INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY RENEWABLES IN GLOBAL ENERGY SUPPLY An IEA Fact Sheet January 2007 TABLE OF CONTENTS Part 1: Renewables in Global Energy Supply 2004 Part 2: Scenarios of the Evolution of Renewables to 2030 Part 3: Scenarios and Strategies of Renewables Technology to 2050 Annex I: De Þ nitions Annex II: Renewables Technology Development © OECD-IEA 2007 1 Disclaimer The Renewable Energy Fact Sheet was prepared jointly by the Energy Statistics Division and the Renewable Energy Unit of the International Energy Agency, in collaboration with the Economic Analysis Division and Energy Technology Policy Division of the Agency. This paper reU ects the views of the IEA Secretariat and may or may not reU ect the views of the individual IEA member countries. For further information on this document, please contact the Renewable Energy Unit at: firstname.lastname@example.org The purpose of the Renewable Energy Fact Sheet is to present the current status of renewable energy markets as well as the IEA scenarios for future development of these technologies.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY The International Energy Agency (IEA) is an autonomous body which was established in November 1974 within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to implement an international ... more. less.
energy programme. It carries out a comprehensive programme of energy co-operation among twenty-six of the OECD 9s thirty member countries. The basic aims of the IEA are: " To maintain and improve systems for coping with oil supply disruptions.<br><br> " To promote rational energy policies in a global context through co-operative relations with non-member countries, industry and international organisations. " To operate a permanent information system on the international oil market. " To improve the world 9s energy supply and demand structure by developing alternative energy sources and increasing the efT ciency of energy use.<br><br> " To assist in the integration of environmental and energy policies. The IEA member countries are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The European Commission takes part in the work of the IEA.<br><br> ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT The OECD is a unique forum where the governments of thirty democracies work together to address the economic, social and environmental challenges of globalisation. The OECD is also at the forefront of efforts to understand and to help governments respond to new developments and concerns, such as corporate governance, the information economy and the challenges of an ageing population. The Organisation provides a setting where governments can compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and work to co-ordinate domestic and international policies.<br><br> The OECD member countries are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The European Commission takes part in the work of the OECD. © OECD/IEA, 2007 No reproduction, copy, transmission or translation of this publication may be made without written permission.<br><br> Applications should be sent to: International Energy Agency (IEA), Head of Publications Service, 9 rue de la Fédération, 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France. © OECD-IEA 2007 2 3 © OECD-IEA 2007 Part 1 RENEWABLES IN GLOBAL ENERGY SUPPLY 2004 Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in deT nition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues.<br><br> The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The deT nitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations.<br><br> In this fact sheet, the renewables deT nition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy (see deT nitions page 23). Figure 1 represents the main fuels in the world total primary energy supply (TPES)*, with a disaggregation of the share of the main renewables categories. In 2004, renewables accounted for 13.1% of the 11 059 Mtoe of world total primary energy supply.<br><br> Combustible renewables and waste (97% of which is biomass, both commercial and non-commercial) represented 79.4% of total renewables followed by hydro (16.7%). Figure 1 " 2004 Fuel Shares of World Total Primary Energy Supply* * TPES is calculated using the IEA conventions (physical energy content methodology). It includes international marine bunkers and excludes electricity/heat trade.<br><br> The T gures include both commercial and non-commercial energy. ** Geothermal, solar, wind, tide/wave/ocean. Totals in graph might not add up due to rounding.<br><br> Source: IEA Energy Statistics Coal 25.1% Geothermal 0.414% Solar 0.039% Wind 0.064% Tide 0.0004% Nuclear 6.5% Gas 20.9% Oil 34.3% Non-renew. waste 0.2% Other** 0.5% Hydro 2.2% Combustible renewables and ren. waste 10.6% Renewables 13.1% 4 © OECD-IEA 2007 Total renewables supply experienced an annual growth rate of 2.3% over the last 33 years, marginally higher than the annual growth of 2.2% in TPES.<br><br> However, the cother d category in Figure 2 (also referred to as cnew d renewables and including geothermal, solar, wind, etc.) recorded a much higher annual growth of 8.2%. Due to a very low base in 1971 and to recent fast-growing development, wind experienced the highest increase (+48% p.a.) followed by solar (+28% p.a.). Figure 2 " Annual Growth of Renewables Supply from 1971 to 2004 2.2% 2.3% 2.1% 2.6% 8.2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% TPES Renewables CRW Hydro Other Annualgrowthrate 7.5% 28.1% 48.1% 0.3% Geo- thermal Solar Wind Tide Figure 3 " 2004 Regional Shares in Renewables Supply OECD Africa Latin America Non-OECD Asia China Former USSR Non-OECD Europe Middle East 66.1% 3.5% 0.6% 1.4% 1.8% 24.2% 7.6% 33.0% 19.2% 14.6% 0.1% 0.5% 0.7% Hydro Combustible renewables and waste Others (or "New") 26.0% 45.1% 3.1% 21.0% 6.8% 12.6% 8.8% 0.6% 2.0% * Excluding China.<br><br> Source: IEA Energy Statistics Source: IEA Energy Statistics 5 © OECD-IEA 2007 Due to the high share of biomass in total renewables, non-OECD regions like Asia, Africa and Latin America emerge as the main renewables users. The bulk of the consumption occurs in the residential sector for cooking and heating purposes. When looking at hydro and other (or cnew d) renewables (solar, wind, etc.), OECD accounts for most of the use with, respectively, 45% and 66% in 2004 (Figures 3 and 4).<br><br> Figure 4 " 2004 Global Sectoral Consumption of Renewables Figure 5 " 2004 Renewables in Electricity Production Other transformation and energy 5.6 % Other sectors 3.3% Residential, commercial and public 57.9% Electricity generation 21.9% Industry 11.3% Other* 0.8% Renewables 17.9% Oil 6.7% Coal 39.8% Gas 19.6% Nuclear 15.7% Hydro 16.1% Combustible renewables & renew. waste Non-renew. waste 0.3% Renewables are the third largest contributor to global electricity production.<br><br> They accounted for almost 18% of production in 2004, after coal (40%) and natural gas (close to 20%), but ahead of nuclear (16%), and oil (7%) and non- renewable waste. Almost 90% of electricity generated from renewables comes from hydropower plants while close to 6% comes from combustible renewables and waste. Geothermal, solar and wind have now reached 4.5% of renewable generation (Figure 5).<br><br> * Geothermal, solar, wind, tide/wave/ocean. Source: IEA Energy Statistics Source: IEA Energy Statistics 6 © OECD-IEA 2007 Impact of Past Market and Policy Trends on Renewable Energy The principle constraint in advancing renewable energy over the last few decades has been cost-effectiveness. With the exception of large hydropower, combustible biomass (for heat) and larger geothermal projects (>30 MWe), the average costs of renewable energy are generally not competitive with wholesale electricity and fossil fuel prices (Figure 6).