IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY PO BOX 2638 WOODSTOCK, GEORGIA 30188-1383 TOLL FREE: 1 (888) 264-5877 PHONE: 770-928-2834 FAX: 770-928-7483 web site: www.americanbookcompany.com P ASSING T HE LEAP 21 A S M 9 ERICAN BOOK COMPAN Y DEVIN PINTOZZI DR. FRANK PINTOZZI BRIAN FREEL G RADUATION E XIT E XAM TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACEv INTRODUCTIONvi DIAGNOSTIC EXAM1 Session 1 2 Session 23 Session 38 Session 416 EVALUATION CHART17 CHAPTER 467 PART 1: GRAMMAR AND USAGE18 CHAPTER 119 Capitalization and Punctuation Capitalization Rules19 Punctuation Rules24 End Punctuation37 Chapter 1 Review38 CHAPTER 240 Nouns and Pronouns Nouns40 Nouns: Singular and Plural 41 Collective Nouns42 Rules For Making Nouns Possessive43 Pronoun Forms45 Pronoun Antecedents46 Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives48 Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives49 Relative and Interrogative Pronouns50 Chapter 2 Review52 CHAPTER 354 Verbs Verbs54 Identifying Correct Verb Tenses in Sentences57 Verb Forms59 Commonly Confused Verbs63 Chapter 3 Review66 Sentence Construction Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates67 Phrases and Clauses69 Types of Sentences71 Subject-Verb Agreement73 Subject-Verb Agreement With Collective Nouns74 Misplaced Modifiers76 Dangling Modifiers77 Chapter 4 Review79 CHAPTER 582 CHAPTER 690 CHAPTER 8114 CHAPTER 9125 CHAPTER 10140 Inferences, Conclusions, and Predictions Making Inferences140 Drawing Conclusions143 Predicting146 Chapter 10 Review149 CHAPTER 11154 Sentence Errors and ... more. less.
Sequencing Sentences, Sentence Fragments, and Run-ons82 Arranging Ideas in Chronological Order84 Arranging Directions in Chronological Order85 Chapter 5 Review87 Spelling Spelling Affixed Words90 Spelling Rules For Affixed Words91 Identifying Correctly Spelled Homonyms96 Chapter 6 Review99 PART 2: READING 101 CHAPTER 7102 Constructing Word Meaning Context Clues102 Word Analysis 106 Chapter 7 Review111 Literal Meaning Locating Details114 Sequence of Events or Directions117 Cause-Effect Relationships120 Chapter 8 Review123 Main Idea and Theme A Directly Stated Main Idea in a Paragraph125 A Directly Stated Main Idea in a Passage of Several Paragraphs126 An Implied Main Idea in a Paragraph127 An Implied Main Idea in a Passage of Several Paragraphs128 Theme133 Chapter 9 Review138 Fact and Opinion Fact and Opinion154 Chapter 5 Review158 PASSING THE LEAP 21 GEE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS iii CHAPTER 12159 CHAPTER 13173 PART 3: WRITING201 CHAPTER 14202 CHAPTER 18266 Writing the Short Essay Chapter 18 Review272 Author 9s Purpose and Argument Author 9s Purpose159 Using Language to Influence or Persuade162 Argument and Fallacy163 Chapter 12 Review170 Analysis of Literature Literary Genres173 Story Structure178 Literary Conventions184 Evaluating Literature191 Chapter 13 Review196 Short Answers Main Idea/Theme/Author 9s Purpose/Point of View203 Cause/Effect204 Making Inferences206 Fact and Opinion208 Literary Conventions, Genres, and Story Structure209 Chapter 14 Review212 CHAPTER 15215 Proofreading Common Errors215 Common Grammatical Errors216 Run-On and Fragment Errors217 Chapter 15 Review222 CHAPTER 16227 Paragraphs Paragraph Structure227 Main Idea/Topic Sentence228 The Topic Sentence as a Focus232 Supporting Details233 Concluding Sentences236 Sentence Variety240 Transitional Words236 Chapter 16 Review245 CHAPTER 17249 Comparing/Contrasting Introduction to Comparing and Contrasting249 Comparing and Contrasting in a Reading Passage249 Comparing and Contrasting Language and Tone252 Comparing and Contrasting Arguments254 Comparing and Contrasting Characters in Fiction259 Chapter 17 Review262 CHAPTER 19275 Writing a Composition The Writing Prompt275 The Writing Process276 Prewriting277 Writing the Rough Draft280 Revising the Rough Draft281 Editing284 Final Draft287 How Your Composition is Scored288 Writing Practice for the LEAP 21 GEE Essay288 PART 4: USING INFORMATION 292 RESOURCES CHAPTER 20293 Using Reference Sources Sections of a Book293 Table of Contents295 Index296 Bibliography297 Writing Bibliographic Entries298 Glossary301 Encyclopedia302 Reader 9s Guide to Periodical Literature303 Newspaper Index and Newspaper Ad305 The Internet Search307 Chapter 20 Review308 CHAPTER 21311 Using Graphic Aids Tables311 Line Graphs312 Bar Graphs313 Circle Graphs314 Symbol Graphs315 Timeline316 Diagrams318 Reading a Map319 Chapter 21 Review320 CHAPTER 22324 Synthesizing Information PRACTICE EXAM 1332 Session 1 333 Session 2334 Session 3338 Session 4345 PRACTICE EXAM 2346 Session 1 347 Session 2348 Session 3353 Session 4362 iv 5 Selections from Internet Key Word Search on cGlass Ceiling d Web Sites 1. The Glass Ceiling - Web site offering articles and information on job discrimination, business articles, information for students, a large resource section, legal center, free business directory, family articles, literature Society>Work> Workplace Discrimination [Translate] 2.