Modeling,Analysis,and ControlofDynamicSystems Second Edition William J. Palm III University of Rhode Island John Wiley Sons, Inc. New York Chichester Weinheim Brisbane Singapore Toronto To Louise.
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to the Permissions Department, John Wiley Sons,Inc.,605 Third Avenue,New York,NY (212)850-6011,fax(212)850-6008,E-Mail:PERMREQ@WILEY.COM. ISBNo-471-07370-9 Printed in the United States of America 10987654321 This text is an introduction to modeling and analysis of dynamic systems, and to the design of controllers for such systems. It is assumed that the student has a background in calculus and college physics (mechanics, thermodynamics, and electrical circuits).<br><br> Any other required material in physics and mathematics (e.g., differential equations, transforms, and matrices) is developed in the text. Teaching, and therefore, writing a text in the area of dynamic systems and control present a great challenge for several reasons. The systems engineer can be called on to develop mathematical models for a variety of applications involving hydraulic, pneumatic, thermal, mechanical, and electrical systems, and must be familiar with the modeling techniques appropriate to each area.<br><br> The challenge is to develop the student 9s ability to create a model that is sufficiently detailed to capture the dominant dynamic characteristics of the system, yet simple enough to be useful for design purposes. Technological developments in the field have been rapid, as evidenced by the increasing use of digital computers as controllers, and by the now widespread use of computer packages such as for analysis, simulation, and design. In addition to hardware and software developments, the field has seen the rapid development of analytical techniques collectively known as cmodern d systems and control theory.<br><br> Matrix formulations using the state-space approach provide a good basis for devel- oping general algorithms that are well suited for computer-aided design purposes. On the other hand, the methods of cclassical d systems theory are still widely used and have significant advantages over the modern methods in many applications. Today 9s engineer must be familiar with the classical and modern approaches, and a balanced treatment of these topics is needed.<br><br> Here an attempt to satisfy these needs has been made by introducing the required concepts and methods in a balanced and gradual way. Examples from different fields are given to show the student how to develop relatively low-order models that are adequate for many applications. Most system-dynamics concepts can be explained with first- and second-order models.<br><br> Extensions to higher order models are gradually introduced along with any required mathematical tools. In this way, students can appreciate the need for such tools and can better understand their use. Because of this approach, there are no separate chapters devoted to transform methods, stability analysis, nonlinear systems, or state-space methods.<br><br> Instead, students are led to apply any of these methods whenever appropriate. Readers familiar with the first edition will notice a great many additions and deletions, as well as a substantial rearrangement of the material. This was done because of an increased interest in modeling and because of the now widespread use of This text uses to illustrate how modern computer tools can be applied in dynamic systems and control because surveys have shown that is the most widely used computer package in such courses.<br><br> However, it is not necessary . . .<br><br> 111 iv Preface to cover in order to use the text. All material has been placed in separate sections at the end of each chapter. If is not used in the course, these sections can be skipped without affecting the students 9 understanding of the rest of the material.<br><br> An innovative feature of the text is the coverage of sampled-data system anal- ysis and digital control without the use of the z-transform. This approach uses the capabilities of to avoid the time-consuming theoretical development of the z-transform and the derivation of pulse transfer functions for systems containing a zero-order hold. Students thus become comfortable with the analysis of sampled-data systems and digital control faster and easier than was formerly possible.<br><br> ChapterStructure There are eleven chapters. The first six deal with dynamic systems; the last five cover control systems. Each chapter has a similar structure designed to maximize flexibility of use.<br><br> Each chapter has some optional material that can be omitted without impeding understanding of the subsequent chapters. All optional material has been placed in sections near the end of the chapter. This optional material includes: 1.All material dealing with 2.Material on linearization and nonlinear systems in Chapter 2.<br><br> 3. Numerical solution of differential equations in Chapter 2. 4.Three case studies in Chapter 4.<br><br> 5.Curve fitting and regression in Chapter 5. 6.Analog controller hardware in Chapter 7. 7.Discrete-time systems,sampled-data systems,and digital control in Chapter8.