Energy consumption and related air pollution for Scandinavian electric passenger trains EVERT ANDERSSON PIOTR LUKASZEWICZ Report KTH/AVE 2006:46 Stockholm, Sweden 2006 TRITA-AVE 2006:46 ISSN 1650-7660 Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering Royal Institute of Technology, KTH SE-10044 Stockholm Sweden Abstract Energy consumption of a number of modern Scandinavian electric passenger train opera- tions is studied. The trains are X 2000 , Regina , OTU (Øresundstoget), Type 71 cFlytoget d and Type 73 cSignatur d. Energy measurements are made in regular train operations in Sweden, Denmark and Norway.
For Regina and Flytoget long time series (at least one year) are available, while shorter time series are available for the other train types. Energy data for new trains (introduced since 1999) are collected in the years 2002-2005. Energy data from 1994 are used for X 2000 and are corrected for operational conditions of 2004.
For comparison, energy data for an older loco-hauled train of 1994 is also used. In the present study energy consumption for propulsion, on-board comfort and catering, as well as idling outside scheduled service, is determined. The energy consumption includes losses in the railway 9s electrical supply, i.e.
the determined amount of energy is as supplied from the public electrical grid. Emissions ... more. less.
of air pollutants, due to production of the electric energy used, are also determined, in this case CO 2 , NO x , HC and CO. Three alternative determinations are made: (1) Pollution from average electric energy on the common Nordic market; (2) Pollution from cGreen d electric energy from renewable sources; (3) Margina l contribution for an additional train or passenger, short-term and long-term.<br><br> The newly introduced EU Emissions Trading Scheme with emission allowances will most likely limit the long-term emissions independently of the actual amount of electric energy used by electric trains. It is shown that the investigated modern passenger train operations of years 2002- 2005 use a quite modest amount of energy, in spite of the higher speeds compared with trains of 1994. For comparable operations the energy consumption is reduced by typically 25 3 30 % per seat-km or per passenger-km if compared with the older loco-hauled trains.<br><br> The reasons for the improved energy performance are: (1) Improved aerodynamics compared with older trains (reduced air drag); (2) Regenerative braking (i.e. energy is recovered when braking the train); (3) Lower train mass per seat; (4) Improved energy efficiency in power supply, partly due to more advanced technologies of the trains. Energy consumption per passenger-km is very dependent of the actual load factor (i.e.<br><br> ratio between the number of passenger-km and the offered number of seat-km). For long- distance operations load factors are quite high, typically 55 - 60 % in Scandinavia. In this market segment energy consumption is determined to around 0.08 kWh per pass-km.<br><br> For fast regional services with electric trains, the load factors vary from typically 20 to about 40 %, while the energy consumption varies from 0.07 kWh per pass-km (for the highest load factor) to 0.18 kWh/pass-km. However, also in the latter cases the investigated trains are very competitive to other modes of transport with regard to energy consumption and emissions of air pollutants. i ii Preface and acknowledgements This energy study was initiated in an agreement between Bombardier Transportation and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm.<br><br> It is a cfollow-up d and conti- nuation of a similar energy study made at KTH in 1994. The main part of the study has been made at KTH, using energy data supplied from various sources. First of all the personal and financial support from the Centre of Competence cDesign for Environment d at Bombardier Transportation is gratefully acknowledged.<br><br> In particular we would bring our thanks to Mrs Christina Larsson, Mrs Sara Paulsson and Mr Peder Flykt for their enthusiastic and very valuable personal support in supplying energy data from Regina and X 2000 trains and in their efforts to arrange the necessary contacts with train operating companies in Scandinavia. We also thank Mr Stefan Christensson at Flytoget AS in Oslo, as well as Mr Ståle Ansethmoen at NSB, Oslo, and Mrs Rikke Naeraa at DSB in Copenhagen for their contributions to energy data and actual load factors. Marie Hagberg at SJ AB in Stockholm has supplied information on cgreen d electric energy.