<br><br> On the other hand, several renewable energy options for speciT c, small-scale applications can now compete in the marketplace, including hot water from solar collectors and electricity from small hydro and other technologies. The biggest challenge facing renewable energy technologies is to advance the state-of-the-art to the point where more renewable options can generate energy at costs that are competitive with conventional sources. With worldwide adoption of stricter environmental standards and guidelines for greenhouse gas emissions, it is becoming clear that renewable energy systems will be credited for their inherent advantage in lowering emissions.<br><br> These environmental beneT ts will contribute towards making the delivered costs more palatable and are already the driving force behind policy initiatives in many IEA member countries. Nevertheless, achieving substantial technology breakthroughs to improve cost-competitiveness remains a priority. In many IEA member countries, past policy initiatives to support renewable energy concentrated on research and innovation, market deployment and Power generation costs in USD cents/kWh Small hydro Solar photovoltaic Concentrating solar Biomass Geothermal Wind Retail consumer power price Wholesale power price 10 20 30 40 50 Figure 6 " Cost-competitiveness of Selected Renewable Power Technologies Source: Renewable Energy: RD&D Priorities, OECD/IEA 2006.<br><br> 7 © OECD-IEA 2007 market-based energy. It is imperative to ensure that market-oriented policies complement technology initiatives. Based on experience to date, the following observations can be made regarding deployment: !<br><br> SigniT cant market growth in renewable technologies results from a combination of policies that address speciT c barriers and/or complement existing policies. For example, in Japan, photovoltaic (PV) technology was supported by extensive RD&D investments to increase the competitiveness of the technology, through demonstration projects (to increase public awareness and acceptance), through T nancial incentives (to reduce the purchase price of PV systems) and by requiring utilities to accept, through net metering, excess power generated by PV systems at the retail price of electricity. In Spain, wind technology is supported by feed-in tariffs, low-interest loans, capital grants, and local support for manufacturing of turbines.<br><br> ! Longevity and predictability of policy support are important to overall market success. In most cases, feed-in tariffs for renewable energy sources have an eight- to twenty-year time frame.<br><br> The long-term support offered to biomass district heating plants in Austria provides an example. Conversely a 8stop 3and-go 9 policy environment does not provide a sound basis to encourage the much-needed private sector involvement. !<br><br> With the trend towards market liberalisation, early support policies for emerging renewable energy technologies must be tailored carefully to insure against the impact of a signiT cant drop in overall energy prices. Maturity of Renewable Energy Technologies Conceptually, one can deT ne three generations of renewables technologies, reaching back more than 100 years (see page 24). First-generation technologies emerged from the industrial revolution at the end of the 19th century and include hydropower, biomass combustion, and geothermal power and heat 3 some of which are still in widespread use.<br><br> Second-generation technologies include solar heating and cooling, wind power, modern forms of bioenergy, and solar photovoltaics. These are now entering markets as a result of RD&D investments by IEA member countries since the 1980s. The initial investment was prompted by energy security concerns linked to the oil price crises of that period but the enduring appeal of renewables is due, at least in part, to environmental beneT ts.<br><br> Many of the technologies reU ect revolutionary advancements in materials. Third-generation technologies are still under development and include concentrating solar power, ocean energy, enhanced geothermal systems, and integrated bioenergy systems. 8 © OECD-IEA 2007 Conclusions First-generation technologies are most competitive in locations with abundant resource endowment.<br><br> Their future use depends on the exploration of the remaining resource potential, particularly in developing countries, and on overcoming challenges related to the environment and social acceptance. Support for both RD&D and market deployment underpins the ongoing development of a second generation of renewable energy technologies. Some of these technologies are commercially available, albeit often with incentives to ensure cost reductions as a result of cmarket learning d.<br><br> In principal, market learning provides complementary improvements, as manufacturers reT ne products and manufacturing processes. Renewable energy technologies exhibit similarities in learning effects or learning ratio (i.e., the per cent decrease in cost for each doubling of installed capacity) with other technologies. Markets for these technologies are strong and growing, but only in a few countries.<br><br> The challenge is to broaden the market base to ensure continued rapid growth worldwide. Strategic deployment in one country not only reduces technology costs for users there, but also for those in other countries, contributing to overall cost reductions and performance improvement. Third-generation technologies are not yet widely demonstrated or commercialised.<br><br> They are on the horizon and may have potential comparable to other renewable energy technologies, but still depend on attracting sufT cient attention and RD&D funding. These newest technologies include advanced biomass gasiT cation, bio-reT nery technologies, concentrating solar power, hot dry rock geothermal power, and ocean energy. Advances in nanotechnology also play a major role.<br><br> As T rst- and second-generation technologies have entered the markets, third-generation technologies, such as solar concentrating power, enhanced geothermal systems, ocean energy and advanced biomass heavily depend on long term RD&D commitments, where the public sector has a role to play. Some of the second-generation renewables, such as wind, have high potential and have already realised relatively low production costs. However, issues of seasonal variability present a challenge to their grid integration.<br><br> In such cases, T rst-generation technologies, such as hydropower, can serve to level out variable sources. Together with grid improvements and more advanced load and generation management, it is reasonable to assume that renewables will form part of a much more advanced electricity supply structure in the future. Based on information collected from various sources worldwide, and noting the words of caution on page 11, the following tables give an idea of the contribution of renewables (with and without combustible renewables and waste) to total primary energy supply for over 140 countries (Table 1) and regions (Table 2).<br><br> 9 © OECD-IEA 2007 Table 1 " Selected Renewables Indicators by Country for 2004 TPES* Share of Renewables in TPES A B Mtoe % % Albania 2.4 26.3 20.0 Algeria 32.9 0.3 0.1 Angola 9.5 66.0 1.4 Argentina 63.7 7.5 4.1 Armenia 2.1 8.1 8.1 Australia 115.8 5.5 1.3 Austria 33.2 20.1 10.0 Azerbaijan 12.9 1.9 1.9 Bahrain 7.5 0.0 0.0 Bangladesh 22.8 36.2 0.5 Belarus 26.8 3.7 0.0 Belgium 57.7 1.5 0.1 Benin 2.5 65.6 0.0 Bolivia 5.0 18.4 3.8 Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.7 14.7 10.8 Botswana 1.9 24.5 0.0 Brazil 204.8 40.0 13.5 Brunei Darussalam 2.7 0.7 0.0 Bulgaria 18.9 5.2 1.4 Cameroon 6.9 82.7 4.9 Canada 269.0 15.4 10.9 Chile 27.9 22.7 7.3 People 9s Rep. of China 1609.3 15.6 1.9 Chinese Taipei 103.4 1.2 0.5 Colombia 27.7 27.4 12.5 Rep. of the Congo 1.1 64.9 3.2 Democratic Rep.