Introduction to Energy Table of Contents Introduction to Energy Table of Contents Introduction to Energy Introduction to Energy Fun Facts Energy Fact Sheet Renewable Energy Non-Renewable Energy A Sustainable Energy Future Web Sites Glossary Equipment Sources Primary/Elementary Activities Motion: Circle the Pictures Energy and Machines: Picture Activities Energy Picture Active Energy Game (Outside or in Gym) Energy Source Puzzle Sun Word Find Sun Word Find Answers Wasted Energy Word Scramble Wasted Energy Word Scramble Answers Einstein Word Scramble Einstein Word Scramble Answers Clothes Drying Word Scramble Clothes Drying Word Scramble Answers Middle School Activities Ben Franklin Connect-the-Dots Types of Fuel Word Find Types of Fuel Word Find Answers End-Use of Energy Word Find End-Use of Energy Word Find Answers Women Scientist Quote Puzzle Women Scientist Quote Puzzle Answers Famous Scientist Quote Puzzle Famous Scientist Quote Puzzle Answers Energy Cryptogram #1 Energy Cryptogram #1 Answers Energy Cryptogram #2 Energy Cryptogram #2 Answers Energy Cryptogram #3 Energy Cryptogram #3 Answers Seek-A-Word Seek-A-Word Answers Test Your Energy IQ Test Your Energy IQ Answers High School Activities Seek-A-Word Seek-A-Word Answers Test Your Energy IQ Test Your Energy IQ Answers The children of Alabama are the decision-makers of tomorrow. Yet they are capable of influencing ... more. less.
their families and peers right now. The goal of Maximum Power: 4-H Energy is to harness our children 9s energy to influence others to use e nergy wisely 4 now and in the future.<br><br> The efforts of a dedicated group of adults have contributed to the curricula and teaching kits designed to provide our children with science-based information and activities. The editors appreciate the efforts of: Curriculum Formatting Team Pam Belsom, Auburn University Graduate Extension Assistant Charlotte DeWeese, Auburn University Temporary Employment Services Betty Gottler, 4-H Regional Extension Agent/Program Coordinator Richard Hambley, Extension Specialist, Art Design Field-Testing Team Marian Beck, 4-H Regional Extension Agent Katernia Cole, Colbert County Extension Agent Jay Conway, 4-H Regional Extension Agent Janet Lovelady, Lauderdale County Agent Assistant David Perry, 4-H Regional Extension Agent Kerri Roberts, Cullman County Agent Assistant Materials Acquisition & Assembly Team Opelika Home Depot at Tigertown Lamar Nichols, Extension Assistant Director, 4-H & Youth Development Members of the Alpha Phi Omega Service Fraternity: Bryan Andress Mark Bransby James Brock Jason Moon Mark Nugent Casey Page Ross Spafford Emily Kling and David Self January, 2008 Introduction to Energy Edited by Emily B. Kling, Ed.D.<br><br> Extension Specialist, 4-H & Youth Development and David R. Self, M.S. 4-H Energy Educator Alabama Cooperative Extension System Funding through the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Energy, Weatherization and Technology Division, Bob Riley, Governor.<br><br> This publication was prepared with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grant No. DE-FG26-05R410960 .<br><br> However, any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of DOE. Introduction to Energy Introduction to Energy Energy is one of the most fundamental parts of our universe. We use energy to do work.<br><br> Energy lights our cities. Energy powers our vehicles, trains, planes and rock- ets. Energy warms our homes, cooks our food, plays our music, gives us pictures on television.<br><br> Energy powers machinery in factories and tractors on a farm. Energy from the sun gives us light during the day. It dries our clothes when they're hanging outside on a clothes line.<br><br> It helps plants grow. Energy stored in plants is eaten by animals, giving them energy. And predator animals eat their prey, which gives the predator animal energy.<br><br> Everything we do is connected to energy in one form or another. Energy is defined as: "the ability to do work." When we eat, our bodies transform the energy stored in the food into energy to do work. When we run or walk, we "burn" food energy in our bodies.<br><br> When we think or read or write, we are also doing work. Many times it's really hard work! Cars, planes, light bulbs, boats and machinery also transform energy into work.<br><br> Work means moving something, lifting something, warming something, lighting something. All these are a few of the various types of work. But where does energy come from?<br><br> There are many sources of energy. We will look at the energy that makes our world work. Energy is an important part of our daily lives.<br><br> The forms of energy we will look at include: Electricity Biomass Energy - energy from plants Geothermal Energy Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil and Natural Gas Hydro Power and Ocean Energy Nuclear Energy Solar Energy Wind Energy Transportation Energy What is Energy? Energy causes things to happen around us. Look out the window.<br><br> During the day, the sun gives out light and heat energy. At night, street lamps use electrical energy to light our way. When a car drives by, it is being powered by gasoline, a type of stored energy.<br><br> The food we eat contains energy. We use that energy to work and play. We learned the definition of energy in the introduction: Energy Is the Ability to Do Work.<br><br> Energy can be found in a number of different forms. It can be chemical energy, electrical energy, heat (thermal energy), light (radiant energy), mechanical energy, and nuclear energy. Stored and Moving Energy Energy makes everything happen and can be divided into two types: Stored energy is called potential energy.<br><br> Moving energy is called kinetic energy. With a pencil, try this example to know the two types of energy. Put the pencil at the edge of the desk and push it off to the floor.<br><br> The moving pencil uses kinetic energy. Now, pick up the pencil and put it back on the desk. You used your own energy to lift and move the pen- cil.<br><br> Moving it higher than the floor adds energy to it. As it rests on the desk, the pencil has potential en- ergy. The higher it is, the further it could fall.<br><br> That means the pencil has more potential energy. How Do We Measure Energy? Energy is measured in many ways.<br><br> One of the basic measuring blocks is called a Btu. This stands for British thermal unit and was invented by, of course, the English. Btu is the amount of heat energy it takes to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit, at sea level.<br><br> One Btu equals about one blue-tip kitchen match. One thousand Btus roughly equals: One average candy bar or 4/5 of a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. It takes about 2,000 Btus to make a pot of coffee.<br><br> Energy also can be measured in joules. Joules sounds exactly like the word jewels, as in diamonds and emeralds. A thousand joules is equal to a British thermal unit.<br><br> 1,000 joules = 1 Btu So, it would take 2 million joules to make a pot of coffee. The term "joule" is named after an English scientist James Prescott Joule who lived from 1818 to 1889. He discovered that heat is a type of energy.<br><br> One joule is the amount of energy needed to lift something weighing one pound to a height of nine inches. So, if you lifted a five-pound sack of sugar from the floor to the top of a counter (27 inches), you would use about 15 joules of energy. Around the world, scientists measure energy in joules rather than Btus.<br><br> It's much like people around the world using the metric system of meters and kilograms, instead of the English system of feet and pounds. Like in the metric system, you can have kilojoules -- "kilo" means 1,000. 1,000 joules = 1 kilojoule = 1 Btu A piece of buttered toast contains about 315 kilojoules (315,000 joules) of energy.