<br><br> Mr Anders Bülund at Swedish National Rail Administration (Banverket) for providing statistics and efficiency data on the Swedish converter stations. For supplying data on electric power production we would also like to acknowledge Mr Gunnar Wåglund at Svenska Kraftnät and Mr Gunnar Hovsenius at Elforsk AB. Finally, we would like to thank Mr Göran Andersson and Mr Anders Jönnson at the Swedish Energy Agency (Energimyndigheten) for helpfull discussions about the nordic power market, production and marginal power.<br><br> Stockholm in June 2006 Evert Andersson Piotr Lukaszewicz Professor Dr Tech iii iv Content Abstract i Preface and acknowledgements iii Content v Definitions and explanations vii Abbreviations and names ix 1. Introduction 1 2. Structure of railway electric energy consumption and its related air pollution 5 2.1 Structure of energy utilisation on railways 5 2.1.1 Various purposes of energy consumption 5 2.1.2 Variation by season 8 2.1.3 Load factor for different types of trains 9 2.1.4 Load factor and energy consumption 10 2.2 Power supply for electric railways 11 2.2.1 Feeding stations and catenary 11 2.2.2 Losses and energy efficiency 12 2.2.3 Energy recovery 14 2.3 The various modes of electric power production 16 2.4 Average, marginal or cgreen d electric power 18 2.4.1 Average energy production, with average emissions 18 2.4.2 Marginal electric energy 18 2.4.3 Green electric energy 20 2.4.4 Conclusions 20 2.5 Emissions from electric power production 21 2.5.1 Average on Nordic market 21 2.5.2 Marginal effects 21 2.5.3 cGreen d electric energy 21 2.6 Summary of what is included in this study 22 3.<br><br> Energy consumption and air pollutions from modern trains 23 3.1 Methodology and definitions 23 3.2 High-speed train X 2000 24 3.3 Fast regional train of type cRegina d 26 3.3.1 Regional services type A 26 3.3.2 Regional services type B 27 3.4 Øresundstoget (OTU) 28 3.5 Type 71 cFlytoget d 29 3.6 Type 73 cSignatur d 30 4. Comparisons with older trains and other modes of transport 31 4.1 Comparisons with older trains 31 4.1.1 Comparisons with current X 2000 services 31 4.1.2 Comparisons with current Regina regional train services 32 4.1.3 Why are modern trains more energy efficient 33 4.1.4 Comments and future outlook 34 4.2 Some comparisons with other modes of transport 35 5. Summary and conclusions 38 References 41 Appendix 43 v vi Definitions and explanations In alphabetical order Carbody tilt The carbody of the train (i.e.<br><br> the part containing the payload) is tilted inwards when running in curves thus reducing lateral forces on passengers. Carbody tilt is an important prerequisite for allowing the train to negotiate curves at higher speeds than normal trains. Catenary The overhead electrical cable supplying electric power to the current collector (pantograph) of an electrically powered train.<br><br> The pantograph stays in continuous contact with the catenary. Sometimes the catenary is known as the contact cable or contact wire . CHP (Combined Heat and Power) Electric power (energy) produced by using steam turbines where the steam is finally condensed at a (comparatively) high temperature, allowing the heat of the water to be utilised for district heating or industrial purposes.<br><br> Thus most of the inherent energy can be utilised either as electric power or as useful heat. Compare c Condensing power d below. Condensing (electric) power Electric power (energy) produced by using steam turbines where the steam is finally condensed by cooling with low-temperature water, implying that the heat of the water can usually not be utilised.<br><br> Thus most of the inherent remaining energy (after electric power generation) is lost to the water. Compare c CHP d above. Converter station (for railway) Facility with appropriate equipment for converting electric three-phase alternating electric power from the public electrical grid (frequency 50 Hz) to the frequency and voltage used by the trains, and thus be fed into the catenary.<br><br> In Sweden and Norway trains use single phase alternating current with a frequency of 16 2/3 Hz while the voltage is nominally 15 kV. In Denmark (and Finland) the frequency is 50 Hz and the voltage 25 kV. On other networks direct current (i.e.<br><br> not alter- nating current) may be used in combination with a lower voltage. vii Electric power Electric energy Energy consumption In the context of the present study, energy consumption means e.g. energy utilization or energy usage .