<br><br> 8. Design of digital controllers using in Chapter 9. 9.Dead-time elements in Chapter 10.<br><br> Linear-quadratic regulator design in Chapter 11. DesignApplications Since the publication of the first edition, changing accreditation criteria has resulted in increased demand for design coverage. A determined effort has been made through- out the text to justify and to illustrate the analytical methods in terms of their practical applications.<br><br> Book length restrictions always prevent the treatment of design prob- lems at the level of fine detail needed in practice, and some design considerations such as economics and reliability are difficult to treat within the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the discussion and examples should give students as much of a feel for the design process as is possible in an academic environment. To this end, a number of case studies and extended examples have been added.<br><br> In addition, each chapter has a set of problems that have a design emphasis. Many of these can be done with a computer package such as ChapterProblems The number of problems at the end of each chapter has been greatly increased, and they are keyed to the appropriate section of the chapter. At the end of each Preface problem set there are a number of problems designated as DesignProblems or ComputerProblems.<br><br> Many of the design problems are best done with a computer. The computer problems can be done with or with another package. CoursesinDynamic SystemsandControl It is my view that an undergraduate dynamic systems course should introduce the terminology and the basic principles of modeling and analysis, with emphasis on applications in vibrations and elementary feedback control systems.<br><br> A general un- derstanding of these topics is important even for graduates who will not be actively involved in designing dynamic systems, because such systems are encountered in many applications and their characteristics should be understood. This introduction should also prepare students for continuing their education in the vibrations or con- trols area, either with self-study by reading the literature or attending short courses or graduate school. There is great variability among schools in how dynamic systems and control are handled in the curriculum, and this text has been designed to accommodate a number of variations.The only chapters that must be covered are Chapters 1 through 4.These chapters cover the basic modeling and analysis topics.Chapters5 through 11 can be selected to provide the desired emphasis.<br><br> The national trend is toward requiring a dynamic systems course that includes some vibration and an introduction to control systems.Chapters1 through 7 are designed for such a course. At the author 9s institution, the required junior course in dynamic systems covers the first seven chapters. No formal laboratory accompanies the course.<br><br> However, if one is available, the text contains enough information on hardware to serve as a reference for the laboratory sessions. A senior elective course in control systems covers Chapters 8 through 11. Some schools omit fluid and thermal systems from the dynamic systems course.<br><br> If this is desired,Chapter5 can be skipped without affecting understanding of the subsequent chapters. Students should have had elementary thermodynamics before covering the pneumatics material in this chapter, but previous exposure to fluid mechanics or heat transfer is not required. Chapters8 through 11 were designed to enable more extensive coverage of control systems in several ways.<br><br> For example, Coverage of Chapter 8 is recommended because it deals with the important practical topics of tuning, compensation, actuator saturation, reset wind-up, and digital control. 2.For treatment of classical design methods,cover Chapters 9 and 10.These deal with design applications of the root locus and frequency response plots. 3.<br><br> For treatment of modern control methods based on state variable and matrix methods,cover Chapter 11.Note that Chapter 11 does not require coverage of Chapters or 10. Acknowledgements Successful creation of a textbook is a team effort, with the author only the most visible member. I would like to acknowledge the rest of the team.<br><br> Three department chairmen at the University of Rhode Island provided consideration and encourage- ment throughout the writing of either the first or second edition. These are Professors Charles D. Nash, Jr., Thomas J.<br><br> Kim, and Martin H. Sadd. Professors Frank M.<br><br> White vi Preface and Richard C. provided useful data and helpful discussions of fluid me- chanics and heat transfer. I am indebted to several anonymous reviewers for their constructive criticism, suggestions, and enthusiasm.<br><br> I especially wish to acknowledge and thank Professors Mark Nagurka, Tom Kurfess, and Kevin Craig for their enthusi- asm and their two workshops on teaching dynamic systems and control. Interactions with them and other instructors at the workshops provided motivation for the second edition and some of the new material it contains. I am also grateful to the late Cliff Robichaud of John Wiley and Sons, who initiated the second-edition project, and to the current editor, Joe for their guidance, and for their patience when deadlines were missed.