Environmentally Responsible Aviation Environmentally Responsible Aviation Technical Overview Technical Overview Presented by Presented by Rich Rich Wahls Wahls Contributors Contributors Fay Collier, Ruben Fay Collier, Ruben DelRosario DelRosario , Dennis Huff, Larry Leavitt, Pat , Dennis Huff, Larry Leavitt, Pat Stoliker Stoliker , Tony , Tony Strazisar Strazisar , and , and multi-center planning team multi-center planning team Meeting of Experts Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Meeting National Research Council Washington, DC May 14-15, 2009 Environmentally Responsible Aviation 2 Outline Outline " Overview 3 Vision, Mission, Scope, Goals 3 Alternate Vehicle Concepts and Technologies " Technical Approach 3 Project Framework/Schedule 3 Critical Technology Areas " Concluding Remarks Environmentally Responsible Aviation 3 ERA Project Framework ERA Project Framework " Vision 3 ERA will expand the viable and well-informed trade space for vehicle design decisions enabling simultaneous realization of National noise, emissions, and performance goals 3 ERA will enable continued aviation growth while reducing or eliminating adverse effects on the environment " Mission 3 Perform research to explore/assess the feasibility, benefits, interdependencies, and risks of vehicle concepts and enabling technologies identified as having potential to mitigate the impact of aviation on the environment 3 Transfer knowledge outward to the aeronautics community, and ... more. less.
inward to NASA fundamental aeronautics projects " Scope 3 N+2 vehicle concepts and enabling technologies 3 System/subsystem research in relevant environments Environmentally Responsible Aviation 4 ERA Project Context ERA Project Context National Plan for Aeronautics R&D National Plan for Aeronautics R&D " Mobility, Security/Defense, Safety, Energy & Environment 3 Enable growth in Mobility/Aviation/Transportation 3 Dual use with Security/Defense 3 Safety and Cost Effectiveness are pervasive factors " Energy and Environment goals are central to ERA 3 Energy Diversity " use of alternative fuels, not creation of alternative fuels 3 Energy Efficiency 3 Environmental Impact " reduction of impacts, not reducing scientific uncertainties of impacts Environmentally Responsible Aviation 5 Subsonic Fixed Wing System Level Metrics Subsonic Fixed Wing System Level Metrics & & . technology for improving noise, emissions, & performance . technology for improving noise, emissions, & performance Approach - Enable Major Changes in Engine Cycle/Airframe Configurations - Reduce Uncertainty in Multi-Disciplinary Design and Analysis Tools and Processes - Develop/Test/ Analyze Advanced Multi-Discipline Based Concepts and Technologies Noise -60% -75% better than -75% -33%** -40%** better than -70% -33% -50% exploit metro-plex* concepts N+1 (2015)*** Generation Conventional Configurations relative to 1998 reference N+2 (2020)*** Generation Unconventional Configurations relative to 1998 reference N+3 (2025)*** Generation Advanced Aircraft Concepts relative to user-defined reference LTO NOx Emissions (below CAEP 6) Performance: Aircraft Fuel Burn Performance: Field Length -32 dB (cum below Stage 4) -42 dB (cum below Stage 4) -71dB (cum below Stage 4) CORNERS OF THE TRADE SPACE ***Technology Readiness Level for key technologies = 4-6 ** Additional gains may be possible through operational improvements * Concepts that enable optimal use of runways at multiple airports within the metropolitan area Environmentally Responsible Aviation 6 Alternate Configuration Concepts Alternate Configuration Concepts Many ideas, but& What combination of configuration and technology can meet the goals?<br><br> What is possible in the N+2 timeframe? Boeing NRA FAP Annual Mtg 10/08 Boeing/MIT/UCI NRA Aviation Week 2/2/09 Airbus Aviation Week 1/15/01 Airbus Aviation Week 1/15/01 NASA VSP 2003 Cambridge/MIT SAX-40 1/07 NASA- M Moore 2009 easyJet ecoJet Reuters 6/14/07 RAeS Concept Greener By Design, 2006 Environmentally Responsible Aviation 7 Underlying Technology Underlying Technology " Technology enablers - broadly applicable 3 less visible than configuration features 3 applicable to alternate and advanced conventional configurations 3 Noise: continuous mold lines, increasing ducted BPR 3 Emissions: low NOx combustion, reduced fuel burn technologies 3 Fuel Burn: lightweight structure, reduced drag, and reduced SFC Velocity TSFC Lift Drag ln W fuel W PL + W O = "Aerodynamics " Empty Weight "Engine Fuel Consumption Aircraft Range 1 + Velocity TSFC Lift Drag ln W fuel W PL + W O = "Aerodynamics " Empty Weight "Engine Fuel Consumption Aircraft Range 1 + Environmentally Responsible Aviation 8 Alternate Configuration Alternate Configuration Concepts Concepts a case study to a case study to show what is possible show what is possible " Many ideas, but most concepts remain on paper 3 Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) concept has been explored in more detail 3 1989 Origins: NASA Advanced Concepts Workshop challenges aeronautics community 3 1990s System Concept Studies, Technology Challenges identified Liebeck, AIAA-2002-0002 33% wetted area reduction offers huge viscous drag reduction potential " Greater fuel efficiency " Reduced Environmental Impact " Operational Flexibility " Noncylindrical pressure vessel " Edge-of-the-envelope flight dynamics " Propulsion-Airframe Integration (PAI) Benefits Challenges Environmentally Responsible Aviation 9 Alternate Configuration Alternate Configuration Concepts Concepts a case study to a case study to show what is possible show what is possible " Many ideas, but most concepts remain on paper 3 Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) concept has been explored with more detail 3 2000s Research addressing technology challenges, ongoing system studies " Provides a framework for advancement of broadly applicable technologies 3 Today Continues to show potential of simultaneously meeting the N+2 goals Environmentally Responsible Aviation 10 Potential Reduction in Fuel Consumption Potential Reduction in Fuel Consumption 2) N+2 HWB -91,900 lbs -38.8% 2 3) N+2 HWB + more aggressive tech maturation -107,200 lbs -45.2% 3 Reference Fuel Burn = 237,100 lbs 1997 Technology Large Twin Aisle Vehicle c777-200ER-like d Nickol, et al 2009 1) N+2 Advanced "tube-and-wing" -75,200 lbs -31.7% 1 Fuselage 3 composite + config Wing 3 composite + adv subsystems Adv Composite Concept Adv Propulsion HLFC - wing/nacelle Embedded engines with BLI LFC - centerbody Environmentally Responsible Aviation 11 N+2 Potential Noise Reduction N+2 Potential Noise Reduction Thomas, Berton, et al Includes estimate of maximum propulsion noise shielding delta dB below Stage 4 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 -10.0 11.4 dB baseline 1.1 dB chevrons Best Cumulative Estimate Adv Tube & Wing Stage 4 - 26 dB HWB Estimate Stage 4 - 42 dB cum ~20 dB cum due to Shielding Chevrons HWB HWB HWB HWB 19.9 dB shielding 22.3 dB baseline Environmentally Responsible Aviation 12 Market Needs and Design Trades Market Needs and Design Trades A sweet spot for noise and fuel burn &but lower cruise speed may change technologies Market will ultimately determine outcome &but concepts and technologies enable options &as might payload/range (vehicle size) & or relative emphasis on noise & fuel burn Environmentally Responsible Aviation 13 Design Trades and Dependencies Design Trades and Dependencies Our focus is Noise, Energy Efficiency, and Emissions &but airplane design is a balance among many factors Madden, ICCAIA Fuel Burn Workshop March 2009 Environmentally Responsible Aviation 14 The Way Forward The Way Forward " System research to bridge the gap between fundamental research (TRL 1-4) and product prototyping (TRL 7) 3 Identify vehicle concepts with the potential to simultaneously meet National goals for noise, emissions, and fuel burn in the N+2 timeframe 3 Understand the concept and technology feasibility/ risk vs potential benefits 3 Understand the concept and technology trades and interdependencies at high fidelity in relevant environments 3 Determine safety implications of new technologies and configurations " Technology investments guided by 3 matured in fundamental program and worthy of more in-depth evaluation at system level in relevant environment 3 systems analysis indicates most potential for contributing to simultaneous attainment of N+2 goals 3 identified through stakeholder input as having potential for contributing to simultaneous attainment of N+2 goals Environmentally Responsible Aviation 15 Outline Outline " Overview 3 Vision, Mission, Scope, Goals 3 Alternate Vehicle Concepts and Technology " Technical