Health and Safety Executive for Northern Ireland 83 Ladas Drive Belfast BT6 9FR Tel: (028) 9024 3249 Fax: (028) 9023 5383 Helpline: 0800 0320 121 Textphone: (028) 9054 6896 Web: www.hseni.gov.uk E-mail: email@example.com A large type version of this text is available on request from HSENI HSENI 03-09 TRACTOR ACTION A Step-by-Step Safety Guide HEA71844 Tractor Action cov:HEA71844 Tractor Action cov 06/03/2009 14:59 Page 1 1 TRACTOR ACTION A Step-by-Step Safety Guide Contents This step-by-step guide to tractor safety booklet is for everyone who uses a tractor, or tractor operated machinery. Whether you are a student, a regular tractor driver or a farmer 3 you need to learn about tractor safety before it is too late. Between 1997 and 2007 thirty one (31) people died as a result of accidents involving machinery in Northern Ireland.
Many more suffered major injuries. These figures are only a part of the real number of accidents 3 many are never reported to HSENI. Simple but essential safety steps could have stopped most of these accidents.
This booklet shows how training in tractor safety could save your life. Step 1 In position..........................................2 Step 2 Before starting..................................3 Step 3 Safe stopping....................................4 Step 4 Other people................................5,6,7 Step 5 Hitching..............................................8 ... more. less.
Step 6 Other machines............................9,10 Step 7 Overturning......................................11 Step 8 Other dangers............................12,13 Legal requirements ..............................................14 Further information ..............................................15 HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:41 Page 1 2 STEP 1 In Position Key points The seat is the only safe place from which to operate a tractor. You must know how to get in and out safely, how to adjust seats and mirrors and how to recognise the controls so that you can always operate the tractor safely.<br><br> Getting in and out " Use the left hand cab door whenever you can. " Leave the cab facing inwards so that you have a good grip on the steps. " Always use the handholds.<br><br> " Before leaving the seat follow the 8Safe Stopping 9 procedure. " NEVER GET ON OR OFF A MOVING MACHINE. " Check the seat position 3 can you operate all controls comfortably?<br><br> " Adjust the seat suspension to your weight. " Make sure that mirrors are properly adjusted and clean. " Wear footwear with a good grip 3 safety boots are best.<br><br> Keep them clean. " Wear neat fitting clothes that will not snag on machinery. " Keep long hair tied back.<br><br> " Remove rings and chains that might snag. " Do not keep tools, drawbar - pins or top links on the cab floor. HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:41 Page 2 3 STEP 2 Before Starting Pre-starting safety checks Key points Before you go near a tractor you must know the basic safety procedures, which are required for both starting and stopping .<br><br> " Always check that the independent brakes are locked together and that the parking brake is effective. " Make sure you know the gear positions and main controls. " Make sure that implements are securely attached.<br><br> " Make sure that all drives have been disengaged and controls are in neutral. " Make sure that the windows are clean and the wipers work properly. " Make sure all mirrors are clean, unbroken and correctly set.<br><br> " Ensure that no one else is at risk if you start the engine or move off suddenly. " Do I understand how to operate this tractor? " Has the correct way been explained to me and have I read and understood the instruction manual?<br><br> " Do I now know enough to work safely or do I require further advice or training from an experienced person? " Have I planned how I am going to do the work and allowed enough time? " Has the machinery been checked to ensure that it is safe to use?<br><br> " Before moving off check that all the instrument panel warning lights have gone out. HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:41 Page 3 4 STEP 3 Safe Stopping Safe Stopping Safe Stopping by: " Bringing the tractor to a secure halt and applying the parking brake. " Putting the range and reverse shuttle levers in neutral.<br><br> " Lowering the implement to the ground and disengaging the P.T.O./ hydraulic drives. " Stopping the engine and allowing all moving parts to come to rest. " Removing the key.<br><br> THIS PROCEDURE MUST ALWAYS TAKE PLACE " Before leaving the tractor seat. " When anyone approaches. " When anyone is working on the machine or clearing a blockage.<br><br> If the tractor is being left unattended, secure it so that it cannot run off on a slope. Lock the cab doors to keep out children. Bring the tractor to rest and apply the parking brake.<br><br> Place all controls in neutral. Lower the implement to the ground. Turn off the P.T.O.<br><br> and any hydraulic drives. Allow all moving parts to come to rest. Stop the engine and remove the key.<br><br> HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:41 Page 4 5 STEP 4 Other People Look out for other people before you start the engine. Other workers are often nearby, using or fixing other machines. Always keep a look out for children.