study for each type of mock drill has also been provided for a better understanding of the processes involved in the conduction of a drill. The specific settings are as follows: A. Urban Setting B.<br><br> Rural Setting C. Industrial Setting (On-Site/Off-Site) D. School Setting E.<br><br> Health Care Setting The community being the first respondent to disaster, their participation in formulation of preparedness plans and sharing of disaster preparedness cost is pivotal in the community based disaster management planning process. Community Based Disaster Preparedness (CBDP) includes awareness generation; vulnerability analysis; assessment of available resources; capacity building of stakeholders including PRI members, NGOs, CBOs, local administration and line departments; and preparation of disaster management plans, which is required at all levels. Community based disaster plan should incorporate the following: Adoption of a participatory approach Preparation a resource inventory Increased coordination between disaster management committees and reduce communication gaps Formation of community task forces with sufficient knowledge of their specific roles Establishment of a chain of disaster management volunteers Coordination with other related institutions within the community During the mock drill the community members should understand and learn how to use the disaster management plan.<br><br> After the mock drill, the Disaster Management Committee should update the disaster management plan. A. URBAN SETTING Urban communities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to various hazards due to growing population density, rapidly expanding commercial and industrial activity, deteriorating ecological and environmental conditions and changing lifestyle habits.<br><br> These urban areas are also characterized by sub-standard construction and poor infrastructure such as health care and sanitation facilities. These factors coupled with natural and human made hazards put urban communities at further risk. An urban community is formed of individual members and families placed at different levels i.e.<br><br> home, neighbourhood and ward. Due to the large size and particular Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 18 characteristics of the urban community, formation of community based disaster management committees would be difficult. Therefore, in order to strengthen preparedness disaster management committees are normally formed at both the City and Ward levels.<br><br> At times at the ward level, committee members are replaced by Resident Welfare Association (RWA) representatives. There are two levels at which mock drills can be conducted in urban communities: firstly, for ESF support teams at the city administrative level and secondly, for community response at the neighbourhood/ward level. These two types of mock drills can also be carried out in tandem.<br><br> A.1 At the City Administrative Level The City Disaster Management Committee (CDMC) is the key decision making body at this level. The committee is formed with representation from all emergency support function departments who work in coordination for effective action during an emergency. The main functions of the CDMC are as follows To act as a source of information for hazard safety To review the hazard and risk related situations which may be experienced during the drill To prepare recommendations identified during the drill To inspect and coordinate the activities at all levels Evaluation exercises may be undertaken to understand the perceptions about disaster response during the drill in terms of Adequacy of training Alert and warning system Control Room functions Communication plans Security Recovery procedures Monitoring The CDMC is headed by the Municipal Commissioner, Mayor, Divisional Commissioner or District Collector.<br><br> There are four task forces which are convened to support the CDMC 3 i. Awareness Generation ii. Training and Capacity Building iii.<br><br> Techno-legal Regime iv. Emergency Response The emergency response task force is responsible for coordinating the Emergency Support Function (ESFs) Teams (Refer to Annexure II). A2.<br><br> At the Neighbourhood/Ward level The Ward Disaster Management Committee (WDMC) will be the emergency coordinator during the drill at this level. The Councilor will be the chairperson of this committee. Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 19 Other members of this Committee include Civil Defense Personnel, Police Inspector, Fire officer, Assistant Engineer/ Junior Engineer Municipal Corporation, Retired Government Officers, Key volunteers from NGO`s (Rotary Club, Nehru Yuva Kendra etc), RWA Representatives from each neighborhood zone etc.