<br><br> of Congo 16.6 96.0 3.5 Costa Rica 3.7 46.9 38.7 Cote d 9Ivoire 6.9 67.1 2.2 Croatia 8.8 11.1 6.8 Cuba 10.7 19.4 0.1 Cyprus 2.6 7.4 6.9 Czech Republic 45.5 3.3 0.4 Denmark 20.1 13.6 2.9 TPES* Share of Renewables in TPES A B Mtoe % % Dominican Republic 7.7 21.0 1.8 Ecuador 10.1 12.1 6.3 Egypt 56.9 4.5 2.0 El Salvador 4.5 54.6 22.0 Eritrea 0.7 64.4 0.0 Estonia 5.2 11.7 0.0 Ethiopia 21.2 91.5 1.0 Finland 38.1 23.0 3.4 France 275.2 5.9 2.0 Gabon 1.7 63.3 4.5 Georgia 2.8 41.6 18.7 Germany 348.0 3.8 1.3 Ghana 8.4 74.6 5.4 Gibraltar 0.1 0.0 0.0 Greece 30.5 5.1 2.0 Guatemala 7.6 55.7 2.8 Haiti 2.2 75.0 1.0 Honduras 3.9 45.3 5.2 Hong Kong (China) 17.1 0.3 0.0 Hungary 26.4 3.6 0.4 Iceland 3.5 72.0 72.0 India 572.9 38.8 1.3 Indonesia 174.0 30.8 3.8 Islamic Republic of Iran 145.8 1.2 0.6 Iraq 29.7 0.2 0.1 Ireland 15.2 2.1 0.7 Israel 20.7 3.5 3.5 Italy 184.5 6.1 4.6 Jamaica 4.1 12.0 0.3 Japan 533.2 3.2 2.2 Jordan 6.5 1.2 1.1 Kazakhstan 54.8 1.4 1.3 Kenya 16.9 80.8 6.7 Korea 213.0 0.5 0.2 A: Share of total renewables in TPES B: Share of renewables excluding combustible renewables and waste in TPES * Total primary energy supply calculated using the physical energy content methodology. 10 © OECD-IEA 2007 A: Share of total renewables in TPES B: Share of renewables excluding combustible renewables and waste in TPES * Total primary energy supply calculated using the physical energy content methodology. TPES* Share of Renewables in TPES A B Mtoe % % DPR of Korea 20.4 10.3 5.3 Kuwait 25.1 0.0 0.0 Kyrgyzstan 2.8 43.7 43.6 Latvia 4.6 35.9 5.9 Lebanon 5.4 4.3 1.9 Libya 18.2 0.8 0.0 Lithuania 9.2 8.0 0.4 Luxembourg 4.8 1.0 0.3 FYR of Macedonia 2.7 11.5 5.2 Malaysia 56.7 5.8 0.9 Malta 0.9 0.0 0.0 Mexico 165.5 9.8 4.8 Republic of Moldova 3.4 2.2 0.1 Morocco 11.5 5.3 1.4 Mozambique 8.6 95.8 11.7 Myanmar 14.1 74.9 1.4 Namibia 1.3 24.0 10.3 Nepal 9.1 89.0 2.2 Netherlands 82.1 2.0 0.2 Netherlands Antilles 1.7 0.0 0.0 New Zealand 17.6 29.8 24.9 Nicaragua 3.3 58.6 7.5 Nigeria 99.0 80.8 7.5 Norway 27.7 38.4 33.9 Oman 11.8 0.0 0.0 Pakistan 74.4 38.6 3.0 Panama 2.5 29.6 12.8 Paraguay 4.0 164.9 111.1 Peru 13.2 29.5 11.8 Philippines 44.3 45.6 21.6 Poland 91.7 4.7 0.2 Portugal 26.5 14.3 3.8 Qatar 18.1 0.0 0.0 Romania 38.6 12.0 3.9 Russia 641.5 2.9 2.4 Saudi Arabia 140.4 0.0 0.0 Senegal 2.8 39.8 0.9 Serbia and Montenegro 17.3 10.5 5.9 TPES* Share of Renewables in TPES A B Mtoe % % Singapore 25.6 0.0 0.0 Slovak Republic 18.3 4.0 2.0 Slovenia 7.2 11.5 4.9 South Africa 131.1 10.2 0.2 Spain 142.2 6.2 2.9 Sri Lanka 9.4 54.7 2.7 Sudan 17.6 79.7 0.5 Sweden 53.9 25.7 9.7 Switzerland 27.1 15.1 11.2 Syria 18.4 2.0 2.0 Tajikistan 3.3 43.5 43.5 United Rep.<br><br> of Tanzania 18.7 92.7 1.1 Thailand 97.1 16.9 0.5 Togo 2.7 71.1 0.5 Trinidad and Tobago 11.3 0.2 0.0 Tunisia 8.7 12.6 0.2 Turkey 81.9 13.2 6.4 Turkmenistan 15.6 0.0 0.0 Ukraine 140.3 0.9 0.7 United Arab Emirates 43.8 0.0 0.0 United Kingdom 233.7 1.5 0.3 United States 2325.9 4.2 1.5 Uruguay 2.9 29.7 14.4 Uzbekistan 54.0 1.0 1.0 Venezuela 56.2 11.7 10.7 Vietnam 50.2 50.2 3.0 Yemen 6.4 1.2 0.0 Zambia 6.9 89.6 10.5 Zimbabwe 9.3 68.9 5.1 Africa 586.0 49.0 1.4 Latin America 485.5 28.9 10.9 Asia 1289.4 31.8 2.4 China 1626.5 15.4 1.9 Non-OECD Europe 104.3 10.6 4.8 Former USSR 979.3 3.0 2.2 Middle East 479.8 0.7 0.5 OECD 5507.9 5.7 2.7 World 11058.6 13.1 2.7 Table 1 " Selected Renewables Indicators by Country for 2004 (cont.) 11 © OECD-IEA 2007 Table 2 " Key Regional Renewables Indicators for 2004 TPES* Of which Renew- ables Share of Renewables in TPES Share of the main fuel categories in total renewables Hydro Geothermal, Solar, Wind, etc. Combustible Renewables and Waste Mtoe Mtoe % % % % Africa 586 287 49.0 2.6 0.4 97.1 Latin America 486 140 28.9 36.1 1.4 62.4 Asia** 1,289 411 31.8 4.0 3.6 92.4 China*** 1,627 251 15.4 12.1 0 87.9 Non-OECD Europe 104 11 10.6 43.2 2.5 54.3 Former USSR 979 30 3.0 71.4 1.2 27.3 Middle East 480 3 0.7 43.4 24.4 32.2 OECD 5,508 315 5.7 34.6 12.0 53.4 World 11,059 1,404 13.1 16.7 4.0 79.4 A Few Words of Caution on the Use of Data on Renewables DeA nitions Statistical information on renewables varies from country to country and from organisation to organisation. Time horizon, subsidies or taxation, sustainability and environment are some elements which might lead to differences in coverage for policy or practical reasons.<br><br> For example, large hydro is sometimes excluded from renewables, while peat is sometimes included. The T gures and data presented in this fact sheet are based on the coverage and deT nitions given on page 25. Data Quality Data on biomass, more speciT cally on cnon-commercial d biomass, are often available only from secondary sources, due to the difT culty countries have in accurately monitoring the supply and consumption of biomass.<br><br> As a consequence, the quality and reliability of the data may be limited, which makes comparison between countries difT cult. The data on remote solar and wind installations are also difT cult for national administrations to collect. * Total primary energy supply calculated using the physical energy content methodology.<br><br> ** Asia excludes China. *** China includes People 9s Republic of China and Hong Kong, China. 12 © OECD-IEA 2007 Part 2 SCENARIOS OF THE EVOLUTION OF RENEWABLES TO 2030 1 The Alternative Policy Scenario The Alternative Policy Scenario presented in this year 9s World Energy Outlook expands the analysis included in previous editions.<br><br> It shows how the global energy market could evolve if countries around the world were to adopt a set of policies and measures that they are now considering and might be expected to implement over the projection period. Renewable energy contributes signiT cantly towards achieving the objectives of this scenario: reductions in CO 2 emissions and improved security of supply. Table 3 summarises the main developments related to renewable energy in the Alternative Policy Scenario.<br><br> In this scenario, the share of renewables in global energy consumption will remain largely unchanged at 14%. Traditional biomass currently accounts for 7% of world energy demand, but its share will fall as developing countries shift to modern forms of energy. World hydropower production will grow by 1.8% per year but its share will remain almost stable at around 2%.<br><br> The shares of other renewables (including geothermal, solar and wind) will increase most rapidly at 6.2% per year but because they start from a very low base (0.5% share in 2003) they will still be the smallest component of renewable energy in 2030 with a share of only 1.7% of global energy demand. 1. Based on the World Energy Outlook 2006, OECD/IEA 2006.<br><br> 2004 2030 Approximate increase (times) Electricity Generation (TWh) 3 179 7 775 >2 Hydropower 2810 4903 <2 Biomass 227 983 >4 Wind 82 1440 18 Solar 4 238 60 Geothermal 56 185 >3 Tide and Wave <1 25 46 Biofuels (Mtoe) 15 147 10 Industry and Buildings (Mtoe)** 272 539 2 Commercial biomass 261 450 <2 Solar heat 6.6 64 10 Geothermal heat 4.4 25 6 Table 3 " Global Increase in Renewable Energy * Excluding traditional biomass. Source: World Energy Outlook 2006, OECD/IEA 2006. 13 © OECD-IEA 2007 2.