<br><br> Glass Ceiling on DataLine - DataLine engages people online about both corporate and academic glass ceiling lawsuits to enable interest and support for some of the plaintiffs for cases we have followed Society>People>Women>Women 9s Rights [Translate] [Translate] BAR GRAPH - PROGRESS TOWARDS PAY EQUALITY 1980-1999 3. The Glass Ceiling Biographies - A biography of Clara Barton from the cShatter the Glass Ceiling d, a working woman 9s magazine Health>Nursing>History> Clara Barton [Translate] 4. Glass Ceiling Business Directory - Free business directory covering national and international businesses Business>Directories>North America> United States [Translate] News Articles 1.<br><br> webreview.com - Poll Results: New Paradigm, Same Glass Ceiling ? - webreview.com - Cross-Training for Web Teams Home: Http://www.webreview.com/pub/1999/06/11/poll/results.html New Paradigm: Same Glass Ceiling ? Poll results: Does the same glass ceiling exist?<br><br> More Articles about glass ceiling from webreview.com Men Women Dollars (in Thousands) 0 10 20 30 40 1980 1990 1999 15,159 11,414 27,323 21,847 36,476 26,324 24.7% wage gap 20.0% wage gap 27.8% wage gap Copyright © American Book Company EVALUATION CHART DIAGNOSTIC LANGUAGE ARTS EXAM Directions: On the following chart, circle the question numbers that you answered incorrectly, and evaluate the results. Then turn to the appropriate topics (listed by chapters), read the explanations, and complete the exercises. Review the other chapters as needed.<br><br> Finally, complete the LEAP 21 GEE English Language Arts Practice Exams to further prepare yourself for the LEAP 21 GEE in English Language Arts. QUESTIONSPAGES Chapter 1: Capitalization and Punctuation Chapter 2: Nouns and Pronouns Chapter 3: Verbs Chapter 4: Sentence Construction Chapter 5: Sentence Errors and Sequencing Chapter 6: Spelling Chapter 7: Constructing Word Meaning Chapter 8:Literal Meaning Chapter 9: Main Idea and Theme Chapter 10: Inferences and Conclusions Chapter 11: Fact and Opinion Chapter 12: Author 9s Purpose and Argument Chapter 13:Analysis of Literature Chapter 14:Short Answers Chapter 15:Proofreading Chapter 16:Paragraphs Chapter 17:Comparing/Contrasting Chapter 18:Writing the Short Essay Chapter 19:Writing a Composition Chapter 20:Using Reference Sources Chapter 21:Using Graphic Aids Chapter 22:Synthesizing Information 1, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45 1, 39, 40, 42, 44, 45 1, 43 1, 40 1 1, 40, 41, 42, 43 11, 23 16, 17, 19, 27, 35 4, 8, 29 12, 15, 21, 30 20 9, 10, 13, 14, 18, 24, 25, 28, 31, 32, 33, 36 15, 25, 29, 30, 31, 32 1, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 1 22, 34, 37 37 1 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 7 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 19-39 40-53 54-66 67-81 82-89 90-100 102-113 114-124 125-139 140-153 154-158 159-172 173-200 202-214 215-226 227-248 249-265 266-274 275-291 293-310 311-323 324-331 17 Copyright © American Book Company Can you tell whether another person likes you or not, even if that person doesn 9t say so in words? On a separate sheet of paper, list three ways you can tell if someone likes you, even without saying so.<br><br> Then list three ways you can tell if someone doesn 9t like you. Discuss your answers with your classmates and develop a list for the whole class. Your class probably developed quite a long list which included things like whether or not a person returns your phone calls, if the person smiles or frowns when you approach, or if you eat lunch together or not.<br><br> By paying attention to another person 9s behavior, you can draw conclusions about that person 9s attitudes and feelings. This process is called making an inference . In Chapter 8, you practiced finding the literal meaning of a text, in other words, the information explicitly stated in a passage.<br><br> In Chapter 9, your study of main ideas and themes showed that in some passages they are stated directly, and in others, they are implied. To find an implied main idea, you needed to use the facts and details to cread between the lines d and develop your own statement of the main idea. In this way, you made an inference .<br><br> An inference is a conclusion that goes beyond what is explicitly stated, but is based on the information already given. The LEAP 21 GEE in Language Arts will ask questions that require you to go beyond what is explicitly stated in the text in order to make inferences, draw conclusions , and make predictions . MAKING INFERENCES When you make an inference while reading a text, you make an educated guess based on facts and details in a passage.<br><br> By reviewing various ideas and details in a selection, you can infer information that is not directly stated. For example, the topic of the following passage is not stated directly in the text or in a title. See if you can use the details provided to infer what the topic is.<br><br> These storms occur over land and are the most violent of all atmospheric disturbances. They are highly localized and, therefore, do not affect large areas at one time. The actual path of destruction of these storms is rarely more than 100 yards in width.<br><br> They take the form of a rotating column of air that extends down to the land from a thundercloud. They happen most frequently in the Midwestern and Southern United States. C hapter 10 I nferences, C onclusions, and P redictions 140 Copyright © American Book Company There are many reasons why an author puts pen to paper or clicks away at the keyboard.<br><br> Just think of the reasons why you write. You write essays for English class because the teacher requires it. You write a note in a birthday card to your mother to express your love.<br><br> You send e- mails to internet friends just to keep in touch. There are many other reasons why you write, and there are even more reasons why different authors write. One important reason why authors write is in order to influence or persuade the reader.<br><br> For example, if your town were trying to impose a teen curfew on weeknights, you might write a letter to the editor of the local newspaper to support or oppose this measure. The way you argue your point and the language you use will greatly determine the effectiveness of your letter. The LEAP 21 GEE will require you to determine the author 9s purpose for writing a selection, as well as how the author uses language to influence or persuade.<br><br> You will practice these skills in this chapter. AUTHOR 9S PURPOSE Every author writes for a specific purpose. You can infer the author 9s purpose from the way an author writes.<br><br> See if you can determine the author 9s purpose in writing the following two paragraphs. 1. Animals are different from other organisms in that they are many-celled and cannot make their own food.<br><br> They must take in food in order to get the energy for life processes. They respond to their environment, grow, and reproduce. Animals are divided into two main groups: vertebrates and invertebrates.<br><br> 2. One warm fall evening, our son Tom went out to the garage to feed the cat. Suddenly we heard him yell out, cA rat!<br><br> A Texas-sized rat! d His older brother Joey went to investigate and reported back, cSure enough, Mom. It is a rat! d Finally, Barb and I went to look at this crat. d When the little critter turned around to see us gawking, we realized that it was a 8possum . .<br><br> . a fat 8possum. Both paragraphs discuss animals, but they do so in very different ways.<br><br> Paragraph 1 provides basic information about the classification of animals and their biological processes. There are few descriptive words, no dialogue, and no action. This paragraph would fit well in a science textbook.<br><br> The author 9s purpose is to inform . Paragraph 2, on the other hand, describes characters and events with expressive words and interesting dialogue. It is part of a brief story of a surprising and funny event.<br><br> Perhaps you would find it in a book of short stories. The author 9s purpose is to entertain . C hapter 12 A uthor 9s P urpose and A rgument 159 Copyright © American Book Company Applying grammar and reading skills you have learned in the previous chapters, you will now practice writing complete sentences in response to questions you are asked on the LEAP 21 GEE.<br><br> Short answers to questions are usually one to two sentences long. Test graders will want to see complete sentences as responses to short answer questions. In instances where you are asked to state qualities, define terms, or name causes and effects, be sure the sentences are complete.<br><br> While writing short answer responses to questions from a reading passage, be sure you use correct punctuation, capitalization, word choice, and spelling. Remember, with short answer responses, you will be expected to know the correct reply without the help that comes from seeing a series of multiple-choice answers. As you reply to the question being asked, be sure to use part of the question in framing your response.<br><br> This tool will help focus your answer and increase your chances of a correct response. Sample Question: What would you infer were Alicia 9s intentions in the beginning of the story? Answer: In the beginning of the story, Alicia 9s intentions were _______________.<br><br> As you read the question, review the text to make sure you know the answer by looking at the text. If reading takes especially long amounts of time for you, simply skim the passage instead of reading it fully. Then, answer the questions by referring to the text.<br><br> Many students find that this technique gives them the extra time they need to answer all of the questions. On the LEAP 21 GEE, these questions are worth two points each. Occasionally, you will be given a question which has two parts or asks for several reasons for an answer.<br><br> In these cases, the question will be worth three points. It is important to write more than one sentence in the response in order to get full credit on these questions. To better prepare yourself for the LEAP 21 GEE, you will now learn the best methods for answering the six different types of short answer questions you may encounter on the test.<br><br> These are author 9s purpose/main idea, point of view, cause/effect, making inferences, fact/opinion, and literary genre/conventions/story structure . C hapter 14 Short Answers 202 Copyright © American Book Company Besides the short answer requirement, the LEAP 21 GEE requires you to write paragraphs in response to questions. This chapter builds on writing skills you have learned in Chapters 1-6 (Grammar and Usage).<br><br> Now, you will be asked to find and correct grammar and usage errors within paragraphs. You may want to do a quick review of Chapters 1-6 before beginning this chapter. On the LEAP 21 GEE, there will be several methods for assessing your skill in writing paragraphs.<br><br> One method will be to present a passage with words or phrases underlined followed by multiple-choice questions asking you to choose the best way to revise each underlined part. This chapter will provide practice for that requirement. Another method of assessment will require you to write well-organized paragraphs and then proofread your own work.<br><br> The next chapter addresses that requirement. COMMON ERRORS Errors within a paragraph are common. In the following example, check the sentences for errors in punctuation, capitalization, and spelling.<br><br> Example: 1. Nathan and John drove North of Bedford to fish in Monroe Lake. 2.They stopped at a bait and tackle shop bought some lures and drove to the lake.<br><br> 3.Together, they caught one dosen fish in the lake. 4.They cleaned the fish at home and had a feast. In this example, Sentence 1 contained a capitalization error (north, not North), Sentence 2 contained a punctuation error (add commas - items in a series), and Sentence 3 contained a spelling error (dozen, not dosen).<br><br> Sentence 4 had no errors . C hapter 15 P roofreading 215 Copyright © American Book Company Comparing and contrasting is the process of looking for similarities and differences between two or more objects, characters, or ideas. On the LEAP 21 GEE, you will be required to read a literary passage.<br><br> Then you will be asked to answer questions about similarities and differences between characters, events, settings, etc. You will also be asked to write responses in which you compare and contrast ideas, characters, or situations in a reading passage. These written responses will vary in length.<br><br> In this chapter, you will learn about comparing and contrasting as a reading as well as a writing skill. You will also practice answering questions about comparing and contrasting as well. INTRODUCTION TO COMPARING AND CONTRASTING One of the most important aspects of comparing and contrasting is to look for similarities or differences within the same category .<br><br> A familiar way to express this idea is to make sure you are comparing capples to apples d and coranges to oranges d but not capples to oranges. d For example, consider the following sentence: This candy is tangy and sweet, but that candy is green. This statement compares flavor and color which are two unrelated categories. We may be able to conclude that the writer likes sweet candy and does not like green candy, but we cannot adequately compare the two candies because we don 9t know the color of the sweet candy, and we don 9t know the flavor of the green candy.<br><br> Therefore, when comparing or contrasting two things or ideas, stay in the same category. COMPARING AND CONTRASTING IN A READING PASSAGE Sometimes, finding similarities and differences that are described in a reading passage can be more difficult than finding them in a graphic aid. Two strategies that can help you with comparing and contrasting within a reading passage are the following: 1) Looking for signal words 2) Creating an H-map As you review a reading passage in order to answer questions about comparing and contrasting, you can look for signal words that point to a similarity or a difference in the selection.<br><br> Studying the following list of signal words will help you find similarities and differences in reading passages. C hapter 17 C omparing /C ontrasting 249 Copyright © American Book Company In Session 1 of the LEAP 21 GEE, you will be required to write a composition of 250-300 words based on a writing prompt . You will have a minimum of 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete this composition.<br><br> A composition is an essay consisting of several paragraphs which have a clear central topic with supporting details. This composition should contain an introduction , a body , and a conclusion . The introduction of your composition consists of one paragraph.<br><br> The body of your composition contains two to three paragraphs. The conclusion of your composition is a short paragraph that ends your discussion. To guide you in organizing your composition, use the diagram below: Basic Structure of a Composition INTRODUCTION 1 Paragraph BODY 2-3 Paragraphs CONCLUSION 1 Paragraph THE WRITING PROMPT A writing prompt consists of a question based on a familiar topic.