<br><br> With that energy you could: Jog for 6 minutes Bicycle for 10 minutes Walk briskly for 15 minutes Sleep for 1-1/2 hours Run a car for 7 seconds at 80 kilometers per hour (about 50 miles per hour) Light a 60-watt light bulb for 1-1/2 hours Or lift that sack of sugar from the floor to the counter 21,000 times! Changing Energy Energy can be transformed into another sort of energy. But it cannot be created AND it cannot be de- stroyed.<br><br> Energy has always existed in one form or another. Here are some changes in energy from one form to another. Stored energy in a flashlight's batteries becomes light energy when the flashlight is turned on.<br><br> Food is stored energy. It is stored as a chemical with potential energy. When your body uses that stored energy to do work, it becomes kinetic energy.<br><br> If you overeat, the energy in food is not "burned" but is stored as potential energy in fat cells. When you talk on the phone, your voice is transformed into electrical energy, which passes over wires (or is transmitted through the air). The phone on the other end changes the electrical energy into sound en- ergy through the speaker.<br><br> A car uses stored chemical energy in gasoline to move. The engine changes the chemical energy into heat and kinetic energy to power the car. A toaster changes electrical energy into heat and light energy.<br><br> (If you look into the toaster, you'll see the glowing wires.) A television changes electrical energy into light and sound energy. Food Energy Energy changes form at each step in the food chain. Take an ear of corn as an example.<br><br> Sunlight is taken in by the leaves on the corn stalk and transformed through photosynthesis. The plant takes in sunlight and combines it with carbon dioxide from the air and water and minerals from the ground. The plant grows tall and creates the ears of corn - its seeds.<br><br> The energy of the sunlight is stored in the leaves and inside the corn kernels. The corn kernels are full of energy stored as sugars and starch. The corn is harvested and is fed to chickens and other animals.<br><br> The chickens use the stored energy in the corn on the cob to grow and to move. Some energy is stored in the animal in its muscle tissue (protein) and in the fat. The chicken reaches maturity, a farmer slaughters it and prepares it to be sold.<br><br> It's transported to the grocery store. Your parents buy the chicken at the supermarket, bring it home and cook it (using energy). You then eat the chicken's meat and fat and convert that stored energy into energy in your own body.<br><br> Maybe you ate the chicken at a picnic. Then you went and played baseball. You're using the energy from that chicken to swing the bat, run the bases and throw the ball.<br><br> As your body uses the energy from the chicken, you breathe in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. That carbon dioxide is then used by other plants to grow. So, it's a big circle!<br><br> Heat Energy Heat is a form of energy. We use it for a lot of things, like warming our homes and cooking our food. Heat energy moves in three ways: 1.<br><br> Conduction 2. Convection Radiation Conduction occurs when energy is passed directly from one item to another. If you stirred a pan of soup on the stove with a metal spoon, the spoon will heat up.<br><br> The heat is being conducted from the hot area of the soup to the colder area of spoon. Metals are excellent conductors of heat energy. Wood or plastics are not.<br><br> These "bad" conductors are called insulators. That's why a pan is usually made of metal while the handle is made of a strong plastic. Convection is the movement of gases or liquids from a cooler spot to a warmer spot.<br><br> If a soup pan is made of glass, we could see the movement of convection currents in the pan. The warmer soup moves up from the heated area at the bottom of the pan to the top where it is cooler. The cooler soup then moves to take the warmer soup's place.<br><br> The movement is in a circular pattern within the pan (see picture below). The wind we feel outside is often the result of convection currents. You can understand this by the winds you feel near an ocean.<br><br> Warm air is lighter than cold air and so it rises. During the daytime, cool air over water moves to replace the air rising up as the land warms the air over it. During the nighttime, the di- rections change -- the surface of the water is sometimes warmer and the land is cooler.<br><br> Radiation is the final form of movement of heat energy. The sun's light and heat cannot reach us by con- duction or convection because space is almost completely empty. There is nothing to transfer the energy from the sun to the earth.<br><br> The sun's rays travel in straight lines called heat rays. When it moves that way, it is called radiation. When sunlight hits the earth, its radiation is absorbed or reflected.<br><br> Darker surfaces absorb more of the radiation and lighter surfaces reflect the radiation. So you would be cooler if you wear light or white clothes in the summer. Sources: http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/index.html , http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter01.html Fun Facts from 2005 An overwhelming majority of consumers- 92 percent-agree that business, government, and consumers have an equal responsibility to reduce energy use.<br><br> ~Alliance to Save Energy, 2003 Consumer Market Research . Consumers garner information on saving energy and reducing energy bills from a variety of sources-45 percent review brochures or utility company information, 40 percent by word of mouth, and 39 percent look for the energy star label on new products. ~Alliance to Save Energy, 2003 Consumer Market Research .<br><br> Eighty percent of American consumers agree that America needs to reduce oil imports. ~Alliance to Save Energy, 2003 Consumer Market Research . According to a recent national survey, 86 percent of U.S.<br><br> consumers say that wider availability and selection of fuel-efficient cars and SUVs would be very effective in getting them and their families to reduce energy use. ~Alliance to Save Energy, 2003 Consumer Market Research . According to estimates from the Energy Information Administration, in just two decades U.S.<br><br> energy consumption will increase by almost 40 percent-an amount equivalent to the energy used today in California, Texas, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Illinois. ~Alliance to Save Energy. Transportation accounts for more than 67 percent of the oil we consume in the United States and more than we produce.<br><br> Today, our country imports more than 56 percent of its oil supply, and imports are expected to reach 70 percent over the next two decades. ~U.S. Department of Energy The United States consumes almost 9 million barrels of gasoline daily-43 percent of total global daily gasoline consumption.<br><br> ~Alliance to Save Energy. If everyone purchased one of the four most efficient models in each vehicle class (sedans, sub-compacts, SUVs, light trucks), fuel economy would be 12 percent higher and Americans could save 13.1 billion gallons of gasoline annually. ~Environmental Protection Agency and quoted in Alliance 9 s Power$mart Booklet.<br><br> In 2004, SUV drivers spent about $1,225 on fuel, while passenger car drivers spent only $978. Hybrid electric car drivers spent between $350 and $450. ~Alliance to Save Energy.<br><br> Americans driving SUVs paid $180 more for gas in 2004 than they did in 2003, and passenger car drivers paid $144 more. But Hybrid electric car drivers paid between $50 and $67 more for gas than they did in 2003. ~Alliance to Save Energy.<br><br> By the end of 2005, the number of hybrid vehicles on the road more than tripled. According to Department of Energy projections, by the end of this decade, 750,000 hybrid vehicles will be sold annually-that means one in every 23 passenger vehicles sold will be a hybrid electric. ~Alliance to Save Energy.