<br><br> The WDMC will perform the following functions during the drill: Monitor and manage the volunteers mobilised for disaster preparedness Update the information database of their respective ward plans Provide timely guidance to the neighbourhood/ward level disaster management team Coordinate with local bodies functionaries for carrying out emergency response Provide the required resources for conducting the drill Case Study for Mock Drill in an Urban Setting Background : A State level mock drill on earthquake disaster was carried out in New Delhi on 4 th August 2004. The duration was six hours. All emergency support function (ESF) teams of Government of Delhi along with NGOs and Indian Red Cross Society Agencies participated.<br><br> Scenario : A massive earthquake struck North East Delhi on 4 th August at 1:57 PM. A large scale building collapse was reported at Seelampur colony, around Shahadara Fire Station, around Seelampur Police Station and other parts of the district. Many feared dead/ injured and trapped under debris.<br><br> Telecommunication, Electricity and water supply disrupted. Emergency declared and District and State Emergency Operation Centres activated. On site Emergency Operation Centres set up at SDM Office Seemapuri, Police Station Seelampur and Shahadara Fire Station.<br><br> PCR Vans report tremors and building collapse. Objectives : The mock drill was aimed at accelerating the pace of development of response plans for the state, and promoting a culture of preparedness. The drill was also meant for bringing together different departments and agencies providing emergency support functions to promote better coordination.<br><br> Drill Design : An initial meeting of ESF team leaders was held on 25 th June, chaired by the Divisional Commissioner, to brief agencies on the mock drill and to discuss the ESF structure and proposed SOPs. SOPs were developed by the DIvisonal Commissioner 9s Office for each ESF and shared with all stakeholders. The Principal Secretary (Home) along with Divisional Commissioner, Joint Commissioner of Police, Chief Fire Officer and Director General (Home Guards & Civil Defence) visited the State EOC and Office of the Deputy Commissioner of district North-East to gauge the preparations at both State and district level.<br><br> Subsequent meetings of the ESFs were held at the State and District level to draft the SOPs and the response plan. Drill Conduction : Proceedings at State EOC S.No. Time Event Action By 1 14:05 Incident Commander receives information of incident from police wireless Police Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 20 2 14:10 Incident Commander declares an emergency Incident Commander 3 14:15 Incident Commander activates the State EOC Incident Commander 4 14:17 MHA Control Room informed through police wireless Police 5 14:18- 14:30 ESF Nodal agencies informed through wireless Police 5 14:40 HAM operators reach State EOC and set up radio station within 15 mins to establish communication with District EOC/Incident Sites HAM operators 6 15:00 Police provides 10 wireless sets for facilitating communication with ESFs MTNL installed 5 temporary landlines at EOC within 45 mins.<br><br> Satellite phones also used Police, MCD 7 15:00 MCD Nodal Officer reports to EOC MCD Officer 8 State level helpdesk set up at EOC by Revenue Department Revenue Dept. Along with the State EOC, the district EOC was also activated Three Incident Management Teams (IMTs) were set up at the affected areas Onsite EOCs were set up at these IMTs Emergency meetings of all ESFs was convened by the Incident Commander ESFs set up Quick Response Teams for prompt response All ESFs responded according to the pre-defined SOPs Evaluation : The Deputy Commissioner (North East) was designated the Incident Commander. Deputy Commissioners from remaining districts were assigned the role of observers and were given a detailed evaluation form to gauge the effectiveness of the agencies.<br><br> Upon completion of the drill, a detailed evaluation report was prepared for each of the ESF teams, assessing them on the following criteria: Agencies reported Resources made available Awareness of responsibilities Nodal agency 9s ability to coordinate with support agencies Team leader 9s ability to coordinate with their respective agencies Overall coordination amongst various ESF agencies B. RURAL SETTING Disaster Preparedness at the rural level is carried out through Village Disaster Management Committees (VDMCs). A VDMC is formed in each village and is responsible for initiating disaster preparedness activities.<br><br> It consists of local elected Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 21 representatives, grass root level government functionaries 6 , local Non-Government Organisations (NGOs)/Community Based Organisations (CBOs), members of youth groups 7 , women 9s self help groups etc. The representation of members in the committee would be decided based on the population size of the village. The VDMC would take the lead in mobilizing the community for formulating the CBDP Plan.