Approach 3 Project Framework/Schedule 3 Critical Technology Areas " Concluding Remarks Environmentally Responsible Aviation 16 Research Focus Areas Research Focus Areas 1.0 Project Management 2.0 Airframe Technology 2.1 Lightweight Structures 2.2 Flight Dynamics and Control 2.3 Drag Reduction 2.4 Noise Reduction 3.0 Propulsion Technology 3.1 Combustor Technology 3.2 Propulsor Technology 3.3 Core Technology 4.0 Vehicle Systems Integration 4.1 Systems Analysis 4.2 Propulsion Airframe Integration 4.3 Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics 4.4 Advanced Vehicle Concepts 16 Natural Metrics ML/D, Empty Weight, Airframe Noise investigations where propulsion system is not 1st order effect SFC, Engine Noise, Emission Index investigations where airframe system is not 1st order effect ML/D, Weight, SFC, Emission Index, Noise investigations where propulsion/airframe interaction is 1st order effect Environmentally Responsible Aviation 17 FY09 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY10 Technical input from Fundamental Programs, NRAs, Industry, Academia, Other Gov 9t Agencies Initial NRAs External Input ERA Project Flow ERA Project Flow Phase 1 Investigations Phase 2 Investigations Key Decisions for Phase 2 Prior Research Planning $62.4M $64.4M $67.1M $64.4M $60.5M $ ? Environmentally Responsible Aviation 18 Initial NRA Topics Under Development Initial NRA Topics Under Development " Topic 1 - N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concepts 3 Concept development and technology roadmaps 3 Scope key system Investigations to inform Phase 2 decisions " Topic 2 - Low NOx Combustors 3 Concept development and technology roadmaps 3 Initial flametube experiments 3 Inform Phase 2 decisions " Topic 3 - Quick-Start System Research Investigations 3 Complementary to Phase 1 investigations 3 Early technical progress/results toward ERA goals 3 Inform Phase 2 decisions Bidders Conference Prior to Solicitation Environmentally Responsible Aviation 19 Phase 1 Investigations Phase 1 Investigations " Scope 3 Concepts and technologies from fundamental projects ready for system experimentation 3 System integration and multidisciplinary risks/barriers 3 2-3 years " Critical Technology Focus 3 Stitched composite technology for low weight and damage tolerance 3 Laminar flow technology for drag reduction 3 Flight dynamics & control technology enabling alternate configurations 3 Combustor technology for low emissions 3 Propulsion technology and integration for SFC and noise reduction 3 Propulsion shielding for noise reduction " Outcome 3 Selected concepts and technologies explored/assessed with respect to feasibility, benefits, interdependencies, and risks - uncover unexpected multidisciplinary interactions 3 New and/or refined ideas emerge 3 Detailed information to update systems studies, and for prioritization and selection of Phase 2 investigations Environmentally Responsible Aviation 20 Phase 2 Investigations Phase 2 Investigations " Key Decisions 3 FY12 timeframe plus/minus 1 year - not a specific point in time " Scope 3 Similar to Phase 1, plus further exploration of Phase 1 concepts and technologies as appropriate 3 3-4 years " Technology Focus 3 Informed by Phase 1 progress/results, system studies, stakeholder input 3 Envision investigations which integrate results from Phase 1, NRAs, other sources " Outcome 3 Selected concepts and technologies explored/assessed with respect to feasibility, benefits, interdependencies, and risks - trade space understood Environmentally Responsible Aviation 21 Loading Damage Size x x csafe-life d conv composites damage tolerance cfail-safe d metallic & stitched composite Lightweight Structures Lightweight Structures Advanced Stitched Composite Concept " Can the same load limits as metal be applied to a lower weight composite concept?<br><br> " Can structural weight be reduced while meeting certification/safety requirements? " Can cabin noise be acceptable with lightweight structure, particularly in the context of propulsion noise shielding? Stitched Blade-Stiffener Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure PRSEUS Rod Stitches Stitched Composites - enabling weight reduction with load limits of metals Damage Tolerance, Durability, Flexibility, Cabin Noise Adapted from Velicki 2009 Aging A/C Conf Energy Efficiency Environmentally Responsible Aviation 22 22 Lightweight Structures Lightweight Structures " Objective 3 Explore/validate/characterize/document new stitched composite structural concept under realistic loads " Approach 3 Building block experiments on sub components, joints, cutouts 3 Explore repair/maintenance, NDE methods 3 Large scale pressurized multi-bay fuselage section under combined load 3 Incorporation of IVHM sensors in large scale COLTS test " Benefit 3 Validate damage-arresting characteristics under realistic loads.