<br><br> Improvements in automobile efficiency since 1973 are saved consumers $151 billion in 2004 alone-more than twice as much as the federal government spends each year on education. ~Alliance to Save Energy. SUV fuel costs per mile exceed those of passenger cars.<br><br> In 2004, the fuel cost per mile for passenger cars was about 8 cents, but the fuel cost for SUVs was more than 10 cents per mile. Fuel cost per mile for hybrid electric vehicles was 3-4 cents per mile. ~Alliance to Save Energy.<br><br> The difference between a car that gets 20 MPG (miles per gallon) and one that gets 30 MPG amounts to $1,800 over 5 years, assuming gas costs $1.80 per gallon and one drives 12,000 miles per year. ~Alliance to Save Energy. Many idle electronics-TVs, VCRs, DVD and CD players, cordless phones, microwaves-use energy even when switched off to keep display clocks lit and memory chips and remote controls working.<br><br> Nationally, these energy cvampires d use 5 percent of our domestic energy and cost consumers more than $3 billion annually. ~ Lawrence Berkeley Nati onal Laboratory and quoted in Alliance 9 s Power$mart Booklet. The average household spends $1,400 each year on energy bills.<br><br> By choosing ENERGY STAR® qualified products, consumers can cut this by 30 percent, saving about $400 each year. ~ENERGY STAR® American households typically spend more than $200 annually on air conditioning. Households in some regions of the South can easily spend twice that much.<br><br> ~Alliance to Save Energy. Over an air conditioners lifetime, only one-fourth of the total cost is for the purchase of the air conditioning unit. The greater cost, three-fourths, is for the energy to run the air conditioner.<br><br> ~Alliance to Save Energy. Replacing old model air conditioners with ENERGY STAR® units can cut cooling bills by 20 percent or more. ~ENERGY STAR® cSleep d features that power down home office equipment and other electronic devices that are turned on but not in use can save households up to $70 annually.<br><br> ~Alliance to Save Energy Power$mart Booklet Between 80 and 85 percent of the energy used to wash clothes comes from heating the water. Using warm or cool water instead of hot will save money and energy and get clothes just as clean. ~ U.S.<br><br> Department of Energy For More Information, Visit: www.powerisinyourhands.org www.ase.org/consumers The average household spent around $5300 on all energy costs in 2007 (includes home energy bills and gasoline), about $200 more than it paid in 2006, and 2008 is projected to be even more costly! The average household spent almost $2700 on gasoline in 2007. The average household spent almost $2100 on home energy costs in 2007.<br><br> Heating and cooling costs account for about one-half of a typical home 9 s total energy bill. According to ENERGY STAR®, a programmable thermostat could save up to $150 per year on bills. With energy costs on the rise, you can reduce your home 9 s heating and cooling costs by as much as 20 percent through proper insulation and air sealing techniques.<br><br> And ENERGY STAR® qualified furnace, when properly sized and installed, along with sealed ducts and a programmable thermostat, can save up to 20 percent on heating bills. For Each degree you lower your thermostat in winter, you can save up to 5 percent on the heating portion of your energy bill, depending on the climate where you live. An ENERGY STAR® qualified furnace will use about 15 percent less energy than a standard model.<br><br> If just 10 percent of U.S. households replaced their old heating and cooling equipment with an ENERGY STAR® qualified model, and ensured that it was sized and installed properly, it would percent the equivalent emissions of 30 billion pounds of greenhouse gases. Households that replace existing equipment with ENERGY STAR® qualified products can cut annual energy bills by 30 percent or more than $600 per year.<br><br> Your home can be a greater source of pollution than your car. In fact, about 17 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are generated from the energy used in houses nationwide.<br><br> ENERGY STAR® homes use significantly less energy than other new homes. If every U.S. household replaced just one incandescent light bulb with an ENERGY STAR® qualified compact fluorescent bulb, it would save enough energy to light about 3 million homes for a year and save more than $650 million in annual energy costs.<br><br> The average home has 2 televisions, a VCR, a DVD player, and 3 telephones. If these items were replaced with ENERGY STAR® qualified models, it would save more than 25 billion pounds of greenhouse gas emissions, the equivalent of taking 3 million cars off the road for a year. When you make energy efficiency part of your everyday activities, you are reducing energy demand.<br><br> Reducing demand means that less natural gas, coal, and other resources are needed to produce energy. This means less greenhouse gas emissions and cleaner air for all of us and cost savings for you. Businesses across the U.S.<br><br> are doing their part to improve their energy efficiency. Many are working with the EPA 9 s ENERGY STAR® program to ensure that their buildings use 40 percent less energy than the average building. They are educating their employees about the value of saving energy at home and at work.<br><br> Under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, consumers and businesses can receive tax incentives for specific energy-efficiency upgrades to homes and commercial buildings such as upgrades to home insulation and windows and commercial building lighting improvements. In addition, the law includes tax credits for energy-saving technologies such as hybrid vehicles, appliances, heating and cooling systems, solar energy systems, and high-efficiency new home and commercial building construction. For more information, visit energyhog.org or ase.org Introduction to Energy Renewable Energy Renewable energy sources can be replenished in a short period of time.<br><br> The five re- newable sources used most often are: -biomass -water (hydropower), -geothermal, -wind, -solar. Many important events have occurred during the history of using renewable sources. The use of renewable energy is not new.<br><br> Five generations (125 years) ago, wood sup- plied up to 90 percent of our energy needs. Due to the convenience and low prices of fossil fuels, wood use has fallen in the United States. Now, some biomass that would normally be taken to the dump is converted into electricity (e.g., manufacturing wastes, rice hulls, and black liquor from paper production).<br><br> Overall consumption from renewable sources in the United States totaled 6.8 quads (quadrillion Btu) in 2006, or about 7 percent of all energy used nationally. Consump- tion from renewable sources was at its highest point in 1997, at about 7.2 quads. Historically, low fossil fuel prices, especially for natural gas, have made growth difficult for renewable fuels.<br><br> A number of State and Federal Government incentives, including the Energy Policy Acts of 2002 and 2005, have encouraged the production and use of renewable fuels. Even with these incentives, the renewables share of the "energy pie" in the United States is not expected to change much over the next 25 years because we will also be using more non-renewable fuels. The use of renewable sources is also lim- ited by the fact that they are not always available (for example, cloudy days reduce so- lar energy, calm days mean no wind blows to drive wind turbines, droughts reduce wa- ter availability to produce hydroelectricity).<br><br> Despite these limitations, renewable en- ergy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When renewable energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Unlike fossil fuels, most renewable sources do not directly emit greenhouse gases.<br><br> Each of the energy sources we use is measured, purchased, and sold in a different form. Many units of measurement are used to measure the energy we use each day. Learn more about converting energy units in the Units of Measurement section.