<br><br> Village level Disaster Management Teams (DMTs) /Task Forces are formed to outline coordinated response during crisis situations. DMTs have sectoral focus such as early warning, shelter management, evacuation and rescue, medical and first aid, water and sanitation, carcass disposal, counseling, damage assessment and relief and coordination. Village Disaster Management Plans prepared prior to the mock drill through the CBDP process entails the following information: Physical/Social/Infrastructure Profile of village : Demographics, Area Details, Housing Profile, Land Form, Livelihood, Occupation Pattern etc.<br><br> Resource Inventory of village : Skilled Manpower, Health Care, Education, Water Facilities, Transportation, Communication Infrastructure etc. Disaster Risk Profile of village : History of Disaster, Elements at Risk, Hazard Assessment, Vulnerability of Area Contact Information of village : Village Disaster Management Committee, Village Task Force Members, Taluka Level officials, Village Level Skilled Personnel, Emergency Resource Owners etc. Standard Operating Procedure of village task forces : Operating Procedures and Methodology, Roles and Responsibilities in Pre, During and Post Disaster Period Note: At the village level, the mock drills can be based on the seasonality calendar of natural hazards.<br><br> Case Study for Mock Drill in a Rural Setting Background : A mock drill was carried out in Panikata village, Khorda district of Orissa as a skill enhancement exercise with participation from all sections of the village. Scenario : Panikata village has a population of 2000 and is vulnerable to floods during the monsoon season, due to the overflowing of the local river situated approximately 1 km from the village. The village is quite well connected through a road network and has electricity, telephone and postal services available.<br><br> The local school building is used as a shelter place during disasters. There also some highlands situated half a kilometer away, which are used to shelter cattle in times of disaster. Drill Design : The drill was planned by the villagers in consultation with the District Project Officer, DRM Programme.<br><br> 6 For e.g. Block development Officers, Anganwadi Workers, Representatives of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Teachers etc 7 For e.g. Members of National Service Scheme (NSS), Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS) Ladies moving to the shelter place Strategic planning by VDMC Villagers attentively listening to the floodbulletinonradio Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 22 Sequence of Events S.<br><br> No. Event Action By 1 10 youth relaxing in local community centre at around 9:30 am 2 NGO volunteer informs youth group that there have been heavy downpour in the upper catchments of the river and the village may get flooded Youth group listens to special bulletin on radio confirming the same NGO volunteer 3 Youth group informs head of the ward committee and advise him to conduct a VDMC meeting immediately Youth Group 4 VDMC meeting is convened to discuss the prevailing situation. Community Task forces are activated Ward Committee 5 Task forces present their actions plans on how to tackle the forthcoming disaster to the committee Task Forces 6 Early warning team disseminates information about impending disaster and alerts villagers.<br><br> Establishes contact with Block Office/Gram Panchayat Office for latest information on weather and flood situation. Three rounds of early warning are carried out to inform each villager of situation Early Warning Team 7 At the same time, village vigilance team members are instructed to keep vigil on weak points on the embankments and on low lying areas of village Village Vigilance Team 8 Villagers start moving to the safe shelter i.e. school building, with their essential belongings.<br><br> Male members shift cattle to highlands Community 9 Sanitation team makes necessary arrangements to store three day 9s supply of drinking water, provide separate toilet facilities for men and women and obtain adequate stock of bleaching powder, lime powder as disinfectants Sanitation Team 10 Relief team makes arrangements for a Relief Team Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 23 community kitchen centre 11 First aid team position themselves at shelter to provide medical care if needed. Rescue team evacuate sick/ill people and shift them to shelter First Aid Team/Search and Rescue Team 12 Message is received that the village has been flooded and two children are sinking in the nearby pond. Search and rescue team rush to the site with the necessary equipment and rescue the children who are given first aid and shifted to the shelter Search and Rescue Team 13 Counseling team present at the shelter to reduce emotional distress of the villagers Counseling Team 14 De-warning message sent by Early Warning Team that weather conditions are improving and people can move back to their houses Early Warning Team 15 Task forces convene for a de-briefing meeting Ward Committee/Task Forces 16 Assessment team carries out damage assessment and presents its report Damage Assessment Team 17 Update the village disaster management plan on the basis of the evaluation report Evaluation Team Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 24 C.