<br><br> The directive, adopted in 2001, calls for an increase in the share of renewables in electricity generation from 13.9% in 1997 to 22.1% in 2010 in the 15 EU countries. The target was later extended to all 25 members, with the overall target share being somewhat lower. Renewables in Electricity Generation In the Alternative Policy Scenario, renewable energy plays a major role in the global electricity mix in 2030, supplying over a quarter of total electricity.<br><br> This share was 18% in 2004. In absolute terms, electricity generation from renewable energy sources increases from 3 179 TWh to 7 775 TWh and renewable energy becomes the second largest source of electricity after coal. The projected increase is the result of new policies currently under discussion - on the assumption that these policies will be implemented- as well as the result of the extension and strengthening of policies currently in place.<br><br> Most OECD countries and an increasing number of countries outside the OECD are considering policies to increase the contribution of renewables. For the countries of the European Union, the Alternative Policy Scenario assumes that additional policies will be put in place to meet the target of the directive on the promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources. 2 There are no targets for renewables beyond 2010 at the EU level, although some countries have set national ones.<br><br> The intention, however, is to continue the shift to renewables beyond this period. In the United States, about half of the states have plans to increase the share of renewables through renewables portfolio standards. China 9s Renewable Energy Law, which came into effect in January 2006, could have a large impact on electricity generation from renewable energy sources.<br><br> In the Alternative Policy Scenario, the share of renewables increases by ten percentage points above current levels in the OECD, by four points in developing countries, and by four points in the transition economies. In the OECD, the most dramatic increase is projected for OECD Europe, where 38% of electricity is based on renewables in 2030. The share of hydropower in world electricity generation is 16% in 2030, the same as today.<br><br> Most new hydropower plants are built in developing countries, where the unexploited potential is still large. In many of these countries, there is now renewed interest in hydropower (see Box on page 14). World hydropower capacity reaches 1 431 GW in 2030, compared with 851 GW now.<br><br> Hydropower capacity in China increases from 105 GW in 2004 to 298 GW in 2030. In India, it increases from 31 GW to 105 GW. Electricity generated from biomass, wind, solar, geothermal and tide and wave power reaches 2 872 TWh in 2030, almost eight times higher than now and their share in total generation grows from 2% now to 10% in 2030.<br><br> The largest increase is in OECD Europe, where non-hydro renewables are projected to supply 22% of electricity needs by 2030 (Figure 7). Most of the growth is in wind power and biomass, the most competitive among the different renewable energy sources. These substantial increases reU ect new policies aiming to support the development of renewables as well as cost reductions resulting from technological learning.<br><br> 14 © OECD-IEA 2007 Prospects for Hydropower in Developing Countries Over the past T fteen years, many large hydropower projects in developing countries have been adversely affected by concerns over the environmental and social effects of building large dams. Obtaining loans from international lending institutions and banks to T nance such projects has become more difT cult. Consequently, many projects have been delayed or cancelled.<br><br> Five years ago, hydropower was the world 9s second-largest source of electricity; now it ranks fourth. The remaining potential in developing countries is still very large. Several developing countries are focusing again on this domestic source of electricity, driven by a rapidly expanding demand for electricity, by the need to reduce poverty and to diversify the electricity mix.<br><br> Support from international lenders and interest from the private sector is also growing. There is a strong consensus now that countries should follow an integrated approach in managing their water resources, planning hydropower development in co-operation with other water-using sectors. There is signiT cant scope for optimising the current infrastructure.<br><br> The majority of reservoirs has been developed for water supply, primarily irrigation. Only about 25% of reservoirs worldwide have any associated hydropower facilities. Properly managed, hydropower could help restrain the growth in emissions from burning fossil fuels.<br><br> In Brazil, for example, where more than 80% of electricity is hydropower, the power sector accounts for just 10% of the country 9s total CO 2 emissions, four times less than the world average. Figure 7 " Shares of non-Hydro Renewable Energy in Electricity Generation by Region Source: World Energy Outlook 2006, OECD/IEA 2006. Africa OECD Europe Other developing Asia India China OECD North America Brazil World Transition economies OECD Pacific 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 2030 2004 15 © OECD-IEA 2007 Biofuels Globally, the share of biofuels in road transport increases from 1% today to 7% in 2030.<br><br> Total biofuel consumption increases tenfold, from 15.5 Mtoe in 2004 to 146.7 Mtoe in 2030. The biggest increases in biofuels consumption occur in the United States - already the world 9s biggest biofuel consumer -, in Europe, in developing Asia and in Brazil. Biofuels-use outside these regions remains modest (Table 4).<br><br> Ethanol is expected to account for most of the increase in biofuels use worldwide, as production costs are expected to fall faster than those of biodiesel 3 the other main biofuel. Trade grows, but its share of world supply remains small. Production is assumed to be based entirely on conventional crops and technology.<br><br> 2004 2030 Demand (Mtoe) % in Road Transport Demand (Mtoe) % in Road Transport OECD 8.9 0.9% 84.2 7.2% North America 7.0 1.1% 45.7 6.4% United States 6.8 1.3% 42.9 7.3% Europe 2.0 0.7% 35.6 11.8% PaciT c 0.0 0.0% 2.9 1.9% Transition economies 0.0 0.0% 0.5 0.6% Developing countries 6.5 1.5% 62.0 6.9% China 0.0 0.0% 13.0 4.5% India 0.0 0.0% 4.5 8.0% Other developing Asia 0.1 0.0% 21.5 4.6% Brazil 6.4 13.7% 23.0 30.2% World 15.5 1.0% 146.7 6.8% European Union 2.0 0.7% 35.6 11.8% Table 4 " Biofuels Demand in Road Transport, by Region Source: World Energy Outlook 2006, OECD/IEA 2006. About 14 million hectares of land are currently used for the production of biofuels 3 about 1% of the world 9s available arable land. This share rises to 3.5% in the Alternative Policy Scenario.<br><br> Rising food demand, which will compete with biofuels for existing arable and pasture land, will constrain the potential for biofuels output, but this may be at least partially offset by higher agricultural yields. 16 © OECD-IEA 2007 Renewables for Heat Production The industry and buildings sector consumed about 1 040 Mtoe of renewable energy in 2004. The bulk of it, some 770 Mtoe was traditional biomass in developing countries.<br><br> Most of the remainder was commercial biomass used for heat production, in addition to 6.6 Mtoe of solar heat and 4.4 Mtoe of geothermal energy. Commercial biomass use is projected to increase from 261 Mtoe in 2004 to 450 Mtoe in 2030. Solar heat (solar water heaters) is projected to reach 64 Mtoe and geothermal heat 25 Mtoe.<br><br> Most of the increase will be in the OECD. Beyond the Alternative Policy Scenario Although the policies and measures in the Alternative Policy Scenario would substantially improve energy security and reduce energy-related CO 2 emissions fossil fuels would still account for 77% of primary energy demand. Global CO 2 emissions would still be 8 Gt higher in 2030 than they are today.<br><br> A Beyond the Alternative Policy Scenario (BAPS) Case responds to requests by policy-makers to illustrate the potential for achieving still more ambitious emissions reductions through stronger policies and more favourable technological development, and to analyse the obstacles and the implications for energy security. The goal adopted in this Case, as a proxy for more diverse energy objectives, is to ensure that global energy-related CO 2 emissions in 2030 are no higher than the 2004 level of 26.1 Gt. This means reducing emissions in 2030 by 8 Gt more than in the Alternative Policy Scenario, which would require major changes in energy supply and use.<br><br> Achieving the BAPS goal will almost certainly call for new technologies as well as improvements to those that exist. Of the existing technologies that are currently under development but not yet commercially available, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and second-generation biofuels seem the most promising. To illustrate the potential of additional emissions reductions, six different initiatives are identiT ed, each of which can yield a saving of 1 Gt of CO 2 emissions, and then add a seventh, CO 2 capture and storage in power generation, which could save 2 Gt, in order to arrive at cumulative savings of 8 Gt beyond those made in the Alternative Policy Scenario in 2030.<br><br> The mix of options is presented in Figure 8. It is not necessarily the cheapest, nor the easiest strategy to implement politically or technically. But it is consistent with even more ambitious emissions reductions beyond 2030.<br><br> Renewable energy plays a greater role in BAPS. An additional 550 TWh of hydropower and 550 TWh of other renewables-based generation would need to be commissioned, each saving 0.5 Gt of CO 2 emissions. With such additions, renewables-based generation represents a 32% share of electricity generated in 2030, as compared with 26% in the Alternative Policy Scenario.<br><br> Policies 17 © OECD-IEA 2007 could include research and development to bring down costs, renewable portfolio standards or feed-in tariffs, and loan guarantees to reduce the cost of capital. Biofuels consumption rises to 295 Mtoe in 2030, double the level projected in the Alternative Policy Scenario. Given the constraints on land and biomass availability, this higher level of penetration of biofuels could only be achieved through the large-scale introduction of second-generation biofuels based on lingo-cellulosic feedstock.<br><br> Policies to encourage this could include increased research and development, incentives for construction and operation of bioreT neries and minimum requirements for biofuels in conventional fuel blends. Figure 8 " Reduction in Energy-related CO 2 Emissions in the BAPS Case Compared with the Alternative Policy Scenario by Option Source: World Energy Outlook 2006, OECD/IEA 2006. Gt of CO 2 0 1 BAPS additional reduction goal of 8 Gt of CO 2 3 4 5 6 8 2 7 CCS in power generation 2 Gt Biofuels and hybrids 1 Gt Efficiency of power plants 1 Gt Efficiency and CCS in industry 1 Gt Efficiency of electricity use 1 Gt Nuclear power-plants 1 Gt Renewables-based generation 1 Gt 18 © OECD-IEA 2007 Part 3 SCENARIOS AND STRATEGIES OF RENEWABLES TECHNOLOGY TO 2050 3 The IEA Accelerated Technology (ACT) scenarios investigate the potential of energy technologies and best practices aimed at reducing energy demand and emissions, and diversifying energy sources.<br><br> The scenarios focus on technologies which exist today or which are likely to become commercially available in the next two decades. The results of the ACT scenarios illustrate the impact of a wide range of policies and measures that overcome barriers to the adoption of these technologies. In addition to the ACT scenarios, a scenario with more optimistic assumptions about the rate at which certain technological barriers are overcome, the TECH Plus scenario, is considered.<br><br> In the ACT scenarios, policies and measures are assumed to be put in place that would lead to the adoption of low-carbon technologies with a cost of up to USD 25 per tonne of CO 2 . The ACT scenarios are based on the incentives being in place from 2030 in all countries, including developing countries. The incentives could take many forms 2 such as regulation, pricing, tax breaks, voluntary programmes, subsidies or trading schemes.<br><br> The T ve ACT scenarios, each of which assumes the same set of core efforts and policies described above, vary only in that they assume different rates of progress in overcoming technological barriers, achieving cost reductions and winning public acceptance for a technology. The technology areas where different assumptions are made are: (1) the progress in cost reductions for renewable power generation technologies; (2) constraints on the development of nuclear power plants; (3) the risk that CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) technologies will not be commercialised by 2050; and (4) the effectiveness of policies to increase the adoption of energy efT cient end-use technologies (Table 5). 3.<br><br> Based on the Energy Technology Perspectives - Scenarios and Strategies to 2050 , OECD/IEA 2006 Renewables Nuclear CCS H 2 Fuel Cells Advanced Biofuels End-use EfA ciency Scenario Map Low Renewables Pessimistic Low Nuclear Pessimistic No CCS No CCS Low EfT ciency Pessimistic TECH Plus Optimistic Optimistic Optimistic Optimistic Optimistic Table 5 " Overview of Scenario Assumptions for ACT and TECH Plus Scenarios Source: Energy Technology Perspectives 2006, OECD/IEA 2006. 19 © OECD-IEA 2007 4. Oil refers to primary oil supply and therefore excludes the synfuel produced from coal-to-liquids and gas-to-liquids.<br><br> The primary energy consumption from producing these fuels is reported under coal and gas. 5. 2003 is the latest year for which the IEA had detailed statistics on CO 2 emissions from energy use at the time Energy Technology Perspectives 2006 went to press.<br><br> Table 6 " Changes in Primary Energy Supply by Fuel in the Map, No CCS 4 Map Scenario No CCS TECH Plus (difference from Baseline Scenario in 2050) (%) (Mtoe) (%) (Mtoe) (%) (Mtoe) Coal -61 -4 620 -72 -5 421 -65 -4 878 Oil -20 -1 209 -21 -1 237 -36 -2 165 Gas -30 -1 602 -25 -1 360 -31 -1 651 Nuclear 72 585 85 687 156 1 264 Hydro 11 41 9 36 14 51 Renewables 71 1 455 78 1 599 137 2 822 Total -24 -5 350 -26 -5 696 -21 -4 556 Source: Energy Technology Perspectives 2006, OECD/IEA 2006. In the Baseline Scenario, the growth in CO 2 emissions continues through to 2050, reaching 58 Gt. CO 2 emissions in 2050 - an unsustainable 137% higher than in 2003.<br><br> SigniT cant CO 2 emissions reductions are achieved in all of the ACT scenarios. In the Map scenario, emissions almost return to the 2006 level by 2050, or 6% higher than in 2003. 5 In the four remaining ACT scenarios 3 Low Nuclear, Low Renewables, No CCS and Low EfT ciency 3 CO 2 emissions are higher than in the Map scenario, ranging between 9% and 27% above the 2003 level.<br><br> Only in the TECH Plus scenario are CO 2 emissions lower in 2050 than in 2003. In this scenario, more optimistic assumptions about reductions in the cost of nuclear, renewables, hydrogen fuel cells and the production of ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks lead to greater use of these technologies and fuels. It is also the only scenario where there is signiT cant penetration of hydrogen.<br><br> CO 2 emissions in this scenario are 21% below the Map scenario and 16% below 2003 levels by 2050. In the Baseline Scenario, total primary energy supply (TPES) grows 110% between 2003 and 2050. In the Map scenario, primary energy use in 2050 is only 58% higher than in 2003, at 16 762 Mtoe.<br><br> This is 24% lower than that in the Baseline Scenario in 2050. Primary energy use varies little among the ACT scenarios, except in the Low EfT ciency scenario where it is 14.6% higher. Hydro energy use doubles compared to 2003 levels.<br><br> Most of this growth is already included in the Baseline scenario. Other renewables increase by 71 to 137%, compared to the Baseline (Table 6). 20 © OECD-IEA 2007 Increased use of renewables in power generation contributes 9% of the emissions reduction in the Map scenario and 16% in the No CCS scenario.<br><br> Assuming more modest cost declines for renewables, as in the Low Renewables scenario, means the share of reductions from renewable generation technologies falls to 5%. In 2050, the share of renewables in industry increases from 8% in the Baseline Scenario to 12% in the Map scenario. In the buildings sector, the increase in the renewables share is from 15% to 18%.<br><br> Most of the increase in the buildings sector is due to the increased use of solar hot water heating systems. The greater efT ciency of biomass use, particularly in developing countries, in the ACT scenarios allows greater energy service demands to be met from an equivalent quantity of biomass. In the transport sector, biofuels and fuel cells using hydrogen offer two of the few opportunities to reduce the carbon intensity of the sector.<br><br> The contribution to CO 2 emissions reductions from the increased use of biofuels in transport is around 6% in all the ACT scenarios. In the TECH Plus scenario, biofuels 9 share of CO 2 emissions savings is 0.6 percentage points higher, saving 500 Mt of CO 2 more than in the Map scenario. Electricity production from biomass and other combustible renewables increases signiT cantly from current levels both in the Baseline Scenario and in the ACT scenarios.<br><br> By 2050, the biomass share of electricity output is 2% in the Baseline Scenario, 3% in the Low Renewables scenario and around 4.5% in all other ACT scenarios. In the TECH Plus scenario, the share of biomass reaches 5.1% in 2050. Other renewables, which includes wind, solar, geothermal, tidal and wave, are the area of electricity production that grows the fastest, although they start from a very low base.<br><br> By 2050, electricity production from other renewables Figure 9 " Global Electricity Production by Fuel and Scenario, 2003, 2030 and 2050 Source: Energy Technology Perspectives 2006, OECD/IEA 2006. 2003 Baseline 2030 (WEO 2005) Baseline 2050 Map Low renewables Low nuclear Low efficiency No CCS TECH Plus 2050 TWh Other renewables Biomass Hydro Nuclear Gas Oil Coal-CCS Coal 0 10 000 20 000 30 000 40 000 50 000 ACT scenarios 2050 21 © OECD-IEA 2007 in the Baseline Scenario reaches 1 800 TWh, up from 113 TWh in 2003. In the Map scenario, the production from these renewable sources is twice that of the Baseline level in 2050 and even higher in the other ACT scenarios.<br><br> One exception is the Low Renewables scenario, where more pessimistic assumptions on future cost reductions for this category of renewables leads to production being just 10% higher than the Baseline level in 2050. Wind is by far the most important generation source in this category. In the Map scenario, wind accounts for about two-thirds of the 3 620 TWh generation from other renewables.<br><br> The remaining share is split almost equally between solar and geothermal, with a very minor contribution from tidal and wave power. In the TECH Plus scenario, the more optimistic assumptions for cost improvements, particularly for wind and solar, cause electricity generation from other renewable sources to grow at 8% per year on average between 2003 and 2050 to reach 4 869 TWh in 2050, or 15% of total electricity generation. In the Map scenario, total transport energy demand in 2050 is 17% or 767 Mtoe below the Baseline scenario, while in the TECH Plus scenario, fuel savings reach 1 011 Mtoe in 2050, or a 23% reduction from the Baseline level.<br><br> Biofuel production grows signiT cantly in the ACT scenarios. Biofuels 9 share of transport demand increases to 13% in 2050 in the Map scenario and to almost 25% in the more optimistic TECH Plus scenario (Figure 10). Figure 10 " Global Use of Hydrogen and Biofuels, by Scenario 2003 - 2050 Source: Energy Technology Perspectives 2006, OECD/IEA 2006.<br><br> Hydrogen Biofuels 0 200 400 600 800 1 000 1 200 1 400 Baseline 2050 Baseline 2030 (WEO 2005) ACT Map 2050 TECH Plus 2050 2003 Mtoe The increase in renewables use in the ACT scenarios is affordable. For example in the power sector the additional investment costs for renewable, nuclear and CCS plants are to a large extent offset by avoided investment in fossil-fuel generation capacity. These avoided investments depend on two factors: T rst, signiT cant demand-side savings reduce the need to build new capacity; second, some of the fossil-fuel-based capacity built in the Baseline is replaced by other capacity in the Map scenario.<br><br> Additional investments in renewables technologies amount to 22 © OECD-IEA 2007 USD 7.4 trillion but the total additional power generation investment cost compared to Baseline amounts only to USD 3.6 trillion over the period 2005 to 2050, or about USD 80 billion per year. If energy efT ciency did not reduce electricity demand below the Baseline Scenario, then the additional cumulative investment needs would be about USD 4.1 trillion higher. In the Map scenario, the total deployment costs or clearning investments d for renewables amount to USD 720 billion over the period 2005-2050, or about USD 16 billion per year.<br><br> This is less than 10% of the USD 9.8 trillion additional investment costs in renewables, nuclear and CCS technologies. However, most of the deployment support will be needed over the next two to three decades and would thus represent a signiT cant investment which would have to be borne, at least to some degree, by governments. With a 3% discount rate, the net costs for the electricity sector in the Map scenario would be around the same level as in the Baseline, while the net cost would be about USD 5 trillion higher with a 10% discount rate.<br><br> This illustrates, to a large extent, that the additional investment costs in the ACT scenarios can be regarded as transitional, leading to signiT cant economic as well as environmental and security beneT ts in the longer term. 23 © OECD-IEA 2007 Annex I DEFINITIONS Renewables include the following categories: Combustible Renewables and Waste (CRW) 6 : Solid Biomass : Covers organic, non-fossil material of biological origin which may be used as fuel for heat production or electricity generation. Wood, Wood Waste, Other Solid Waste : Covers purpose-grown energy crops (poplar, willow etc.), a multitude of woody materials generated by an industrial process (wood/paper industry in particular) or provided directly by forestry and agriculture (T rewood, wood chips, bark, sawdust, shavings, chips, black liquor etc.) as well as wastes such as straw, rice husks, nut shells, poultry litter, crushed grape dregs etc.<br><br> Charcoal : Covers the solid residue of the destructive distillation and pyrolysis of wood and other vegetal material. Biogas : Gases composed principally of methane and carbon dioxide produced by anaerobic digestion of biomass and combusted to produce heat and/or power. Liquid Biofuels : Bio-based liquid fuel from biomass transformation, mainly used in transportation applications.<br><br> Municipal Waste (renewables) 6 : Municipal waste energy comprises wastes produced by the residential, commercial and public services sectors and incinerated in speciT c installations to produce heat and/or power. The renewable energy portion is deT ned by the energy value of combusted biodegradable material. Hydropower : Potential and kinetic energy of water converted into electricity in hydroelectric plants.<br><br> It includes large as well as small hydro, regardless of the size of the plants. Geothermal Energy : Energy available as heat emitted from within the earth 9s crust, usually in the form of hot water or steam. It is exploited at suitable sites for electricity generation after transformation, or directly as heat for district heating, agriculture, etc.<br><br> Solar Energy : Solar radiation exploited for hot water production and electricity generation. Does not account for passive solar energy for direct heating, cooling and lighting of dwellings or other. Wind Energy : Kinetic energy of wind exploited for electricity generation in wind turbines.<br><br> Tide/Wave/Ocean Energy : Mechanical energy derived from tidal movement, wave motion or ocean current, and exploited for electricity generation. 6. Some of the waste (the non-biodegradable part of the waste) is not considered renewables as such.<br><br> However, proper breakdown between renewables and non-renewables is not always available. 24 © OECD-IEA 2007 First-generation Technologies Hydropower Hydropower is an extremely U exible technology from the perspective of power grid operation. Large hydropower provides one of the lowest cost options in today 9s energy market, primarily because most plants were built many years ago and their facility costs have been fully amortised.<br><br> Capital costs for new large plants in IEA member countries are about USD 2 400/MW, with generating costs in the range of USD 0.03/kWh to USD 0.04/kWh. The technical potential of small hydropower capacity worldwide is estimated at 150 GW to 200 GW. Small hydropower costs are in the range of USD 0.02/kWh to USD 0.06/kWh; the lowest costs occur in good resource areas.<br><br> Once the high up-front capital costs are written off, plants can provide power at even lower cost levels, as such systems commonly operate without major replacement costs for 50 years or more. At present, only 5% of the global hydropower potential has been exploited through small-scale sites. The principal barriers to exploiting more fully small hydro capacity worldwide, are access to transmission systems and environmental and social concerns.<br><br> Biomass Combustion Biomass combustion for heat and power is a fully mature technology. It offers both an economic fuel option and a ready disposal mechanism of municipal, agricultural and industrial organic wastes. However, the industry has remained relatively stagnant over the last decade, even though demand for biomass (mostly wood) continues to grow in many developing countries.<br><br> One of the problems of biomass is that material directly combusted in cook stoves produces pollutants, leading to severe health and environmental consequences; although improved cook stove programmes are alleviating some of these effects. A second issue is that burning biomass emits CO 2 , even though biomass combustion is generally considered to be ccarbon-neutral d because carbon is absorbed by plant material during its growth, thus creating a carbon cycle. First-generation biomass technologies can be economically competitive, but may still require deployment support to overcome public acceptance and small-scale issues.<br><br> Geothermal Power and Heat Geothermal power plants can operate 24 hours per day, providing base-load capacity. In fact, world potential capacity for geothermal power generation Annex II RENEWABLES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 25 © OECD-IEA 2007 is estimated at 85 GW over the next 30 years. The costs of geothermal energy have dropped substantially from the systems built in the 1970s.<br><br> Generation costs at current plants in the United States are as low as USD 0.015/kWh to USD 0.025/kWh. New construction can deliver power at USD 0.05/kWh to USD 0.08/kWh, depending on the quality of the resource. However, geothermal power is accessible only in limited areas of the world, the largest being the United States, Central America, Indonesia, East Africa and the Philippines.<br><br> Challenges to expanding geothermal energy include very long project development times, and the risk and cost of exploratory drilling. Geothermal heat generation can be competitive in many countries producing geothermal electricity, or in other regions where the resource is of a lower temperature. Second-generation Technologies Solar Heating and Cooling Solar thermal collectors are already widely used in certain countries, primarily for hot water production.<br><br> Various technologies are becoming more widely used, such as unglazed, glazed and evacuated tube water collectors, which have market shares of 30%, 50% and 20%, respectively. In principle, larger systems can be used for residential space heating and 3 in combination with absorption heat pumps 3 for cooling. However signiT cant cost reductions are needed before the latter application will become cost-effective.<br><br> Wind Energy Wind technology has become very reliable, operating with availabilities of more than 98% and having a design life of 20 years or more. Moreover, as the costs of wind turbines have steadily declined, technical reliability has increased. The factors that currently limit wind energy 9s market penetration include variability, public acceptance and grid reliability.<br><br> However, recent developments in electricity market reform, which promote better grid integration and improved management of natural cycles of renewables, diminish the technological barriers that have constrained market penetration. In the area of wind energy, continued RD&D is essential to provide the necessary reductions in cost and uncertainty to realise the anticipated level of deployment. Other RD&D priorities include increasing the value of forecasting power performance, reducing uncertainties related to engineering integrity, improvement and validation of standards, reducing the cost of storage techniques, enabling large-scale use, and minimising environmental impacts.<br><br> Further expansion of wind power will promote signiT cant reductions in 26 © OECD-IEA 2007 greenhouse gases. With further deployment support, wind power may become generally competitive with conventional technologies by 2015-20; off-shore wind will likely become competitive to a degree after that. Solar Photovoltaics The photovoltaic (PV) market has grown extensively since 1992.<br><br> RD&D efforts, together with market deployment policies, have effectively produced impressive cost reductions: every doubling of the volume produced prompted a cost decrease of about 20%. But market deployment is concentrated: Japan, Germany and the United States account for over 85% of total installed capacity. PV still requires substantial RD&D investments, as well as deployment supports, to gain market learning.<br><br> In the near term, RD&D efforts will focus on improving the balance-of-system components for both grid connected and stand-alone applications. Even with these supports, PV is not expected to be generally competitive until after 2020 3 although it will continue to compete well in a growing range of market niches in which the cost of deployment supports is moderate. Modern Forms of Bioenergy More modern forms of bioenergy include biomass-based power and heat generation, co-T ring, biofuels for transport and short rotation crops for energy feedstocks.