The training program consists of a set of exercises designed to train and improve attention, working memory, processing speed and executive function. The program is composed of five discrete exercises. Each exercise is specifically designed to train one or more cognitive abilities.
Key components of the exercise program are: " Dynamic difficulty changes to consistently challenge each user and adapt to their progression " Game-like features and motivations (such as scoring, unlocking of levels, etc.) transform a tedious training task into an entertaining game, leading to better compliance and more effective training " Web-based training platform ensures ease and ubiquity of access " Simple self-instruction: No human trainer required Working memory improvement following web-based cognitive training Introduction Discussion Computerized Training Program " All participants were able to use the testing and training software from a personal computer without guidance. "Compliance and qualitative feedback suggest that the exercise structure motivates frequent training. "Participants in the training program improved in the non-trained measure of spatial working memory: reverse span board.
"Participants did not improve in the letter working memory test. References Kunal Sarkar, David Drescher, Michael Scanlon Lumos Labs, San Francisco, CA, 94107 Bay Area Neuroscience Gathering January 19th, 2007, San Francisco, CA LumosLabs.com ... more. less.
Many studies have identified effective methods of improving cognitive abilities [1,2,3], but use of these methods is limited outside of the lab. We developed a web-based game-like program that makes cognitive training accessible to a larger audience.<br><br> The program is composed of a set of exercises designed to improve attention, working memory, processing speed, and response inhibition among other executive processes. Since cognitive training exercises can be tedious, our exercises are structured as engaging games to encourage long-term consistent usage. Prior to this study, our novel approach to cognitive training had not yet been tested.<br><br> Working Memory Working memory, the process of temporarily storing and manipulating information, underlies performance in many other activities. There is evidence that an individual 9s working memory can be improved with appropriate training [4, 5]. This pilot study evaluates the effect of our web-based training program on working memory.<br><br> 1.Schaie, K., Willis, S., Hertzog, C., & Schulenberg, J. (1987). Effects of cognitive training on primary mental ability structure.<br><br> Psychology and Aging , 2(3):233-242. 2.Ball, K., Berch, D., Helmers, K., et al., Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of American Medical Association , 288(18):2271-2281.<br><br> 3.Green, S. & Bavelier, D. (2003).<br><br> Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature , 423:534-537. 4.Rebok, G., Rasmusson, D., & Brandt, J.<br><br> (1996). Prospects for computerized memory training in normal elderly: Effects of practice on explicit and implicit memory tasks. Applied Cognitive Psychology , 10:211-223.<br><br> 5.Klingberg, T., Forssberg, H., & Westerberg H. (2002). Training of working memory in children with ADHD.<br><br> Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology , 24(6):781-791. Correspondence: email@example.com The Lumos Labs cognitive training program can be accessed via http://www.lumoslabs.com/ 26.1 25.1 26.0 27.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Results Correct responses out of 32 trials Spatial Working Memory: Reverse Span Board "Four-back letter memory performance showed no improvement in either group. ControlTrained 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.8 4 5 6 7 * Average number of items remembered Letter Working Memory Pre-test Post-test ControlTrained "Trained subjects improved in the reverse board span (p<.01, paired t-Test).<br><br> Significant improvement on the reverse span board test after training suggests that the training program improves spatial working memory. The results of this pilot study indicate that training and improving a fundamental cognitive ability such as working memory is possible with a web-based application. The study also demonstrates the viability of conducting an entire study online, including intervention and assessment.<br><br> We intend to explore the effectiveness of a modified training program in the rehabilitation of cognitive impairment, such as that due to stroke, brain trauma, or aging. We invite other researchers to consider or discuss potential applications to their own human behavior research. Methods Participants 9 only compensation was continued access to the program after the experiment concluded N = 32 volunteers recruited by email from various locations in US Trained: 14 (8 female) of 20 completed all aspects of the program, mean age = 57 Control: 9 (3 female) of 12 completed both tests successfully, average age = 50 One 20-minute session per day for 5 weeks (mean: 29.2 sessions) Five exercises in each session Each user trained without guidance using personal computer Tests of spatial and letter working memory Pre-training and post-training assessment was conducted via the web-based application After the experiment, users completed an online survey about how much they enjoyed the exercises.<br><br> On a scale of 1 ( cnot fun d) to 5 ( clots of fun! d), the average response was 3.6. Trained Participants : Pre-test Ê Training (daily) Ê Post-test Control Participants : Pre-test Ê No training/no contact for duration of experiment Ê Post-test " Spatial working memory test " Verbal working memory test Reverse span board test: Recall in the opposite order of presentation Remember the letters presented " Letters presented one at a time " Recall last four letters presented K Design Assessment Training Participants Pre-test Post-test Example Exercises Speeded n-back memory task for shapes and numbers Navigate through a maze of monsters Qualitative Feedback