<br><br> Expected 20% reduction in weight and cost of conventional composite structural concepts. Extensible to wings, etc. PRSEUS Pressure Panel Test Complete FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 Large-Scale PRSEUS Test in COLTS Complete possibilities " PRSEUS wing " alternate structural concept " integrate with other techs (laminar, acoustic) " enable unconventional flight vehicle testbed Test Region Energy Efficiency concept understood for large integrated component Noise Transmission Assessment Design Criteria for Low Noise Lt Wt Structure Environmentally Responsible Aviation 23 Flight Flight Dynamics & Control Dynamics & Control " Can alternative vehicle concepts meet Federal airworthiness requirements without negating performance/acoustic benefits?<br><br> " Can alternative vehicle concepts meet passenger ride quality expectations without negating performance/acoustic benefits? " Can advanced controls enable performance and safety improvements beyond simply enabling a new vehicle concept? Unconventional Vehicle Concepts provide unique challenges Enabling Flight Controls - enabling alternate vehicle concepts Handling/Ride Quality, Safety of Flight Regulatory acceptance Market acceptance Performance benefit Environmentally Responsible Aviation 24 24 24 Flight Dynamics and Control Flight Dynamics and Control " Objective 3 Explore/assess dynamics and control design space for unconventional, flexible wing vehicle, w/ extensibility to other advanced aircraft designs " Approach 3 Utilize extensive HWB database to develop full-scale piloted motion-based simulation for advanced HWB concept; establish control system design requirements and guidelines for HWB aircraft 3 Complete X-48B flight test 3 Explore/assess a broad range of handling, ride quality, control authority and allocation, gust load alleviation, upset recovery, aero-servoelastic control concepts/challenges " Benefit 3 Advanced/adaptive control law technology for handling, ride quality, and safety of flight, extensible to a range of advanced vehicle concepts Full-scale Piloted Sim for Handling Qualities Complete FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 Adv Control Laws for Lightly Loaded and/or Flexible Wing Concepts Validated in Simulators X-48B Flight Tests Complete X-48C Tests In 30x60 Complete possibilities " flight experiments with adaptive or intelligent controls " other control concepts in piloted simulation " enable investigation of lightweight, flexible structures " enable unconventional flight vehicle testbed Enabling full envelop HWB control and dynamics understood; advanced controls explored Piloted Sim Environmentally Responsible Aviation 25 Drag Reduction Drag Reduction " Aerodynamic/drag benefits are known, and depend on application (config, size, regions) Challenges " Integration trades for high-lift performance, and suction systems for HLFC in particular " Robustness to contamination and structural/surface imperfection " Ability ground test/assess across full flight envelop at relevant conditions prior to flight Laminar Flow - breaking down technical barriers to practical laminar flow application System integration trades, robustness, pre-flight assessment Energy Efficiency Laminar flow yet to be exploited on transonic transport aircraft Active and Passive Concepts Environmentally Responsible Aviation 26 DRE Wing Glove 26 26 Drag Reduction Drag Reduction FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 Evaluate Ground Test Capability For NLF HLFC Flight Test completed DRE Glove Flt Test on G-IIB completed Flt Test Assessment of Low Energy Coatings completed " Objective 3 Enable practical laminar flow application for transport aircraft " Approach 3 Mature multiple approaches to laminar flow to enlarge trade space 3 Address critical barriers to practical laminar flow application 3 Explore synergy with other advanced technologies (e.g.