<br><br> Energy can not be cconsumed d, only utilized or converted between different kinds of energy, e.g. chemical energy (in fuels), kinetic energy, potential energy, heat, electric energy etc. The term 8energy consumption 9 is used because it is common terminology in the railway sector.<br><br> Energy recovery Electric energy is fed back to the catenary, while the train is braking or running downhill. Thus some part of the energy intake is recovered. See also c Regenerative braking d below.<br><br> Load factor The ratio between the number of passenger-km and the offered number of seat-km. Load factor is sometimes called seat occupancy rate . Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden .<br><br> In the context of this study Iceland is excluded. Pantograph The current collector on an electrically powered train, in contact with the catenary. Regenerative braking The electric motors for propulsion are switched over to working as electric generators, thus generating electric power when producing a braking effort on the train.<br><br> Compare also c Energy recovery d above. Scandinavia In the context of this study it is Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Tilt See c carbody tilt d above.<br><br> viii Abbreviations and names Banverket The Swedish National Rail Administration , repor- ting to the minister of transport. Banverket is responsible for the Swedish rail infrastructure and is also an agency for the whole railway sector in Sweden. Bombardier Transportation Global manufacturer and supplier of trains and other railway equipment, with the main office being located in Canada.<br><br> Facilities for deve- lopment and manufacturing are located around the world, like in Sweden, Germany, France, UK, Austria, Switzerland, China, USA, Australia etc. DSB Danish State Railways . EMU cElectric Multiple Unit d, an electrically powered train of motor coach type, i.e.<br><br> with propulsion equipment located in the same coaches as the pay- load, i.e. this type of train has no separate locomotive heading the train. ETS EU Emissions Trading Scheme : Emissions of greenhouse gases in Europe is limited by a fixed and gradually decreasing allowances.<br><br> If one entity is not able to reduce its emissions, or wants to even increase them, that entity must buy allowances from another entity being able to reduce emissions at a cost less than the price of the transferred allowances. See further Section 2.4.2. Flytoget An electrically powered EMU train, mainly used by the company Flytoget AS for fast rail services between the airport Gardermoen, Oslo and Asker.<br><br> The train hardware is quite similar to the train type Signatur ; see below. Flytoget is officially designated as c Type 71 d. See also Figure 1-4.<br><br> KTH Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan 3 in English called the Royal Institute of Technology, located in Stockholm, Sweden. KTH has a centre of excellence for research and academic education in railway engineering. One part of this centre is the Division of Rail Vehicles at the Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.<br><br> NSB AS The national passenger rail operator in Norway, emanating from the former Norwegian State Railways. OTU Øresund Train Unit - an electrically powered EMU train running fast regional services over the Øresund link (including the bridge) between ix Sweden and Denmark. This type of trains also extends services to other surrounding areas and railways lines in Denmark and Sweden.<br><br> OTU trains are currently operated by DSB and SJ AB. See also Figure 1-3. Regina An electrically powered EMU train running fast regional services in different areas of Sweden.<br><br> It is officially designated as X50 3 X54 in different versions and is currently operated by SJ AB and Tågkompaniet , see below. These companies operate the vehicle for various local traffic authorities, such as Upplands Lokatrafik and X-trafik. Regina is a wide-body train; see also Figure 1-2.<br><br> Scandinavia In the context of this study it is Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Signatur An electrically powered EMU train used by NSB in Norway for long-distance services. It is technically quite similar to the train Flytoget, but Signatur is equipped with carbody tilt.<br><br> Train type Signatur is officially designated as c Type 73 d. See further Figure 1-5. SJ AB The largest passenger rail operator in Sweden, emanating from the former Swedish State Railways.