<br><br> Sources: http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/renewable/renewable.html , Energy Infor- mation Administration, Annual Energy Review, August 2007. Energy Information Administration, Re- newable Energy Sources: A Gonsumer's Guide , December 2005. Introduction to Energy Non-Renewable Energy Non-renewable energy sources come out of the ground as liquids, gases and solids.<br><br> Right now, crude oil (petroleum) is the only naturally liquid commercial fossil fuel. Natural gas and propane are normally gases, and coal is a solid. Coal, petroleum, natu- ral gas, and propane are all considered fossil fuels because they formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago.<br><br> Uranium ore, a solid, is mined and converted to a fuel. Uranium is not a fossil fuel. These energy sources are considered nonrenewable because they can not be replenished (made again) in a short period of time.<br><br> Renewable energy sources can be replenished naturally in a short pe- riod of time. Source: http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/non-renewable/nonrenewable.html Introduction to Energy A Sustainable Energy Future 4 dream or reality Imagine this. The year is 2030 A.D.<br><br> Renewable energy sources are supplying over 50% of the United States' energy needs. Total energy use has decreased dramatically from its exorbitant 1990's level. Multi-megawatt wind farms, solar thermal farms and bio- mass plants dot the landscape.<br><br> Biofuels and solar-derived hydrogen make many of our cars, trains and buses go. Photovoltaic energy technology is converting sunlight directly into electricity in remote locations. Hydropower continues to provide electricity using such technology as run-of-the-river facilities which don't need huge dams.<br><br> High- temperature and direct-use geothermal energy are household words; and geothermal heat pumps warm homes everywhere. Is this a futuristic dreamscape? No, it is part of the sustainable energy forecast of many energy experts who are encouraging major state and federal policy shifts in order to make the above scenario a reality.<br><br> The concepts of the sustainable energy strategy- combining energy conservation, environmental protection, and the use of "renewable" resources-are becoming integral to plans for wise energy use. In fact, many of these ideas are no longer dreams for the future. They are being put into motion today by leaders who want to see a cleaner, brighter tomorrow.<br><br> Source: http://geothermal.marin.org/escrap.html#B1 Introduction to Energy Internet Resources California Energy Commission 9s education website http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/ Project Learning Tree http://www.plt.org/ PLT's cEnergy & Society d program kit provides educators with tools and activi- ties for PreK-8 to investigate environmental issues related to energy's role in so- ciety. http://www.plt.org/cms/pages/21_46_19.html Earth & Sky Internet radio http://www.earthsky.org/ PLT 9s cEnergy Sleuths d activity teaches students about the different sources of energy, advantages and disadvantages to their use, and how energy is used in daily life. Check out this Earth and Sky link.<br><br> http://earthsky.org/teachers/activity/activity-39-energy-sleuths Basic electricity information, including experiments, games, lesson plans, internet-based activities and more Alliance to Save Energy has all sorts of energy information, including lesson plans, Green Schools information, and the Energy Hog game. http://www.ase.org/ Con Edison Kids has electricity (generation and safety) information, games, les- son plans. http://www.coned.com/kids/ Energy Hog will help kids learn about energy and energy efficiency.<br><br> http://www.energyhog.org/ Energy Information Administration (part of the US Dept. of Energy) has lots of general information on electricity, energy in general, etc. http://www.eia.doe.gov/basics/electricity_basics.html The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) sponsors virtual ex- hibits of the history and uses of electricity.<br><br> It includes how things work, women and technology, electronics, nanotechnology, etc. Includes historical photos, Quicktime files, etc., including a re-enactment of British chemist/physicist Mi- chael Faraday (1791-1867) talking about his discovery in electromagnetism. May be better for upper grades.<br><br> http://www.ieee-virtual-museum.org/ The National Energy Education Development (NEED) Project offers free materi- als on its website. It also offers teacher training and access to more free materi- als for workshop participants. http://www.need.org/ PEAK students has games to help students understand how electricity comes to their house.<br><br> PEAK also provides a free program that is available to some school districts through their local utility (e.g., San Diego G&E, PG&E). http://www.peakstudents.org/ PG&E 9s Energenius offers classroom activities, movies, online games. Lesson plans and classroom materials are available free to teachers in the PG&E service area.<br><br> http://www.pge.com/education_training/energenius/index.html Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has eye-catching, interactive lessons on various topics, e.g., electricity and magnetic fields. http://ippex.pppl.gov/ interactive/electricity/magnet1.html Redding Electric Utility website http://redding.apogee.net/kids/ Science experiments, coloring books, and downloadable activities Charge up your cheerios (static electricity) http://redding.apogee.net/kids/ fec_ifrm.aspx The Atoms Family integrates science principles with web-based activities. http://www.miamisci.org/af/sln/ Snohomish County Public Utility District (Washington State) has the game cWho Can Resist? d It shows how to build a circuit.<br><br> http://www.snopud.com/ education/ssw/wires/resist.html Renewable energy Geothermal energy The Geothermal Education Office has a number of resources on its website, in- cluding an easy-to-understand slide slow. http://geothermal.marin.org/GEOpresentation/sld002.htm The Department of Conservation has a variety of materials, including a geothermal word search game. http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/kids_teachers/word_search/ find_word.htm Hydroelectric Power The Foundation for Water and Energy Education has an online tour of a hydroe- lectric plant.<br><br> http://www.fwee.org/walk.html Solar energy Build It solar projects http://www.builditsolar.com/Projects/Educational/educational.htm Solar Cookers International http://www.solarcookers.org/basics/how.html Solar Schoolhouse/California Solar Center has an extensive history of solar en- ergy site. Solar Schoolhouse also offers teacher and classroom programs. http://www.californiasolarcenter.org/history.html Solar activities created by a teacher for Grade 6.<br><br> https://home.comcast.net/ ~sdelbono/solar/newpage1.htm Wind energy Kid Wind has all sorts of wind energy information for kids and teachers and some interesting wind videos. http://www.kidwind.org/ Other Power has several wind energy science projects. http:// www.otherpower.com/toymill.html Games VGas is a sophisticated video game on energy, lifestyles and climate.<br><br> Kids can simulate their energy use to see how they can reduce their carbon footprint. http://alba.jrc.it/vgas/ Energy Jeopardy http://www.quia.com/cb/21272.html California Science Center online games (Air and Space quiz) http:// www.californiasciencecenter.org/FunLab/ScienceArcade/ScienceArcade.php Energy Net sells materials, but they also have an energy memory game and scav- enger hunt on the website. http://www.energynet.net/games/ Global warming/climate change Discovery Channel climate change timeline (Grade 6).<br><br> http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/globalwarming/timeline/timeline.html The Exploratorium 9s climate change site. http://www.exploratorium.edu/climate/index.html International Polar Foundation 9s education site. http://www.educapoles.org/index.php?