<br><br> " Always be aware of places where they may be playing. " Keep them away from working tractors and machinery. " Never allow them to ride on a tractor.<br><br> " Provide a safe play area for younger children. " Always follow the 8 Safe Stopping 9 procedure when parking a machine. Farmyards are dangerous playgrounds Provide a safe play area for young children HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:41 Page 5 6 STEP 4 Other People " Look out for bystanders before starting tractors or machines.<br><br> " Check where other people are working 3 make sure you can see them, especially when reversing. Keep checking in the mirrors. " Agree a way to work safely making sure that everyone follows it.<br><br> " Communicate clearly so that instructions can be heard and clearly understood. " Never carry passengers on drawbars or on the back of a tractor. Key points 3 Driver Example A helper decided to travel to a field by riding on the trailer drawbar.<br><br> He lost his balance and fell when the tractor went over a bump on the road. The trailer wheel ran over him before the combination could be stopped. HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:41 Page 6 7 STEP 4 Other People " Agree with the driver the way to work safely and follow it.<br><br> " Make sure the tractor driver can always see you. " Wear high visibility clothing where possible. " Listen to instructions.<br><br> " Do not stand in the line of travel of a tractor or machine. " Never stand between the tractor and an implement. Key points 3 Helper Example A farmer was reversing a diet-feeder down a feed passage.<br><br> The tractor had rear view mirrors but these had been folded against the cab window. The driver did not realise that an employee was standing behind the machinery and he reversed back crushing him against a feed barrier. HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:41 Page 7 8 STEP 5 Hitching You are most likely to have an accident when you are hitching or unhitching an implement.<br><br> To prevent accidents: " Operate controls only from the correct position. " Remember that people helping you are also at risk. " Use the correct hitching sequence and any available system to avoid manhandling the implement.<br><br> " Keep your feet away from under drawbars. " Ensure that jacks and skids are used and maintained. " Only use the correct pins secured by proper linch pins.<br><br> " Communicate clearly with any helpers. Example A tractor driver was attempting to hitch a mounted fertiliser spreader. He had already attached the lower links and wanted to adjust the height to attach the top link.<br><br> Rather than get into the cab he stood between the tractor and spreader to reach into the lift control lever. The spreader came up more quickly than he expected and crushed him against the tractor cab. Do not stand in the danger zone between the implement and the tractor with the engine running.<br><br> Never stand on rear link arms or pick up hitches. HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:41 Page 8 9 Key points STEP 6 Other Machines Many accidents occur when people work with inadequately guarded machines. PTO shafts " Keep all guards in place.<br><br> " Make sure that PTO guards are well maintained and lubricated. " Make full use of any remote controls. " Never use a machine with a damaged PTO shaft guard.<br><br> Example After filling his slurry tanker, a farmer approached it to operate a pump control. He did not disengage the PTO drive and his clothing became caught up where part of the guarding was missing. As a result, he suffered serious injuries.<br><br> Unguarded PTO shafts have claimed many lives. Proper guarding and use of remote controls save lives. HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:41 Page 9 10 STEP 6 " Always use the 8 safe starting 9 and 8 safe stopping 9 procedures.<br><br> " Never attempt to make adjustments or clear blockages with the machine running. " Check the machine for defects. " Make sure that the trailer brakes are connected.<br><br> " Make sure that you are trained and competent to use the machine. " When travelling on a public road, make sure that all the lights are in working order and clearly visible to others. Example A tractor driver was using a round baler to pick up grass when it became blocked.<br><br> He got off the machine to try and clear the blockage but he didn 9t stop the PTO drive or the engine. During the process he was caught up by the moving pick-up reel and was pulled into the baler suffering fatal injuries. Other Machines HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:41 Page 10 11 Example A tractor and tanker overturned when attempting to turn at the bottom of a steep slope.<br><br> Although the driver was knocked unconscious, he remained in the safety cab and got away with cuts and bruises. STEP 7 Overturning A tractor can overturn anywhere 3 on silage clamps, near field drains, roadway edges and even on the flat. You must know and recognise the dangers of slopes.<br><br> Accidents happen because drivers misjudge slopes, ignore changing ground conditions, forget the effects of loads on stability, turn too quickly or travel too fast. Do not attempt to operate equipment on slopes unless you are sure the equipment is suitable and that a more experienced person has demonstrated that it can be operated within safe limits. " Know your tractor, know your ground.