<br><br> INDUSTRIAL SETTING (ON SITE/OFF SITE) Recognizing that natural disasters constitute the biggest threat to financial viability, economic well-being and production processes for the industrial sector; development of on-site and off-site disaster management plans for industrial establishments is essential. Periodic conduction of mock-drills in industrial settings to enhance preparedness levels is critical. Due to the exponential nature of industrial disasters, industrial units are not only mandated to develop on-site DM Plans to respond to and to meet any emergency within their premises but also establish working relationships, linkages and coordination with the surrounding communities.<br><br> Every industrial unit needs to develop an on-site and off-site disaster management plan on the basis of hazards and vulnerabilities likely to affect the community. On-site emergency plans are prepared for dealing with accidents that occur on sites where industrial activities are carried on, while Off-site emergency plans are prepared in anticipation of events spreading outside the boundary of the industry. The plans would assess the probability of occurrence, the severity and the possible consequences of industrial disasters in vulnerable zones.<br><br> Mock drills in an industrial set-up are carried out at the following levels 3 C1. On-Site Mock drills which simulate an internally contained disaster are managed by the Incident Command System which is headed by the Safety Officer. C2.<br><br> Off-Site Large scale mock drills which simulate the effect of an industrial disaster on the community (e.g. a chemical leak due to an earthquake) can be carried out by the District Commissioner/District Magistrate 9s Office with participation by the ESFs of all line departments and the community itself. The possible structure of an Industrial Disaster Management Committee is as follows: At the District Level District Collector (Chairman) Inspector of Factories District Energy Officer Chief Fire Officer District Information Officer Controller of Explosives Chief Civil Defence Trade Union Representative Deputy Superintendent, Police District Health Officer/Chief Medical Officer Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 25 Commissioner, Municipal Corporation Representative of Public Health Engineering Department Industrial Safety and Health Experts Commissioner, Transport Industry Representative Chair Person/Member Secretary of Local Crisis Groups At the Local Level Sub Divisional Magistrate/District Emergency Authority (Chairperson) Inspector of Factories Representatives of Local Industries Hazardous Chemical Transporters Fire Officer Station House Officer (Police) Block Development Officer Representative, Civil Defence Primary Health Officer Editor of Local Newspaper Community Leader/Sarpanch NGO Representative Local Doctors Case Study for Mock Drill in an Industrial Setting (Off-Site) Background : Gujarat Narmada Fertilizer Corporation (GNFC) in association with District Administration, Bharuch, District Crisis Group (DCG), Local Crisis Group (LCG) and Department of Industrial Health and Safety conducted a mock drill on Ammonia leakage on 30th September 2005.<br><br> Scenario : The scenario of the incident was leakage of ammonia from the valve of high pressure pump. The rate of leakage was 1.5 Kg per second. The duration of the drill was two hours.<br><br> Objectives : The main objectives of the drill were as follows: Testing the Off-Site District Emergency Plan Verifying the Preparedness level of various line departments and mutual aid groups Assessing the level of community preparedness Identifying gaps and suggesting appropriate revisions in the plan Drill Design : A series of five meetings were conducted both at the District Collectorate 9s Office and GNFC where members from different industries, district and local crisis groups actively participated. An action plan was prepared and distributed to all the participants. Action Plan S.No Time Event Action by 1 10:30 Leakage started from valve of high pressure pump transporting Ammonia from storage As per GNFC On- site Emergency Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 26 tank Plan 2 10:35 On site-declaration and On-site siren will be blown GNFC Ltd.<br><br> 3 10:36 10:40 Call for mutual aid 3 NCPL & others Information to : 1. District Control Room 2. Bharuch Fire Brigade 3.<br><br> Disaster Prevention and Management Centre (DPMC), Ankleshwar 4. Civil Hospital, Bhaurch 5. Police Station, Bharuch 6.<br><br> SDM, Bharuch 7. Dy.DISH, Bharuch 8. GPCB, Bharuch 9.<br><br> A.R.T.O 10. T.D.O 11. Mamlatdar Local Crisis Group Control Room, G.N.F.C Ltd.