/home/&s=1&rs=home&lg=en NASA 9s Earth Observatory shows satellite images that show the effects of global warming on the environment.<br><br> View record minimum levels of sea ice in the Arctic. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/shownh.php3? img_id=14572 View the opening of the fabled Northwest Passage.<br><br> http:// naturalhazards.nasa.gov/shownh.php3?img_id=14547 National Public Radio has cartoon videos that explain carbon 9s role in global warming. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9943298 The San Francisco Chronicle has a carbon-cutting scavenger hunt. http://www.sfgate.com/green/game/ US EPA climate change site with games, etc.<br><br> http://www.epa.gov/ climatechange/kids/index.html Home energy surveys Energy Quest handout http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/library/ documents/2007_HOME_ENERGY_SURVEY.PDF Fermi National Lab has an online tool kit for energy audits (middle school level). The site also has some good links to other useful sites. http:// ed.fnal.gov/ntep/f98/projects/nrel/student/studenttools.shtml Science Net Links has a home energy audit activity.<br><br> http:// www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.cfm?DocID=25 Earth Care Canada has energy audit resources. http://www.earthcarecanada.com/EarthCARE_Resources/ home_energy_audit.asp Organizations that promote children 9s interest in energy -related and other sciences American Society of Electrical Engineers http://www.engineeringk12.org/default.php The National Academy of Engineering http://www.engineergirl.org/ Sally Ride Science http://sallyridescience.com/ Science projects Energizer has energy-related science projects on its website. http:// www.energizer.com/learning/science/ Re-Energy.ca, a Canadian organization, shows kids how to build their own water -powered electrical generator.<br><br> http://www.re-energy.ca/t_waterpower.shtml Videos and podcasts A regional government agency in Australia created this public service announce- ment about activities that put carbon in the atmosphere. http:// video.vividas.com/media/vicgov_save_energy/ The California Academy of Sciences produced a podcast on the effect of climate change on insects http://www.calacademy.org/podcasts/?cat=2 Stanford University has cMicrodocs, d mini documentaries about various science topics. See one example, cThe Solar 3Powered Clam. d http:// www.stanford.edu/group/Palumbi/microdocs.html Teachertube.com cElectricity use home experiment d http://www.teachertube.com/view_video.php?<br><br> viewkey=716b02ec0da35256a998 Students build a circuit for a fan http://www.teachertube.com/view_video.php? viewkey=b617e9998dc4dd82eb3c Youtube.com The Sun 9s Energy http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=EO9CPO3CBF0&mode=related&search= Learn about recycling, reusing, and conserving and cSneaky Uses for Everyday Things d http://youtube.com/groups_videos?<br><br> name=Recycle School programs and grants The Alliance to Save Energy 9s Green Schools Program. http://www.ase.org/section/program/greenschl/ BP A+ for Energy Grant Program offers grants of $5,000 or $10,000 to teach- ers. Applications are available in November.<br><br> http://www.aplusforenergy.com/ Disney 9s Environmentality Challenge for grades 3 -5. Teachers must enroll their students by December 14, 2007. http://disney.go.com/environmentality/dec/california.html The Oracle Education Foundation sponsors the annual ThinkQuest Interna- tional 2008, the international project learning competition, for students be- tween the ages of 9 and 19.<br><br> The deadline is April 2, 2008. http://www.thinkquest.org/ The National Energy Foundation sponsors an annual student challenge for grades K-12. The goal of the challenge is to motivate learning, ignite the imagi- nation, and fuel the creative potential in youth.<br><br> This year's deadline is January 31, 2008. http://www.ignitingcreativeenergy.org/ General teacher resources Great animated engine diagrams, including a Stirling engine used in solar ther- mal power plants. http://www.keveney.com/Engines.html Annenberg Media offers K-6 science teachers (free) online video workshops in the series cScience in Focus. d Programs consist of 8 one -hour videos, workshop guide, and related website; graduate credit available.<br><br> Examples: cEnergy d and cShedding Light on Science. d http://www.learner.org/resources/ series160.html Apple Learning Exchange is a comprehensive resource site for teachers. http://edcommunity.apple.com/ali/ One example from ALE is Ball State University, which offers Elec- tronic Field Trips. http://ali.apple.com/ali_sites/ali/ exhibits/1000754/ http://edcommunity.apple.com/ali/ Edutopia has just posted its Go Green Database of materials for educators.<br><br> http://www.edutopia.org/go-green Google for Educators has a wide variety of teacher-friendly materials. http://www.google.com/educators/index.html How Stuff Works is a fun, informative site that tells you all about how a wind turbine works or a nuclear reactor, or just about any energy-related thing! http://www.howstuffworks.com/ Kids.gov is a portal for all sorts of government information, including many en- ergy-related sites.<br><br> It also links to National Geographic. http://kids.gov/k_5/ k_5_science_energy.shtml Science News for Kids has great science news articles, including stories on en- ergy and global warming, and science project ideas. http://sciencenewsforkids.org/ Source: Overview of Internet Resources for Energy Education CSTA Conference, October 25, 2007.<br><br> www.energyquest.ca.gov/teachers_resources/ Internet_Greatest_Hits_for_Energy_Education.doc A Activation Energy - Activation energy of a reaction is the amount of energy needed to start the reaction. Active Heating System - A solar water or space-heating system that moves heated air or water using pumps or fans. Air-Conditioning - Cooling and dehumidifying the air in a building by a refrigeration unit by a refrigeration unit powered by electricity or natural gas.<br><br> This definition excludes fans, blowers, or evaporative cooling systems (swamp coolers) that are not connected to a refrigeration unit. Air-Conditioning Equipm ent - Either a central system, window or wall units that cool the air in a housing unit by a refrigeration unit powered by electricity or natural gas. This definition excludes fans, blowers, or evaporative cooling systems (swamp coolers) that are not connected to a refrigeration unit.<br><br> Alternating Current - An electric current that reverses its direction at regular intervals or cycles; In the U.S. the standard is 120 reversals or 60 cycles per second; typically abbreviated as AC. Alternative Fuel - A popular term for "non-conventional" transportation fuels made from natural gas (propane, compressed natural gas, methanol, etc.) or biomass materials (ethanol, methanol).<br><br> Alternative-Fuel Vehicle (AFV) - A vehicle designed to operate on an alternative fuel (e.g., compressed natural gas, methane blend, electricity). The vehicle could be either a vehicle designed to operate exclusively on alternative fuel or a vehicle designed to operate on alternative fuel and/or a traditional fuel. Am pere - A unit of measure for an electrical current; the amount of current that flows in a circuit at an electromotive force of one Volt and at a resistance of one Ohm.<br><br> Abbreviated as amp. Anthropogenic - Made or generated by a human or caused by human activity. The term is used in the context of global climate change to refer to gaseous emissions that are the result of human activities, as well as other potentially climate-altering activities, such as deforestation.<br><br> Appliance - A piece of equipment, commonly powered by electricity, used to perform a particular energy-driven function. Examples of common appliances are refrigerators, clothes washers and dishwashers, conventional ranges/ovens and microwave ovens, humidifiers and dehumidifiers, toasters, radios, and televisions. Atom ic Structure - The conceptualized concept of an atom, regarded as consisting of a central positively charged nucleus (protons and neutrons) and a number of negatively charged electrons revolving about in various orbits.