<br><br> Tågkompaniet Tågkompaniet i Sverige AB - An independent passenger rail operator in Sweden. Upptåget A regional train system formed by the publicly owned regional transit company Upplands Lokaltrafik (UL) in 8Uppsala län 9, Sweden. See further Section 3.3.2.<br><br> Vattenfall Vattenfall AB 3 the largest supplier of electric power in Sweden, actively engaged also in other countries. X-Trafik Publicly owned regional transit company in 8Gävleborgs län 9, Sweden. See further Section 3.3.2.<br><br> X 2000 High-speed tilting train for long-distance passen- ger services in Sweden. It is equipped with car- body tilt and is used by the operator SJ AB. The train consist is a light-weight locomotive followed by 4 3 6 passenger cars.<br><br> The train is officially designated as X2. See also Figure 1-1. x 1 Introduction Rail transport is widely considered to be energy efficient compared to most other modes of transport.<br><br> By consuming just a moderate amount of energy, there are also prospects of low emissions of pollutants into the air, such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitric oxides (NO x ) and others. The possibilities to use electric power further strengthen this tendency, because electric power may be produced by a number of means, some of them with very low air pollution, if any. Low energy consumption and air pollution are often considered as being competitive advantages of rail traffic, together with high safety, comfort, high capacity and space efficiency as well as 3 for modern rail systems 3 travelling speed.<br><br> In 1994 a study was made by KTH (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden) on energy consumption and air pollution in Swedish electric rail traffic . Different types of trains were investigated through electric energy measurements in various types of passen- ger and freight services. An estimation of future development (year 2010) was also made.<br><br> Since that time a number of new modern passenger trains have been introduced in Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway and Sweden), mainly with electric propulsion and to a small extent also with diesel propulsion. Also the services of the high-speed train X 2000 have been further developed. However, no update of energy and air pollution studies is known since the previous study in 1994.<br><br> The present study is initiated by Bombardier Transportation (Sweden). This company has supplied the majority of new trains for Scandinavia during the period 1994 3 2004. For example, by the end of 2004 the following numbers of electrically powered passenger vehicles were delivered for main line rail operations: - 224 cars of the high-speed tilting train X 2000 as well as 43 power units of the same train for the Swedish rail operator SJ AB (partly delivered before 1994); see Figure 1-1.<br><br> - 148 cars of the fast regional trains Regina for Swedish domestic services; see Figure 1-2. - 168 cars of the fast regional trains for the Øresund link between Denmark and Sweden; see Figure 1-3. These train units are often called OTU (Øresund Train Unit).<br><br> - 48 cars of the trains Type 71 for Gardermoen airport outside Oslo in Norway, also called Flytoget , running airport shuttles between Gardermoen, Oslo and Asker; see Figure 1-4. - 88 cars of the long-distance tilting trains Type 73 earlier called Signatur and the fast regional trains Type 73b earlier called Agenda for domestic Norwegian services operated by NSB; see Figure 1 - 5. All of these cars are four-axle vehicles each having a length of 25 3 27 m.<br><br> All the trains have a permissible speed ranging from 180 to 210 km/h. They have all air condition. X 2000 has a bistro (about half a car) as well as the Norwegian Signatur trains.<br><br> Both X 2000, Signatur and Agenda have carbody tilt, in order to allow increased speeds in curves. The OTU is able to run on both the Danish and Swedish signalling and electrification systems. In Sweden the electrical supply system has a nominal voltage of 15 kV at 16 2/3 Hz.<br><br> The Danish electrified main lines have a nominal voltage of 25 kV at 50 Hz. Further train data are given in Figures 1-1 to 1-5. 1 Figure 1-1 High-speed train X 2000 Power unit + 5 cars + driving trailer Number of seats, 1+2 class, 98+222 =320 Max speed in service 200 km/h Mass in running order 366 tonnes Figure 1-2 Fast regional train cRegina d 2 motor coaches (alternatively with 1 intermediate trailer) Number of seats, 1+ 2 class, 19 + 148=167, (alt.<br><br> 19+ 253=272) