Digital Media e-Guide © 2005 Davis Publications, Inc. Text by Harold Olejarz. Digital Video-Editing Programs What Can They Do?
" enable you to produce broadcast- quality video on classroom com- puters that can be exported to digital videotape, transferred to DVD or VHS tape, or posted on the Web " enable you to import digitized still images from your comput- er 9s hard drive, from a CD, or downloaded from the Web " enable you to add titles, voice- overs, music, sound effects, tran- sitions (see cGlossary, d below), and special effects to video proj- ects to create a documentary or video slide show Glossary importing video: to transfer video from your DV camcorder to your computer. clip: a segment of video footage frame: a still image in a video clip. The US standard (known as NTSC) for video is 29.97 frames per second.
crop markers : used to indicate where to cut a clip. transitions: timed spaces placed between clips, used to create effects such as fading from one clip to the next or fading to black. nonlinear editing: With digital video, unlike VHS tape, you have ready access to all of your clips without having to search through tape.
Project Ideas ... more. less.
" Create a commercial, an artist interview, a short movie, or a video report on an artist(s), artwork(s), or art movement(s) " dramatize a poem or a scene from a play; interpret music or songs " demonstrate an art technique Digital video-editing software gives you ready access to all your digital video clips. Courtesy Harold Olejarz. Digital Media e-Guide © 2005 Davis Publications, Inc.<br><br> Text by Harold Olejarz. 3-D Graphics Programs What Can They Do? " enable you to create three- dimensional landscapes, char- acters, or objects for computer games, animations, Web-based applications, and printed docu- ments " allow you to better understand the rules of perspective by exploring the creation of cillu- sionistic d space " allow you to create interactive cstage sets d where viewers can move through the environment and interact with the objects in the environment " allow architects and designers to create virtual environments for architectural and interior design projects The Basics 1.<br><br> The work area in a 3-D program is an illusionistic, three-dimen- sional space with planes represent- ing height, width, and depth. 2. 3-D software may include both graphics and animation options.<br><br> 3. In 3-D programs, objects are placed in scenes where you can arrange the objects and control how the object and scene are lit and the point of view the viewer has of the object and scene. 4.<br><br> Modeling is the first step in cre- ating a 3-D graphic or animation. In the modeling stage you may work with a wire-frame model of an object and edit the surface or tex- ture of that object. Texture Mapping This method of adding realism to 3-D graphics involves adding an image of a surface texture to a sim- pler wire-frame shape.<br><br> Rendering The last step in creating an illu- sionistic 3-D graphic or animation, rendering is the process of making a 3-D scene look realistic by apply- ing textures, colors, and lighting effects. Rendering a complex 3-D graphic may take hours. The more powerful your computer, the faster it can render a 3-D scene.<br><br> An image from a short moving clip created with 3-D graphics and animation software. Courtesy Dave Parmenter. Digital Media e-Guide © 2005 Davis Publications, Inc.<br><br> Text by Harold Olejarz. Multimedia Programs What Can They Do? " enable you to create interactive programs using video, anima- tions, text, sound, and images.<br><br> Your interactive programs may be saved as interactive CDs or posted on the Web. " enable you to create narrated interactive student or class slide shows using still images or video clips " enable you to create interactive virtual tours or interactive pre- sentations The Basics 1. Creating a multimedia program project requires lots of planning .<br><br> It is important to gather all of the elements, images, audio, video, and graphics that will be used in the multimedia project. The elements used in a multimedia project are called objects or cast members . 2.<br><br> Some multimedia programs work on both PCs and Macs. Other mul- timedia programs are specific to either a Mac or Windows operating system. 3.<br><br> Multimedia programs enable users to create what some programs call buttons . Buttons are used to navigate from one part of the mul- timedia project to another. When a button is clicked on or passed over, something is programmed to occur.<br><br> 4. Parts of graphics or other screen locations may also be programmed to work like a button: when you use your mouse to click on or move over these locations, something is programmed to occur. Screen Coordinates Measured in pixels on horizontal and vertical axes, screen coordinates are used to set the location of text or graphics.<br><br> Timelines These are used to establish when events in the multimedia program begin and end. Project Properties Most multimedia programs have an inspector feature. An inspector gives information about a graphic, video or text element used in a mul- timedia project.<br><br> This information is called the properties of the object. The Workspace Depending on which multimedia application you are using, terms such as screen , stage , or slide may be used to refer to the workspace of the multimedia program. A screen from an interactive program created with multimedia software.<br><br> Courtesy Harold Olejarz. Digital Media e-Guide © 2005 Davis Publications, Inc. Text by Harold Olejarz.<br><br> Image-Editing Programs What Can They Do? " allow you to prepare images and text for print or for posting on the Web. (Examples include: greeting cards, postcards, and posters, or book, magazine, and CD covers.) " enable you to combine several photos to create a collage, or photomontage " help you correct and edit photos by providing the tools to remove red-eye, adjust color and contrast, fix poor lighting, and sharpen, rotate, and crop images " enable you to manipulate photos with paint tools and filters The Basics 1.<br><br> Image-editing programs include many of the tools used in paint pro- grams. 2. Several tools common to image- editing programs simulate tradi- tional darkroom activities.<br><br> These include the Burn , Dodge , and Crop tools. 3. Image-editing software files, like paint software files, are bit- map images, also known as raster images .<br><br> This means that the pho- tograph or digital bitmap image is made up of tiny dots (pixels). If you increase the size of a bitmap image, the resolution of the image may suffer, causing the image to appear blurry, or pixelated. Layers and Filters Most image-editing programs sup- port layers .<br><br> Layers are like sheets of clear glass on top of a background image. If you create a new layer above a photo layer, you can draw, paint, and erase on the new layer without altering the photo on the background layer. Image-editing programs also include filters .<br><br> Filters are based on a traditional photo filter, which is placed in front of a camera lens. You can use a filter in an image-editing program to make subtle or radical changes in a digital image. Bitmap File Formats Files created with image-editing programs include JPG , GIF , TIF , PNG , PICT , and PSD .<br><br> Photographs are usually saved as JPG images, the GIF format is used for digital video images to be used as Web graphics, and the TIF format is used for print. Both JPG and GIF are compressed file formats, while TIF files are not compressed. Compressed file for- mats reduce the size of an image but may lead to some data loss.<br><br> Image-editing programs such as Photoshop provide tools for manipu- lating digital photography and other images. Digital Media e-Guide © 2005 Davis Publications, Inc. Text by Harold Olejarz.<br><br> Animation Programs What Can They Do? " create frame animations that can be burned to a CD, posted on the Internet, or exported to video with an animation program " enable students to create professional-looking animated 3-D text and graphics " generate frames in an animation and save an artist the time needed to draw or construct all of the frames needed to create a computer animation The Basics 1. A key frame is an image in an animation that is drawn or con- structed by an artist.<br><br> Think of the individual drawings in a comic strip that are usually enclosed by a bordering line. (See cMotion Path, d below, for more on key frames.) 2. Like movies recorded on film, animation software creates the illusion of movement , with one still image, or frame, replaced by another.<br><br> If the frames are played at a fast enough rate, the anima- tion looks like natural movement. Think of a flipbook. 3.<br><br> Animation software has had a huge impact on the way animated movies are made. Conventional cartoon animation was shown at 12 FPS (frames per second), so that fewer drawings were needed to cre- ate a cartoon. Movies are shown at a rate of 24 FPS.<br><br> In order for com- puter animations to be convincing, they should be played at a rate of 24 FPS. 4. Photos, videos, music, and other audio may be imported into anima- tion projects.<br><br> Timelines Animation programs use timelines to help animators plan and control the content, sequence, and timing within an animation. Tweening This is the process an animation program uses to generate the frames between key frames in an anima- tion. This saves animators the task of having to draw 24 frames for every second of an animation.<br><br> Motion Path Animations may also be created by describing a motion path , telling the computer where you want an object to move to over a designated period of time. To create an animation, an artist may draw or construct one key frame showing an animation at a start point and another key frame showing the animation at an end point. Animation software can then be used to generate the motion path, or series of frames, in between the two key frames.<br><br> An image from an online role-playing game created with an animation program. Courtesy Turbine Entertainment Software. Digital Media e-Guide © 2005 Davis Publications, Inc.<br><br> Text by Harold Olejarz. Digital Video Cameras What Can They Do? " record and store video in a digital format on a mini DV tape or DVD-R " make it possible to create broadcast-quality videos " play video on a TV " transfer video from the camera to a computer " capture video from a computer " record video from an analog source such as a VHS camcorder or VCR The Basics 1.<br><br> Mini DV is the most popular type of consumer digital video for- mat. MiniDV tapes are the most popular and economical way to record your video projects. 2.<br><br> Mini DV camcorders are very small, which makes them easy to carry and hold. They are, however, often quite difficult to keep steady. Though many cameras come with an image stabilizing feature, it is best to use a tripod whenever you can.<br><br> 3. A CCD 4or charge-coupled device 4is a light-sensitive image sensor that the camera uses to capture an image. Most consumer video cameras have one CCD.<br><br> More expensive models may have three CCDs, which help to capture a bet- ter picture. 4. DV camcorders can record still images but the resolution of the images is not as high as that of still digital cameras.<br><br> Using Zoom Optical zoom lets you zoom in on a scene by using the focal length of a lens, as with a traditional camera. Digital zoom lets you zoom in on a scene by magnifying pixels. Because it causes the image to be pixelated, or fuzzy, digital zoom will degrade the quality of your video.<br><br> Special Effects Most DV camcorders have built- in special effects that you can use while taping. Unlike special effects applied with video-editing software, in-camera special effects cannot be undone. Thus, if you tape a scene with an in-camera special effect, you will not be able to undo the effect.<br><br> NTSC Video Systems NTSC stands for National Televi- sion Standards Committee and refers to the broadcasting standard format used in North America and some other countries such as Japan. DVD discs are not universally play- able. PAL, or phase alternating line, is the Western European video stan- dard.<br><br> To play a DVD disc recorded in one format on a player that uses the other format requires a player with a built-in converter. A tripod is the best way to steady a digital video camera. Digital Media e-Guide © 2005 Davis Publications, Inc.<br><br> Text by Harold Olejarz. Digital Cameras What Can They Do? " enable you to make photographs without film " enable you to take pictures that can be viewed instantly, or transferred to a computer and manipulated with image- processing software to create digital art " enable you to take pictures of artworks for portfolios, presen- tations, or to use in other digital media such as Web pages The Basics 1.<br><br> Digital cameras capture images in varying megapixel sizes . (Pix- els are the tiny dots that make up the images you see on a computer screen or television. A megapixel equals one million pixels.) The more megapixels your camera has, the better resolution , or clarity, your images and prints will show.<br><br> Generally, a 3 megapixel camera will give you a high-quality 5" x 7" print. 2. Digital cameras store pictures on memory cards .<br><br> The larger the card size, the more pictures it will hold. If the camera you are using is 5 or more megapixels, you will be able to make larger-size prints but your storage (memory) needs will be greater, since each picture 9s file size will be larger. 3.<br><br> Digital cameras require lots of power. If your digital camera uses AA batteries, get rechargeable bat- teries. If your camera uses a special battery, get an extra.<br><br> Having no battery power in a digital camera is like running out of film in a regular, or analog, camera. Optical vs. Digital Zoom Optical zoom uses the camera 9s lens to zoom in on a subject.<br><br> The greater the optical zoom, the better the quality of your close-ups will be. Digital zoom magnifies pixels, mak- ing them larger, to create a close-up. With digital zoom, your close-ups will not be as sharp.<br><br> Transferring Images to Your Computer Cameras usually come with soft- ware that allows you to transfer images from the camera to your computer. Check to see how the camera 9s software will work with your computer setup. Some com- puters come with software that automatically transfers images from your camera to your computer.<br><br> Pic- tures may also be transferred to a computer with a card reader. The memory card is taken out of the camera and put into a card reader. The card reader is connected to a USB port on your computer.<br><br> You may then simply drag your picture files into a folder on your computer. Digital cameras let you see the picture right after you take it. <br><br>