<br><br> 4 10:40 Contact one / two designated persons from LCG to inform them of the situation G.N.F.C Ltd. 5 The designated person is known as 8Communication In-charge 9 for the purpose of this mock drill 6 10:40 Communication In-charge will first inform the Expert Group Communication In- charge 7 10:50 Expert group will review the situation Expert Group 8 10:55 Expert Group will discuss the situation with LCG Chairman 3 SDM Expert Group 9 11:00 LCG-Chairman will declare Off-Site Emergency LCG-Chairman 10 11:00 Off-site siren will be blown Bharuch 11 11:00 LCG will inform the DCG Chairman & DCG Control Room about the Off-site emergency. LCG-Chairman 12 11:05 Communication In-charge will inform all group leaders of LCG regarding off-site emergency Communication In- charge 13 11:05 LCG leaders will inform their team members for starting of their work as per the plan LCG Leaders 14 11:12 Heads of all groups will start for LCG Control Room and depute their members to designated places for continuous review of the situation All members 15 11:15 As per opinion of the expert group the affected area will be approximately 500 meters Expert Group 16 11:15 Site Main Control 3 LCG will alert the transportation & rehabilitation team Chairman - LCG 17 Each person entering affected area will wear gas mask & switch off his/her mobile phone.<br><br> 18 11:15 Police will cordon off GNFC crossing & N.H.8. GNFC security personnel will help the police Police Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 27 in evacuation and traffic control. 19 11:20 11:20 Toxicity monitoring team will start monitoring 20 people will be affected due to gas exposure and require primary first aid treatment at local OHSC Centre.<br><br> Toxicity Monitoring Team Fire & Rescue Team 20 11:20 Police will inform the LCG control room about nearby affected areas. Police 21 11:25 Police will announce the incident over the public address system Police and Mamlatdar 22 11:35 Transportation-In-charge will arrange for evacuation of affected persons Transportation In- charge 23 11:35 to 12:00 GNFC Mutual Aid members, LCG & DCG members fight to controlling leakage. Incident Control Team 24 12:05 Vulnerable persons (in nearby industries & village) will be shifted to safe shelter at GNFC township Evacuation Team 25 12:10 Arrangement for refreshment for affected persons shifted to the shelter Rehabilitation In- charge 26 12:15 Toxicity Monitoring team will inform the LCG that the situation is under control Toxicity Monitoring Team 27 12:20 Expert Group will verify that the situation is under control Expert Group 28 12:25 Expert Group will inform the Chairman 3 LCG Expert Group 29 12:30 Chairman 3 LCG will inform the Chairman - DCG Chairman 3 LCG 30 12:30 Chairman 3 DCG will declare an 8all clear 9 Chairman 3 DCG 31 12:30 All clear siren will be blown GNFC 32 12:45 Debriefing Meeting at Corporate Auditorium G.N.F.C Ltd.<br><br> Drill Conduction : Deputy Director, Industrial Health and Safety briefed participants on the planned chain of events. He presented an elaborate incident map of site locations, intensity of leakage and vulnerable areas likely to be affected. Information on various response groups, including SOPs and contact details were also provided.<br><br> Evaluation : Independent observers were deputed at various locations in groups of two or three people. They were deployed at LCG Control Room, DCG Control Room, incident Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 28 site, at Vadadla village, Civil Hospital, Shelter Camp, GNFC Hospital, at important traffic junctions of the city and at N.H. 8.<br><br> After completion of the drill a debriefing meeting was conducted at GNFC auditorium where all the participants including District Collector & Chairman of District Crisis Group were present. General Observations made during the de-briefing meeting : Active participation and commitment observed at every level Communication between various response groups are excellent Some people in the surrounding areas seemed to be unaware of the event Outcomes : The most positive outcome of the drill was the active involvement of VDMC and VDMT members in early warning, communication, evacuation and search and rescue activities. For instance, the lady principal of the local school was actively involved in disseminating information and in mobilizing people to respond.<br><br> Community members, women, and children were quite aware of what to do after receiving warning and cooperated well during evacuation. Over 500 people were evacuated. Traffic on the National Highway was successfully managed without causing any inconvenience.<br><br> D. SCHOOL SETTING School going children are among the most vulnerable groups during any disaster. A large number of public and private schools are built in congested areas, non-regulated land zones and housed in unsafe structures.<br><br> They are therefore, exposed to various hazards. The mock drill in a school setting is carried out by the School Disaster Management Committee. It is headed by the Principal who oversees the whole process.