<br><br> Average - The simple arithmetic average for a population; that is, the sum of all the values in a population divided by the size of the population. Population means are estimated by computing the weighted sum of the sample values, then dividing by the sum of the sample weights. B Barrel: A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S.<br><br> gallons. One barrel weights 306 pounds or 5.80 million Btu of crude oil. Barrel is abbreviated as bbl.<br><br> Battery - An energy storage device made up of one or more electrolyte cells. Biodiesel - An alternative fuel that can be made from any fat or vegetable oil. It can be used in any diesel engine with few or no modifications.<br><br> Although biodiesel does not contain petroleum, it can be blended with diesel at any level or used in its pure form. Biofuels - Liquid fuels and blending components produced from biomass (plant) feedstocks, used primarily for transportation. Bioreactor - A landfill where the waste actively decomposes rather being simply buried in a "dry tomb." Biom ass - Any organic (plant or animal) material which is available on a renewable basis, including agricultural crops and agricultural wastes and residues, wood and wood wastes and residues, animal wastes, municipal wastes, and aquatic plants.<br><br> Boiler - a tank in which water is heated to produce either hot water or steam that is circulated for the purpose of heating and power. Boiling Water Reactor - A nuclear reactor in which water is allowed to boil in the core. The resulting steam is used to drive a turbine generating electric power.<br><br> British therm al unit (Btu) - The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit; equal to 252 calories. British thermal unit is abbreviated as Btu. C Calorie - A unit for measuring heat energy.<br><br> This unit is equal to 4.184 joules. Often used instead of joules when dealing with the energy released from food. Carbon Dioxide - A colorless, odorless noncombustible gas with the formula CO2 that is present in the atmosphere.<br><br> It is formed by the combustion of carbon and carbon compounds (such as fossil fuels and biomass) and by respiration, which is a slow combustion in animals and plants, and by the gradual oxidation of organic matter in the soil. Chain Reaction - A self-sustaining nuclear reaction which takes place during fission. A fissionable substance (i.e., uranium) absorbs a neutron and divides, releasing additional neutrons that are absorbed by other fissionable nuclei, releasing still more neutrons.<br><br> Chem ical Energy - Energy stored in a substance and released during a chemical reaction such as burning wood, coal, or oil. Circuit(s) - A conductor or a system of conductors through which electric current flows. Clim ate Change - A term used to refer to all forms of climatic inconsistency, but especially to significant change from one prevailing climatic condition to another.<br><br> In some cases, "climate change" has been used synonymously with the term "global warming"; scientists, however, tend to use the term in a wider sense inclusive of natural changes in climate, including climatic cooling. Coal - A fossil fuel formed by the breakdown of vegetable material trapped underground without access to air. Coal-Fired Power Plant - A power plant that uses coal as the fuel to generate electricity.<br><br> Cofiring - The process of burning natural gas in conjunction with another fuel to reduce air pollutants. Cogeneration - The production of electrical energy and another form of useful energy (such as heat of steam) through the sequential use of energy. Collector Field - The area where many solar collectors are situated in a solar power plant.<br><br> Com bustion - Chemical oxidation accompanied by the generation of light and heat. Com m ercial Sector (of Econom y) - The part of the economy having to do with the buying and selling of goods and services. The commercial sector is made up of merchants, businesses, etc.<br><br> Conversion Factors - A number that translates units of one measurement system into corresponding values of another measurement system. D Deforestation: - The net removal of trees from forested land. Derrick - A frame tower that supports the drill equipment used to find oil and natural gas in the earth.<br><br> Diesel Engine -Diesel engines are internal combustion engines that burn diesel oil rather than gasoline. Diesel Fuel - A fuel composed of distillates obtained in petroleum refining operation or blends of such distillates with residual oil used in motor vehicles. The boiling point and specific gravity are higher for diesel fuels than for gasoline.<br><br> Direct Current - An electric current that flows in only one direction through a circuit, as from a battery. Distillate Fuel Oil - A general classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations. It includes diesel fuels and fuel oils.<br><br> Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No.<br><br> 4 diesel fuel are used in on-highway diesel engines, such as those in trucks and automobiles, as well as off-highway engines, such as those in railroad locomotives and agricultural machinery. Products known as No. 1, No.<br><br> 2, and No. 4 fuel oils are used primarily for space heating and electric power generation. Distillation Unit (atm ospheric) - The primary distillation unit that processes crude oil (including mixtures of other hydrocarbons) at approximately atmospheric conditions.<br><br> It includes a pipe still for vaporizing the crude oil and a fractionation tower for separating the vaporized hydrocarbon components in the crude oil into fractions with different boiling ranges. This is done by continuously vaporizing and condensing the components to separate higher oiling point material. DOE - U.S.<br><br> Department of Energy. Drilling - The act of boring a hole (1) to determine whether minerals are present in commercially recoverable quantities and (2) to accomplish production of the minerals (including drilling to inject fluids). There are three types of drilling: exploratory - drilling to locate probable mineral deposits or to establish the nature of geological structures; such wells may not be capable of production if minerals are discovered; developmental - drilling to delineate the boundaries of a known mineral deposit to enhance the productive capacity of the producing mineral property; and directional - drilling that is deliberately made to depart significantly from the vertical.<br><br> Dynam o - A device that changes mechanical energy into electrical energy. E Electrical Energy - The energy associated with electric charges and their movements. Electricity - A form of energy characterized by the presence and motion of elementary charged particles generated by friction, induction, or chemical change.<br><br> Electricity Generation - The process of producing electric energy or the amount of electric energy produced by transforming other forms of energy, commonly expressed in kilowatthours (kWh) or megawatthours (MWh). Electric Motor - a device that takes electrical energy and converts it into mechanical energy to turn a shaft. Electric Power - The amount of energy produced per second.<br><br> The power produced by an electric current. Electrochem istry - The branch of chemistry that deals with the chemical changes produced by electricity and the production of electricity by chemical changes. Electrom agnetic - Having to do with magnetism produced by an electric current.<br><br> Electrom agnetic Energy - Energy that travels in waves, such as ultra-violet radiation. It can be thought of as a combination of electric and magnetic energy. Electrom agnetic Waves - Radiation that consists of traveling waves of electric and magnetic disturbances.