<br><br> These are more advanced and each has its own unique beneT ts. Biomass is attractive for use either as a stand-alone fuel or in fuel blends, such as co-T ring wood with coal, or mixing ethanol or biodiesel with conventional petroleum-based fuels. Anaerobic digestion has strong potential in countries with ample resources.<br><br> Electricity generated from biomass is based on steam turbine technology. Many regions of the world still have large untapped supplies of biomass residues, which could be converted into competitively priced electricity using steam turbine power plants. Co-T ring is a low-cost and low-risk way of adding biomass capacity.<br><br> Co-T ring systems that use low-cost biomass supply can have payback periods as short as two years. In addition, biomass can substitute up to 15% of the total energy input in a power plant, often with few modiT cations other than the burner and feed intake systems. Co-T ring is of particular interest in developing countries, because it improves the economic and ecological quality of many older, coal- T red power plants.<br><br> Biofuels from agricultural biomass production is another well-developed conversion technology. Biomass grown as dedicated energy crops can provide new economic opportunities for farmers and forest owners. The primary barriers to increased use of biomass on a larger scale are the cost of systems required for dedicated feedstock production, harvesting, and transportation, as well as the fuel conversion technologies.<br><br> With further RD&D and deployment support in 2020-30, these technologies could achieve commercialisation. 27 © OECD-IEA 2007 Third-generation Technologies Concentrating Solar Power Three types of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies support electricity production based on thermodynamic processes: parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes and solar central receivers. The cost of power generated with these up- to-date technologies is between USD 0.10/kWh and USD 0.15/kWh.<br><br> Current RD&D efforts concentrate on parabolic trough technology. To achieve progress, much larger resources are needed than what is currently offered in public programmes. Optimal conditions for CSP are an arid or semi-arid climate, limiting its usefulness to southern Europe, north and southern Africa, the Middle East, western India, western Australia, the Andean Plateau, north-eastern Brazil, northern Mexico and the US Southwest.<br><br> Ocean Energy Over the last 20 years, ocean energy technology received relatively little RD&D funding. However, there is renewed interest in the technology, and several concepts now envisage full-scale demonstration prototypes around the British coast. But ocean energy technologies must still solve two major problems concurrently: proving the energy conversion potential and overcoming a very high technical risk from a harsh environment.<br><br> Other non-technical barriers include resource assessment, energy production forecasting and design tools, test and measurement standards, environmental impacts, arrays of farms of ocean energy systems, and dual-purpose plants that combine energy and other structures. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Enhanced geothermal systems, known as hot dry rock, utilise new techniques to exploit resources that would have been uneconomical in the past. These systems are still in the research phase, and require additional RD&D for new approaches and to improve conventional approaches, as well as to develop smaller modular units that will allow economies of scale on the manufacturing level.<br><br> Several technical issues need further government-funded research and close collaboration with industry in order to make exploitation of geothermal resources more economically attractive for investors. These are mainly related to exploration of reservoirs, drilling and power generation technology, particularly for the exploitation of low-temperature cycles. Integrated Bioenergy Systems The biomass integrated gasiT er/gas turbine (BIG/GT) is not yet commercially employed, but substantial demonstration and commercialisation efforts are 28 © OECD-IEA 2007 ongoing worldwide, and global interest is likely to lead to market deployment within a few years.<br><br> Overall economics of biomass-based power generation should improve considerably with BIG/GT systems as opposed to steam turbine systems. The bioreT nery concept for biomass feedstocks also has potential to meet a large proportion of future energy demand, particularly once dedicated crops tailored to bioreT nery requirements are developed. Current RD&D efforts focus on reducing the costs of dedicated plantations, mitigating potential environmental impacts of bio-reT neries and creating an integrated bioenergy industry that links bioenergy resources with the production of a variety of other energy and material products.<br><br> RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICIES AND MEASURES ON A GLOBAL SCALE The Global Renewable Energy Policies and Measures Database is an initiative led by the International Energy Agency, and is being implemented in collaboration with the European Commission and the Johannesburg Renewable Energy Coalition. The Database features over 100 countries and offers renewable energy market and policy information in one format in one location for countries that together represent almost total global renewables supply. The Database is freely accessible online via the IEA website.<br><br> Visitors can search for information according to country, policy instrument, renewable energy technology, renewable energy target and other criteria. This online searchable database is part of a continued effort by the International Energy Agency to contribute to the international dialogue on renewable energy by providing unbiased information and analysis for the use by decision-makers, policy experts, researchers and industry, as well the broader public. http://renewables.iea.org © OECD-IEA 2007 29 The International Energy Agency supports the development of renewable technologies through its Renewable Energy Working Party (REWP) and nine international Implementing Agreements (IAs).<br><br> Details and contacts for these agreements can be found on: http://www.iea.org/Textbase/techno/technologies/renew.asp INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Detailed historical data on renewables and other energy fuels are published in several annual IEA statistics books: The IEA also publishes books on coal, electricity, gas and oil as well as on CO 2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion and on Energy Prices and Taxes. The full time series are available on CD Roms as well as on the internet. Renewables Information 2006 presents a detailed and comprehensive picture of developments for renewable and waste energy sources for each of the 30 OECD Member countries, encompassing energy indicators, generating capacity and heat production from renewable and waste sources, as well as production and consumption of renewable and waste products.<br><br> It also includes a selection of indicators for over 100 non-OECD countries and regions. This publication reviews the current status of the portfolio of renewable energy technologies and provides guidance on their mid- and long-term development. The study explores the options for the RD&D to achieve breakthroughs that will lead to large-scale markets and identifies what activities should take priority.<br><br> Moreover, the IEA publishes a wide range of information on renewables, including information on the most recent technology on renewables energy on its website. 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