<br><br> composite structure, cruise slots, novel high lift systems, intelligent controls, etc.) " Benefit 3 Validated passive and active drag control technologies capable of enabling 5-15+ % reductions in fuel burn. Expanded design trade space with higher fidelity trade information. Expanded database (higher Rn) for validation of transition models.<br><br> possibilities " cin-service d flight tests of selected concept(s) " integrate with other techs (composite, cruise slot) - re-wing research aircraft " incorporate in design of flight vehicle testbed " other drag reduction concepts beyond laminar Energy Efficiency confidence to proceed to highly integrated flight test experiment Environmentally Responsible Aviation 27 Propulsion system improvements require advances in propulsor and core technologies Alan Epstein Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Core Improvements (direct impact on LTO NOx) Propulsor improvements Propulsion Systems Propulsion Systems Environmentally Responsible Aviation 28 Core/Combustor Technology Core/Combustor Technology Low NOx combustor concepts for high OPR environment Increase thermal efficiency without increasing NOx emissions LTO NOx " Improved fuel-air mixing to minimize hot spots that create additional NOx " Lightweight liners to handle higher temperatures associated with higher OPR " Fuel Flexibility " DoD HEETE Program is developing higher OPR compressor technology &. ERA will focus on new combustor technology for reduced NOx formation Injector Concepts " Partial Pre-Mixed " Lean Direct Multi-Injection Enabling Technology " lightweight CMC liners " advanced instability controls Environmentally Responsible Aviation 29 Combustor Technology Combustor Technology " Objective 3 Extend maturation of technologies for reducing LTO NOx. Concepts must ensure fuel flexibility.<br><br> " Approach 3 Pursue 3 concepts: Lean Partial-Mixed Combustor, Lean Direct Multi-Injection, TBD from NRA. 3 Flametube, sector, and annular combustor tests. 3 Select single concept for engine tests.<br><br> 3 Assume 50% cost share with industry. " Benefit 3 Technologies to reduce LTO NOx by 75% below CAEP/6. Select Low-NOx Combustor Concepts (downselect 3 to 1) FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 Complete Flametube Experiments Complete Sector Tests Complete Annular Combustor Tests Instability Control Fuel Staging CMC Liners Multipoint Injection Initiate Low-NOx Combustor Concept Studies Increasing integration/complexity LTO NOx Environmentally Responsible Aviation 30 30 Core Technology Core Technology " Objective 3 Explore core architectures and develop key technologies needed for N+2 propulsion " Approach 3 Use NRA to explore core engine concepts; specific technologies TBD but will integrate existing work on high OPR compressors from VAATE, turbine cooling work in SFW.<br><br> 3 Pursue technologies like Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) materials that will benefit any gas turbine engine concept; early work assesses fabrication methods for cooled vanes and nozzles " Benefit 3 Technologies to increase thermal efficiency that enable higher BPR propulsion (either turbofans, open rotors, or embedded engines) FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 Assess CMC Fab Methods, Durability & Heat Transfer Complete Test of Adv Core Components Identify Core N+2 Concepts Advanced Core for UHB Turbofan (P&W GTF) " high OPR compressor " increase T4 Increasing integration/complexity Energy Efficiency LTO NOx Environmentally Responsible Aviation 31 Propulsor Propulsor Technology Technology Ultra high bypass ratio propulsor Ducted v Unducted trade, noise v efficiency Energy Efficiency Noise Reduction Concepts " Ducted UHB " short inlets, laminar flow nacelles " SMA variable area nozzle " soft vane, over-the-rotor treatment " Unducted UHB (Open Rotor) " increased rotor spacing, lower blade count " Embedded for boundary layer ingestion " inlet flow control, distortion tolerant fan Challenges " Open Rotor - reduced noise while maintaining high propulsive efficiency " Ducted UHB - nacelle weight & drag with increasing diameter Environmentally Responsible Aviation 32 Propulsor Propulsor Technology Technology " Objective 3 Explore propulsor (bypass flowpath) configurations for N+2 vehicle concepts to expand and better define the trade space between performance and noise reduction. " Approach 3 Investigate feasibility of higher BPR propulsion systems: UHB Turbofans, Open Rotors and TBD Advanced Propulsor identified from NRA. 3 Evaluate UHB & Open Rotor for N+2; isolated and partially installed simulations in wind tunnel tests; Handoff to VSI for full installation experiments.