<br><br> X-rays, light rays and radio waves are among the many kinds of electromagnetic waves. Electron - A subatomic particle with a negative electric charge. Electrons form part of an atom and move around its nucleus.<br><br> Elem ent - Any substance that cannot be separated into different substances. All matter is composed of elements. Em ission - A discharge or something that is given off; generally used in regard to discharges into the air.<br><br> Or, releases of gases to the atmosphere from some type of human activity (cooking, driving a car, etc). In the context of global climate change, they consist of greenhouse gases (e.g., the release of carbon dioxide during fuel combustion). Energy - The ability to do work or the ability to move an object.<br><br> Electrical energy is usually measured in kilowatthours (kWh), while heat energy is usually measured in British thermal units (Btu). Energy Consum ption - The use of energy as a source of heat or power or as a raw material input to a manufacturing process. Energy Efficiency - Refers to activities that are aimed at reducing the energy used by substituting technically more advanced equipment, typically without affecting the services provided.<br><br> Examples include high-efficiency appliances, efficient lighting programs, high-efficiency heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems or control modifications, efficient building design, advanced electric motor drives, and heat recovery systems. Ethanol - A colorless liquid that burns to produce water and carbon dioxide. The vapor forms an explosive mixture with air and may be used as a fuel in internal combustion engines.<br><br> F Filam ent - The fine metal wire in a light bulb that glows when heated by an electric current. Fission - The splitting apart of atoms. This splitting releases large amounts of energy and one or more neutrons.<br><br> Nuclear power plants split the nuclei of uranium atoms in a process called fission. Flat-Plate Solar Connector - A device designed to capture the suns energy and produce low temperature heat energy. They are commonly used as collectors in solar heating systems.<br><br> Flow - To move or run smoothly with unbroken continuity, as in the manner characteristic of a fluid. Force - Something which changes the state of rest or motion of something. Fossil Fuels - Fuels (coal, oil, natural gas, etc.) that result from the compression of ancient plant and animal life formed over millions of years.<br><br> Fuel - Any material that can be burned to make energy. Fuel Cycle - The entire set of stages involved in the utilization of fuel, including extraction, transformation, transportation, and combustion. Fuel Oil - An oil that is used for fuel and that usually ignites at a higher temperature than kerosene.<br><br> Furnace - An enclosed structure in which heat is produced for the purpose of heating a house or a building. Fusion - When the nuclei of atoms are combined or "fused" together. The sun combines the nuclei of hydrogen atoms into helium atoms in a process called fusion.<br><br> Energy from the nuclei of atoms, called "nuclear energy" is released from fusion. G Gallon - A measure of volume equal to 4 quarts (231 cubic inches). One barrel equals 42 gallons.<br><br> Gas - (1) A non-solid, non-liquid (as hydrogen or air) substance that has no fixed shape and tends to expand without limit. (2) A state of matter in which the matter concerned occupies the whole of its container irrespective of its quantity. Includes natural gas, coke-oven gas, blast furnace gas, and refinery gas.<br><br> Gasoline - A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in spark-ignition engines. Gas To Liquids (GTL) - A process that combines the carbon and hydrogen elements in natural gas molecules to make synthetic liquid petroleum products, such as diesel fuel. Gas Turbine Plant - A plant in which the prime mover is a gas turbine.<br><br> A gas turbine consists typically of an axial-flow air compressor and one or more combustion chambers where liquid or gaseous fuel is burned and the hot gases are passed to the turbine and where the hot gases expand drive the generator and are then used to run the compressor. Generator - A device that turns mechanical energy into electrical energy. The mechanical energy is sometimes provided by an engine or turbine.<br><br> Generating Capacity - The amount of electrical power a power plant can produce. Geotherm al Energy - The heat energy that is produced by natural processes inside the earth. It can be taken from hot springs, reservoirs of hot water deep below the ground, or by breaking open the rock itself.<br><br> Global Warm ing - An increase in the near surface temperature of the Earth. Global warming has occurred in the distant past as the result of natural influences, but the term is today most often used to refer to the warming some scientists predict will occur as a result of increased anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Gravity - The natural force of attraction of the mass of a heavenly body (as the earth) for bodies at or near its surface.<br><br> Greenhouse Effect - The effect of the Earth's atmosphere, due to certain gases, in trapping heat from the sun; the atmosphere acts like a greenhouse. Greenhouse Em issions - Waste gases given off by industrial and power plants, automobiles and other processes. Greenhouse Gases - Gases that trap the heat of the sun in the Earth's atmosphere, producing the greenhouse effect.<br><br> The two major greenhouse gases are water vapor and carbon dioxide. Lesser greenhouse gases include methane, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons, and nitrogen oxides. Green Pricing - In the case of renewable electricity, green pricing represents a market solution to the various problems associated with regulatory valuation of the nonmarket benefits of renewables.<br><br> Green pricing programs allow electricity customers to express their willingness to pay for renewable energy development through direct payments on their monthly utility bills. Grid - The layout of an electrical distribution system. H Heat Content - The gross heat content is the number of British thermal units (Btu) produced by the combustion, of a volume of gas under certain with air of the same temperature and pressure as the gas, when the products of combustion are cooled to the initial temperature of gas and air and when the water formed by combustion is condensed to the liquid state.<br><br> Heat Exchanger - Any device that transfers heat from one fluid (liquid or gas) to another or to the environment. Heating Equipm ent - Any equipment designed and/or specifically used for heating ambient air in an enclosed space. Common types of heating equipment include: central warm air furnace, heat pump, plug-in or built-in room heater, boiler for steam or hot water heating system, heating stove, and fireplace.<br><br> Heliostat - Flat sun-tracking mirrors used to reflect and concentrate the suns' energy onto a central receiver tower. Horsepower - A unit for measuring the rate of work (or power) equivalent to 33,000 foot-pounds per minute or 746 watts. Hydroelectric Power Plant - A power plant that uses moving water to power a turbine generator to produce electricity.<br><br> Hydrogen - A colorless, odorless, highly flammable gaseous element. It is the lightest of all gases and the most abundant element in the universe, occurring chiefly in combination with oxygen in water and also in acids, bases, alcohols, petroleum, and other hydrocarbons. Hydropower - Energy that comes from moving water.<br><br> I Incandescent Light Bulb - An incandescent bulb is a type of electric light in which light is produced by a filament heated by electric current. The most common example is the type you find in most table and floor lamps. In commercial buildings, incandescent lights are used for display lights in retail stores, hotels and motels.