<br><br> Members include administrative staff, teachers, students and members of the Parent Teacher Association (PTA). The teachers are further divided into sub-committees (task forces) to deal with different emergency functions such as Evacuation and First Aid. The possible structure of a School Disaster Management Committee is as follows: Principal (Chairperson) Vice Principal Heads of primary and middle school Education Officer/District Education Officer for the zone Parent Teacher Association President 1-2 parents 4 Students (Disaster awareness group student leader, Disaster response group student leader, Head boy and Head girl) Representative of Relief/Revenue/Disaster Management Department/District Administration/Municipal Corporation Representative from Fire Service Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 29 Representative from Police Representative from Health Department Warden from Civil Defence Representative from Red Cross/St.<br><br> Johns Brigade Administrative/Logistics Officer/Estate Manager from School Office Resident Welfare Association representative Local NGO representative Market Trade Association representative Local Doctors Volunteer Groups (NCC, NSS, Scouts and Guides, NYKS etc.) The school setting has its own distinct structure of task forces. These can vary depending on the management structure of school (e.g. Government, Aided, Public etc), the location, capacity to house students (e.g.<br><br> In-house boarding/day scholars) and school infrastructure (e.g. transportation facilities, sports and recreation facilities etc). A checklist for possible school task forces is included in Annexure IV .<br><br> The following different kinds of drills can be carried out at the school level: Duck, cover and hold--in which everybody gets under a desk or table for 60 seconds and holds on to it Evacuation--in which only that response is tested "Walk through d--in which actions and responsibilities of each team are discussed by all and coordinated "Shock d--in which first aid response to injuries is tested Full Scale--actual field test of a complete plan during a simulated disaster Case Study for Mock Drill in a School Setting Background : An evacuation mock drill was carried out Government Girls Senior Secondary School, Chabi Ganj, Kashmere Gate, New Delhi on 6 th October 2004. The drill was organized by Office of the Deputy Commissioner, North District of Delhi. Scenario : The district administration has undertaken school safety initiatives in all schools in the district.<br><br> A school disaster management committee and disaster response teams were constituted. A school disaster management plan was prepared. A mock drill was undertaken as the next step in the school safety initiative.<br><br> The school is housed in a four storey building with 500 students. Objective : The main objective of the drill was to check the school 9s evacuation plan and preparedness levels. Drill Design : Principals of identified 4 schools were asked to be present during the drill to enable them to take forward their school plans.<br><br> The nodal teacher of the school for disaster management briefed them on the design of the school plan. A detailed floor- wise evacuation plan was included in the disaster plan. Class teachers sensitized students on how to react in a disaster situation and which evacuation routes to use during an emergency.<br><br> Version I - January 2006 MOCK DISASTER DRILL AND EXERCISE MANUAL FOR FULL SCALE/FIELD EXERCISES 30 Drill Conduction : The drill was initiated with the ringing of a bell, which was different from the usual one. The school has only one main staircase, which is wide and centrally placed, enabling easy movement of children to the closest exit gate. During the evacuation, 2-3 students fell down.<br><br> However, they gathered themselves quickly and were able to move out immediately. The total evacuation time for the whole school was 1 minute 7 seconds. Post Drill : Once the children were assembled outside, they were addressed by the Station Officer on basic dos and don 9ts during a fire, The DPO requested the vice principal to address the students on earthquake safety tips during the morning assembly.<br><br> The principals who were present during the mock drill were asked by the Education Officer to undertake further steps in their schools based on what they had learnt. E. HEALTH CARE SETTING Health care is required for unexpected crises ranging from natural disasters, outbreaks of disease to vicious acts of terrorism.<br><br> Emergencies may also be internally triggered (e.g. a small fire in the data center, a burst pipe in the emergency department or a hospital- wide labor strike). Regardless of the causal factors for an emergency, the implementation of a hospital 9s emergency management plan and activation of the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System (HEICS) is essential for response.<br><br> Emergency drills in the Health Sector should incorporate the following elements: Coordinated drills should be conducted at least every six months and include participation of external local emergency management agencies as well The emergency drill should simulate the response to varied emergency scenarios Participants should include professional, administra