<br><br> " Benefit 3 Propulsor concepts identified and validation data available for noise & performance trades. Select UHB & Open Rotor Concepts FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 Select Adv. Propulsor Concept For N+2 Complete UHB Turbofan Tests Complete Isolated Open Rotor Tests UHB Turbofans Open Rotor Energy Efficiency Noise Reduction possibilities " isolated and partially installed advanced propulsor ground tests similar to phase 1 " integrate with other techs (config, shielding) " flight test propulsion concept " incorporate in design of flight vehicle testbed Environmentally Responsible Aviation 33 Propulsion Airframe Integration Propulsion Airframe Integration Lord, Sepulveda, et al Fuel Burn Fuel Burn Fan Diameter Noise (Higher FPR) (Lower FPR) Low High Noise TSFC Fuel Burn GTF Adv GTF ~ 2018 Weight & Drag Turbofan PAI Challenges Increase UHB Installation that minimizes or avoids performance penalties Increased size of system may drive need for alternate configurations Energy Efficiency " Increasingly large diameters present increasingly difficult installations for conventional low wing configurations, and may require alternate configurations/installations to take advantage of propulsive efficiency &.<br><br> significant vehicle level trade space to explore Environmentally Responsible Aviation 34 Environmentally Responsible Aviation 34 34 Propulsion Airframe Integration Propulsion Airframe Integration " Objective 3 Understand synergistic performance/efficiency coupling potential between advanced propulsor and airframe concepts " Approach 3 Explore/assess (large-scale testing) performance benefits thru integration of advanced low noise/efficient open rotor and UHB propulsors 3 Quantify installed performance benefits of alternate engine airframe integrations (e.g. boundary layer ingestion) " Benefit 3 Enlarged PAI design trade space with new open rotor and UHB propulsors (and integrations) with advanced N+2 airframes (15-25% fuel burn reduction) FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 Performance Assessment of installed UHB Performance Assessment of installed Open Rotor HWB Low-Speed Performance Assessment Powered half-span model test in Ames 11 9 wind tunnel Pressure Sensitive Paint results Possibilities " flight tests of selected concepts " integration of boundary layer ingesting inlet " integrations with other adv. technology (CML, flow control, shielding, etc.) " other low noise propulsor concepts Note: " Advanced large scale isolated/proximity UHB and reduced noise OR propulsor experiments being conducted in 9x15.<br><br> Results will feed integrated experiments. Energy Efficiency Environmentally Responsible Aviation 35 Environmentally Responsible Aviation 35 35 Propulsion Airframe Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics Aeroacoustics " Objective 3 Understand synergistic acoustic coupling potential between advanced propulsor and airframe concepts " Approach 3 Explore/quantify (large-scale testing) airframe shielding benefits thru integration of advanced low noise/efficient open rotor and UHB propulsors 3 Quantify aeroacoustic benefits of alternate engine airframe integrations (e.g. boundary layer ingestion) " Benefit 3 Enlarged PAA design trade space for new open rotor and UHB propulsors (and integrations) with advanced N+2 airframes (15-20 dB cum reduction to Stage 4) FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 Noise Assessment of Installed UHB Hot Jet Test Technique and Acoustic Upgrades 14x22 HWB Noise Shielding Eval In 14x22 Possibilities " flight tests of selected concepts " integration with boundary layer ingesting inlet " integrations with other adv.