<br><br> This includes the very small, high-intensity track lights used to display merchandise or provide spot illumination in restaurants. Induction - The process of producing an electrical or magnetic effect through the influence of a nearby magnet, electric current, or electrically charged body. Industrial Sector (of the Econom y) - The part of the economy having to do with the production of goods.<br><br> The industrial sector is made up of factories, power plants, etc. Inertia - A property of matter by which it remains at rest or in uniform motion in the same straight line unless acted upon by some outside force. J J oule - A metric unit for measuring work and energy, named after James Joule.<br><br> It is equal to the work done when a one ampere current is passed through a resistance of one ohm for one second. K Kerosene - A thick oil obtained from petroleum and used as a fuel and solvent. Kilowatt - A unit of power, usually used for electric power or to energy consumption (use).<br><br> A kilowatt equals 1000 watts. Kilowatthour(kWh) - A measure of electricity defined as a unit of work or energy, measured as 1 kilowatt (1,000 watts) of power expended for 1 hour. One kWh is equivalent to 3,412 Btu or 3.6 million joules.<br><br> Kinetic - The energy of a body which results from its motion. Kinetic Theory of Energy - The theory that the minute particles of all matter are in constant motion and that the temperature of a substance depends upon the velocity (speed) of the motion. Kinetic Theory of Gases - The theory that physical properties of a gas are due to the rapid motion in a straight line of its molecules, to their impacts against each other and the walls of the container, and to weak attraction forces between the molecules.<br><br> L Light - Radiant electromagnetic energy that an observer can see. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) -A group of hydrocarbon-based gases derived from crude oil refining or natural gas fractionation. They include ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and isobutylene.<br><br> For convenience of transportation, these gases are liquefied through pressurization. Load - The power and energy requirements of users on the electric power system in a certain area or the amount of power delivered to a certain point. Longwall Mining - An automated form of underground coal mining characterized by high recovery and extraction rates, feasible only in relatively flat-lying, thick, and uniform coal beds.<br><br> A high-powered cutting machine is passed across the exposed face of coal, shearing away broken coal, which is continuously hauled away by a floor-level conveyor system. Longwall mining extracts all machine-minable coal between the floor and ceiling within a contiguous block of coal, known as a panel, leaving no support pillars within the panel area. Panel dimensions vary over time and with mining conditions but currently average about 900 feet wide (coal face width) and more than 8,000 feet long (the minable extent of the panel, measured in direction of mining).<br><br> Longwall mining is done under movable roof supports that are advanced as the bed is cut. The roof in the mined-out area is allowed to fall as the mining advances. M Magnet - Any piece of iron, steel, etc., that has the property of attracting iron or steel.<br><br> Mechanical Energy - The energy of motion used to perform work. Mechanical Power - The power produced by motion. Megawatt - A unit of electrical power equal to 1000 kilowatts or one million watts.<br><br> Mercaptan - An organic chemical compound that has a sulfur like odor that is added to natural gas before distribution to the consumer, to give it a distinct, unpleasant odor (smells like rotten eggs). This serves as a safety device by allowing it to be detected in the atmosphere, in cases where leaks occur. Methane -A colorless, flammable, odorless hydrocarbon gas (CH4) which is the major component of natural gas.<br><br> It is also an important source of hydrogen in various industrial processes. Methane is a greenhouse gas. Miles Per Gallon (MPG) - A measure of vehicle fuel efficiency.<br><br> MPG is computed as the ratio of the total number of miles traveled by a vehicle to the total number of gallons consumed. Mobile Hom e - A trailer that is used as a permanent dwelling. Molecule - Particles that normally consist of two or more atoms joined together.<br><br> An example is a water molecule that is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Multifam ily Dwellings - Apartment building and condominiums. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) - Residential solid waste and some nonhazardous commercial, institutional, and industrial wastes.<br><br> N Natural Gas - An odorless, colorless, tasteless, non-toxic clean-burning fossil fuel. It is usually found in fossil fuel deposits and used as a fuel. Natural Gas Hydrates - Solid, crystalline, wax-like substances composed of water, methane, and usually a small amount of other gases, with the gases being trapped in the interstices of a water-ice lattice.<br><br> They form beneath permafrost and on the ocean floor under conditions of moderately high pressure and at temperatures near the freezing point of water. Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) - Substances that can be processed as liquids out of natural gas by absorption or condensation. Nonconcentrator System - A type of solar energy system that does not rely on special devices to concentrate the sun's radiation while collecting it.<br><br> Nonrenewable - Fuels that cannot be easily made or "renewed." We can use up nonrenewable fuels. Oil, natural gas, and coal are nonrenewable fuels. Nuclear Energy - Energy that comes from splitting atoms of radioactive materials, such as uranium.<br><br> O Offshore - The geographic area that lies seaward of the coastline. In general, the coastline is the line of ordinary low water along with that portion of the coast that is in direct contact with the open sea or the line marking the seaward limit of inland water. Offshore Reserves and Production - Unless otherwise dedicated, energy source reserves and production that are in either state or Federal domains, located seaward of the coastline.<br><br> Ohm - The unit of resistance to the flow of an electric current. Oil - The raw material that petroleum products are made from. A black liquid fossil fuel found deep in the Earth.<br><br> Gasoline and most plastics are made from oil. OPEC - The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries organized for the purpose of negotiating with oil companies on matters of oil production, prices, and future concession rights. Current members (as of the date of writing this definition) are Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela.<br><br> See OPEC's site at http://www.opec.org for more information. Organic Waste - Waste material of animal or plant origin. Outer Continental Shelf - Offshore Federal domain.<br><br> P Parabolic Trough - A type of solar concentrator collector that has a linear parabolic shaped reflector that focuses the sun 9s radiation on a receiver at the focus of the reflector. Passive Heating System - A means of capturing, storing, and using heat from the sun. Peak Load Plant - A plant usually housing old, low-efficiency steam units, gas turbines, diesels, or pumped-storage hydroelectric equipment normally used during the peak-load periods.<br><br> Penstock - A large pipe which carries moving water from the reservoir to a turbine generator in a hydropower plant. Petrochem icals - Organic and inorganic petroleum compounds and mixtures that include but are not limited to organic chemicals, cyclic intermediates, plastics and resins, synthetic fibers, elastomers, organic dyes, organic pigments, detergents, surface active agents, carbon black, and ammonia. Periodic Table - Table of all known elements in a meaningful pattern.<br><br> Petroleum - Generally refers to crude oil or the refined products obtained from the processing of crude oil (gasoline, diesel fuel, h