<br><br> You will answer this question in the form of a composition. This composition is your written response to the prompt. The writing prompt also includes guidelines and directions for writing your composition.<br><br> These guidelines provide further descriptions of the topic and your audience as well as steps to follow in the writing process. C hapter 19 W riting A C omposition 275 Copyright © American Book Company C hapter 22 S ynthesizing I nformation Session 2 of the LEAP 21 GEE in English Language Arts will assess your ability to synthesize information from various sources. The term csynthesizing d means simply bringing different parts together to create something that is complete.<br><br> In writing, synthesizing information is important for any type of research project. Information in research is available in many forms. For the LEAP 21 GEE, you will receive a packet of many different types of information about the same topic.<br><br> Some of the information will be in the form of visual aids. The types of visual aids that you may find on the test such as maps, charts, graphs, tables, and illustrations are located in Chapter 21. However, most of the information you will see in your packet will be in the form of parts of a book, magazine and newspaper indexes, and Internet keyword searches.<br><br> You must understand the function and use of all of these types of reference sources and be prepared to answer both multiple-choice and short answer questions on this information. The practice for gaining skill in understanding these reference materials is located in Chapter 20. In this chapter, you will answer questions related to a large variety of materials on the life of John James Audubon.<br><br> Be sure to read the material over carefully, identifying each piece of information. Then, read the multiple-choice and short answer questions. Answer them to the best of your ability.<br><br> Remember, this exercise is partly a review of what you have learned in the previous two chapters. If you need to go back to these chapters to remind yourself how to find or write a certain piece of information, you may do so. SYNTHESIZING INFORMATION PRACTICE Look through all of the information listed on the next four pages.<br><br> Then answer the twelve questions assessing your ability to synthesize information. Suppose that you want to write a report on the life of the world-renowned painter and naturalist, John James Audubon (1785-1851). This following are several information sources about John Audubon and his artistic works: ?<br><br> excerpt from the book, cLife of John James Audubon. d ? sample table of contents, cLife of John James Audubon. d ? Internet search, cJohn James Audubon. d ?<br><br> Sample index entries from cAudubon: Life and Art in the American Wilderness. d ? Encyclopedia article cJohn James Audubon d New World Encyclopedia . ?<br><br> Table of watercolor paintings by John Audubon. ? Time line of the life of Audubon.<br><br> 324 Copyright © American Book Company 336 excerpt from Satchmo: Founding Father of Jazz Musically, Armstrong claims (perhaps inaccurately; see the Appendix) that his first instrument was a tin horn that he blew on the junk wagon he ran with the Karnofsky family. He first learned to play cHome Sweet Home d and blues - an auspicious combination for the career that would follow. The Karnofsky family is credited with advancing money to their child laborer for his first cornet, with recognizing his excellent intonation - encouraging him to sing, and with instilling in him the value of csinging from the heart. d Armstrong also speaks about the importance of Storyville for jazz history, about the unfortunate consequences of most musicians having to take day jobs in addition to their musical jobs, and about Freddie Keppard 9s inability to cplay the cornet seriously at any time.<br><br> Just Clowned all the way. Good for those Idiots 9 fans 9 who did not care whether he played correct, or they did not know good music, or cared less. d Here, Armstrong seems to say that similar criticism directed toward himself is off the mark, since he always played good music, correctly and seriously. The document ends with Armstrong ccalling the names d of the New Orleanian greats from his younger years, and with expressed admiration for contemporary White New Orleanians, with whom he can now enjoy a friendship in the North, far from the cDisgustingly Segregated and Prejudiced d world of his birthplace.<br><br> Directions: Think about how you would use these resources to gather information and plan a report on the life and accomplishments of Louis D. Armstrong. Then answer the questions that follow.<br><br> 2.Which of these sources would you use to find the titles of music collections related to Louis Armstrong? A.Music directoryC. Encyclopedia article B Time LineD.