<br><br> " Only use a tractor fitted with a safety cab. " Match the equipment to the tractor. " Latch brake pedals together.<br><br> " Always couple and use implement brakes. " Use the seat belt if there is a risk of overturning. " Keep all doors and windows in place.<br><br> " Use 4-wheel drive when available. " In the event of an overturn hold onto the steering wheel and stay within the cab. Key points HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:41 Page 11 12 STEP 8 Other Dangers Dangers exist on every farm in addition to those already described.<br><br> They need to be considered and a safe system of work provided. One example is dealing with overhead power lines . Look up for overhead power lines " Contact with any overhead power line can kill.<br><br> " Know where the lines run and keep away from them. " Locate bale stacks away from overhead power lines. " Clear warning information must be provided to drivers (especially contractors).<br><br> " Be aware of the height and reach of machinery plus its load 3 eg tipping trailers and telescopic loaders. " Have power lines re-routed underground at busy work areas. If an implement contacts an overhead line try to reverse the vehicle away and lower the implement.<br><br> If the equipment is still in contact with the power line, stay in the cab to consider the situation. If you must leave the cab make sure that the vehicle has come to rest. Open the cab door and jump well clear.<br><br> Do not touch the vehicle and ground at the same time . Get well away from the vehicle and do not allow anyone to approach it until the power has been switched off. Remember too that in the farmyard, contact with overhead lines can dislodge parts of buildings.<br><br> Key points HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:41 Page 12 13 STEP 8 Other Dangers Be aware of low doors when your tractor is fitted with a safety frame. Example A tractor driver was tipping a load of grass at a farmyard. He had tipped the trailer and pulled forward to empty the load.<br><br> The trailer body touched the power line and he was electrocuted as he climbed out of the cab. HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:42 Page 13 14 TRACTOR ACTION Legal requirement for training 13-17 year old drivers " It is illegal for children under the age of 13 years to operate, ride on or drive agricultural machinery. This includes driving tractors and being carried as a passenger on a tractor in the course of agricultural activities or travelling to or from those activities.<br><br> " Children aged 13 years and over and young people may only drive, tow or operate agricultural machinery if they are supervised by a competent adult, and hold a nationally recognised certificate in the safe driving and operation of tractors. (This means having attained a certificate of competence by attending a relevant machinery course. Suitable training is available from CAFRE at both Enniskillen and Greenmount campuses).<br><br> " It is strongly recommended that children aged between 13-16 years old should not operate the following types of machinery: PTO driven machinery, harvesting machinery, slurry tankers or slurry pumps and tracked machinery. This list is not exhaustive and should include any other equipment considered, on the basis of risk assessment, to be unsuitable for operation by people in this age group. " A young person aged 16 or 17 years old should receive additional training in the safe use of PTO driven equipment and should only operate this equipment under the supervision of a competent adult (suitable training is available from CAFRE Colleges).<br><br> " Farmers must ensure that children are prevented from entering dangerous areas on the farm and should provide a secure play area for very young children. Farmers should tell their children which areas of the farm are hazardous and where they should not go unless in the company of an adult. The hazards should be explained to children so they understand how accidents can occur.<br><br> Legal Requirements HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:42 Page 14 15 TRACTOR ACTION For further information on this and other health and safety related issues contact the HSENI Helpline on 0800 0320 121 or visit the website at www.hseni.gov.uk Other HSENI contact numbers at: Coleraine028 7034 1145 Cookstown028 8676 7874 Enniskillen028 6634 3115 Omagh028 8225 7320 Further Information HSENI gratefully acknowledges the help received from local farmers and agricultural contractors in the preparation of this booklet. HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:42 Page 15 HEA71844 Tractor Action txt:HEA71844 Tractor Action txt 17/2/09 20:42 Page 16 Health and Safety Executive for Northern Ireland 83 Ladas Drive Belfast BT6 9FR Tel: (028) 9024 3249 Fax: (028) 9023 5383 Helpline: 0800 0320 121 Textphone: (028) 9054 6896 Web: www.hseni.gov.uk E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org A large type version of this text is available on request from HSENI HSENI 03-09 TRACTOR ACTION A Step-by-Step Safety Guide HEA71844 Tractor Action cov:HEA71844 Tractor Action cov 06/03/2009 14:59 Page 1