<br><br> Finally, I want to thank my wife, Mary Louise, and our children, Aileene, Bill, and Andrew, for their support and understanding through the writing of cyet another book. d William Palm III Contents Preface 111 1. Introduction1 Chapter Overview 1 1.1 Systems2 1.2 Modeling, Analysis, and Control 1.3Newton 9s Laws of Motion 8 1.4 Energy Principles16 1.5Useful Analysis Tools 22 1.6Matrix Algebra28 1.7 Introduction to 32 1.8 Summary39 Problems40 4 2. ModelingandAnalysisofMechanicalSystems 45 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 Chapter Overview45 The Transform 46 Response of First-Order Models 50 Response of Higher-Order Models 60 Pulse, Impulse, and Ramp Response 83 Plane Motion Examples 90 Case Study: Feasibility Study of a Mobile Robot Design Nonlinear Models and Linearization 104 Numerical Methods for Differential Equations 116 and the Transform 137 Summary 139 Problems 143 98 3.<br><br> ModelingofElectricalSystems 151 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 Chapter Overview 151 Electrical Circuit Models 152 The Structure of Dynamic Models 1.59 Transfer Functions and Block Diagrams 161 Impedance 173 Operational Amplifiers 176 Electromechanical Systems 182 Case Study: Design of Motion Control Systems State-Variable Models 204 Linear Systems Analysis in 214 Summary 232 Problems 233 196 viii Contents 4. Elasticity,Damping,andMechanical 245 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 Chapter Overview 245 Elastic Elements 246 Damping Elements 262 Mechanical Transformers 272 Predictors and Measures of Performance 285 Analysis of Higher-Order Models 299 Modes and System Response 305 Case Study: Component Selection for Motion Control Case Study: Vehicle Suspension Design 324 Case Study: Modes and Aircraft Dynamics 331 Model Forms and Computer Analysis 334 Summary 348 Problems 349 314 5. FluidandThermalSvstems 358 Chapter Overview 358 5.1 Hydraulics and Liquid-Level Systems 359 5.2 Hydraulic Devices 370 5.3 Pneumatic Elements 377 5.4 Thermal Systems 386 5.5 Developing Models from Data 395 5.6 Regression Analysis with 403 5.7 Summary 410 Problems 413 6.<br><br> FrequencyResponseandVibration 421 Chapter Overview 421 6.1 Frequency Response of First-Order Systems 422 6.2 Frequency Response of Second-Order Systems 439 6.3 Bandwidth 449 6.4 Frequency Response Case Studies 452 6.5 Vibration Isolation 458 6.6 Vibration Absorption 469 6.7 Response to General Periodic Inputs 474 6.8 Frequency Response Analysis Using 478 6.9 Summary 480 Problems 482 7. IntroductiontoFeedbackControlSystems 488 Chapter Overview 488 7.1 Feedback Control: Concepts, History, and Applications 489 7.2 Block Diagram Description of Control Systems 493 7.3 Transducers and Error Detectors 501 7.4 Actuators 505 7.5 Control Logic 510 7.6 Control of a First-Order Plant 513 7.7 Control of a Second-Order Plant 525 Contents ix 7.8 Electronic Controllers 535 7.9 Pneumatic Controllers 542 7.10 Hydraulic Controllers 546 7.11 Block Diagram AlgebraUsing 550 7.12 Summary 552 Problems 553 ControlSystemDesign:Tuning,Compensation, andDigitalControl 563 Chapter Overview 563 8.1 Performance Indices and Controller Tuning 565 8.2 Sensitivity and Robust Controller Design 574 8.3 Parasitic Modes and Robust Controller Design 579 8.4 Command Compensation 584 8.5 Disturbance Compensation 592 8.6 Feedback Compensation and Cascade Control 595 8.7 Reset Wind-up and Actuator Saturation 606 8.8 Discrete-time Models for Digital Control 617 8.9 Sampling and Sampled-data Systems 622 8.10 Digital Control Algorithms 628 8.11 Digital Controller Analysis in 637 8.12 Summary 642 Problems 643 9. TheRootLocusMethod 655 Chapter Overview 655 9.1 The Root Locus Concept 656 9.2 Plotting Guides661 9.3 The Complementary Root Locus 676 9.4 Applications 682 9.5 Root Locus Plotting With 690 9.6 Digital Controller Design With the Root Locus 695 9.7 Summary 705 Problems 706 10.<br><br> ApplicationsofGraphicalMethodstoSystemDesign 715 Chapter Overview715 10.1 System Design With Open-Loop Frequency Response Plots 716 10.2 Series Compensation and PID Control721 10.3 Static Error Coefficients 723 10.4 Lead and Lag Compensators 724 10.5 Root Locus Design of Compensators 727 10.6 Bode Design of Compensators 734 10.7 Lag-Lead Compensation 739 10.8 Systems With Dead-Time Elements 742 10.9 Frequency Response Design Using 751 10.10 Summary 754 Problems 754 x Contents 11. State-VariableMethodsforControlSystemDesign 758 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 Chapter Overview 7.58 Examples of State-Variable Models 759 Vector Representations of the System Modes 766 Controllability and Observability 777 Vector Formulation of State-Variable Feedback 787 SISO Systems and State-Variable Feedback 799 State Vector Observers 803 Linear-Quadratic Regulator Design 809 State-Variable Design Methods With 821 Summary 833 Problems 834 AppendixA: TheFourierSeries 845 AppendixB:TypicalUnitsandPhysicalConstants 847 Index 851