<br><br> Table of Contents Louis Armstrong is born in New Orleans, 1901. Louis and three other boys form a vocal quartet. 1907 Louis purchases his first cornet with help of Kornovsky family.<br><br> 1907 Louis fires a pistol and is confined to Colored Waifs 9 Home. Dec 31, 1912 Louis performs in New Orleans 9 Honky Tonks while working to support his family. 1914-1917 Louis joins and records with King Oliver 9s Creole Jazz Band.<br><br> 1922-1924 Louis records with Blues singer Bessie Smith. 1925 Records cWest End Blues d 1928 Louis records with his own group The Hot Five. 1925-1928 Louis tours the U.S., Britain, and Europe.<br><br> 1935-38 Louis forms a septet band The All Stars 1947 Appears on cThe Ed Sullivan Show d 1955 Louis records with Ella Fitzgerald. 1957 Films cThe Beat Generation d 1958 Records ten selections with Duke Ellington 1961 cHello Dolly d becomes #1 hit. 1964 Appears on cThe Tonight Show d and cThe Jackie Gleason Show d 1967 Records soundtrack cOn Her Majesty 9s Secret Service d 1969 Newport Jazz Festival presents a tribute to Louis.<br><br> 1970 Louis passes away in his sleep in New York City, July 6, 1971. Time Line of Louis Armstrong Copyright © American Book Company 338 The Making of a Marine The large, bulky bus slowed down as it turned onto a long, narrow bridge. The bridge led to an obscure island in the distance and was lined with dimly lit street lamps.<br><br> The vibration, caused by the bus rolling over the planks of the bridge, startled me out of my listless sleep. I cupped my hands around my eyes and peered out of the dust-covered window. All that was visible, as far as I could see, was the somber water leisurely moving below the bridge.<br><br> Little did I realize that this bridge was the beginning of my passage from boyhood to manhood in the Marines. Suddenly the interior bus lights flashed on. I had to blink several times to adjust my eyes to the unexpected flow of brightness.<br><br> A husky, darkly tanned man stood up and faced the group of boys on the bus. He was immaculately dressed in a sharply pressed uniform, with rows of ribbons and badges over his left pocket. The bus jerked to a stop, and the man who stood up introduced himself as the drill instructor.<br><br> Then I and the rest of the boys on the bus were issued the first of many commands: cRecruits, get off the bus, NOW! Move, move, move! d I joined the ranks of many other boys coming off the bus, and they all moved through the small door leading to the receiving barracks. Glancing at the sign above the door, I silently read to myself, cTHROUGH THIS PORTAL PASS PROSPECTS FOR THE WORLD 9S FINEST FIGHTING FORCE: THE UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS. d This was it.<br><br> The process of becoming a Marine was beginning for me, and I couldn 9t turn back now. The first few weeks were the toughest. The drill instructors concentrated on breaking down the morale and hard-fast habits of all the recruits in our group.<br><br> I had to learn to start living all over; I had to learn how to dress, eat, even go to the bathroom. I learned that every action of the day was limited to a certain time period. When it was time for chow, all of us recruits marched to the chow hall together.<br><br> Inside the chow hall all of the trays, plates, and utensils were carried the same way, by every recruit. We were taught how to fold our clothes, brush our teeth, and make a bed (known as a rack). There was even a specific form of vocabulary we were instructed to use.<br><br> We were also introduced to the basics of military life which included marching, shining boots, and the use of a rifle (never called a gun). The first phase of training examined the recruits 9 mental processes and was the hardest emotionally. The second phase began to test our physical abilities.<br><br> Day after day was spent running in the scorching heat, with a ten-pound backpack on my back. I quickly learned that the purpose of running is more than just exercise: it is for the sake of staying alive. I and my group learned how to repel off seventy-five foot towers, crawl through live mine fields, run through obstacle courses, and tread water.<br><br> Boot camp became progressively harder as I moved from the second phase of training to the third phase of actually performing certain procedures. All of the recruits in my group had to fire their rifles and pistols, throw live grenades, and successfully complete their individual combat training courses. Many recruits began to drop out in the third phase due to the stress and difficulty of this stage.<br><br> I began to see changes occurring in my life. I was becoming physically fit, more confident, and proficient in a leadership role. The fourth and final phase of training was graduation.<br><br> As graduation approached, I found it difficult to sleep due to all the excitement. I quickly learned how to control my anxiety because there was still a great deal of work to prepare for in the final drill. Graduation day was P ractice E xam 1 - Session 3 Copyright © American Book Company<br><br>