<br><br> technology (CML, flow control, composites, etc.) " other low noise propulsor and shielding concepts Noise Assessment of Installed Open Rotor Noise Reduction Environmentally Responsible Aviation 36 Airframe Noise Reduction Airframe Noise Reduction " Landing gear designed for performance/weight, but generate much more noise " High lift system gaps and exposed flap edges help performance, but generate noise " Currently cannot accurately account for all aircraft sources, interactions with other components, and installation effects Noise Reduction Quiet flaps and landing gear without performance penalties Low airframe noise technologies conflict with low drag/weight Environmentally Responsible Aviation 37 Environmentally Responsible Aviation 37 37 Airframe Noise Reduction Airframe Noise Reduction " Objective 3 Understand/research synergistic coupling/multidisciplinary aspects of integrated adv. airframe noise reduction technologies " Approach 3 Flight test of CML flap on NASA G-IIB aircraft 3 Wind tunnel and flight test campaign on large business jet (LBJ) targeting landing gear and flap edge noise as well as gear/flap interactions. Improved microphone array technology.<br><br> " Benefit 3 Quantified technologies for airframe noise reduction on the order of 5-10 dB cum; enlarged design trade space for adv. low noise configurations FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 Valid. Adv.<br><br> Low Noise Gear and/or Flap Edge Noise Concepts on LBJ Flt Test Assess CML Perf & Acoustic Benefits on G-IIB Possibilities " Characterize & simulate aeroacoustic loads on large-scale multi-bay composite structure " Large-scale or flight experiments on low noise vehicle with adv. NR technologies (e.g. landing gear fairings or low noise designs, slat cove fillers, flap edge devices, etc.) Low Noise Concepts on LBJ in 14x22 Noise Reduction Environmentally Responsible Aviation 38 38 Phase 2 Investigations - Phase 2 Investigations - Revisited Revisited " Key Decision Point(s) for Phase 2 in the FY12 timeframe " Noted several times today the idea of an experimental vehicle testbed (XVT) as centralizing focus for integrated systems research on an unconventional configuration " The XVT would (very) likely require a significant budget increase and/or significant cost sharing partnerships " Initial NRA Topic 1 may inform us as to the possibilities Environmentally Responsible Aviation 39 39 XVT - Experimental Vehicle XVT - Experimental Vehicle Testbed Testbed " Drivers for a (large) Flight Research Vehicle 3 Appropriate scale for aerodynamics validation " High Reynolds number to minimize scaling issues " High speed - compressibility effects " Geometric fidelity 3 Appropriate scale for acoustics flight test " Geometry fidelity " Physics of the noise sources require they be of the same type to scale properly " Scale required to understand noise attenuation and shielding 3 Appropriate scale for aero-elasticity and flight dynamics 3 Capability to assess advanced flight controls concepts Environmentally Responsible Aviation 40 40 XVT - Experimental Vehicle XVT - Experimental Vehicle Testbed Testbed " Additional Benefit of a Flight Research Vehicle 3 Validate simultaneous progress toward N+2 goals through technology integration on a vehicle testbed " Gain understanding of technology interdepencies/interactions and hardware integration issues " Ability to validate multiple off-nominal data points through full envelope testing " Flight Reynolds number with real world effects 3 Produce and disseminate high quality data for technology characterization and design method validation 3 Collect actual flying qualities, passenger ride quality, and cabin noise data 3 Ability to operate in the National Air Space for integration Airspace/Operations projects 3 Testbed for future technology concepts including propulsion systems " AN IDEA &.<br><br> Embedded Engine Baseline Aircraft Advanced Engine Technology Environmentally Responsible Aviation 41 Concluding Remarks Concluding Remarks " Explore/demonstrate the feasibility, benefits, and risks of vehicle concepts and enabling technologies identified to have potential to mitigate the impact of aviation on the environment " Expand viable and well-informed trade space for vehicle design decisions enabling simultaneous realization of National noise, emissions, and performance goals; identify challenges for foundational research " Alternative configurations w/ advanced technology will be needed to simultaneously achieve the N+2 goals; technologies will be broadly applicable and tradable " Systems research in relevant environment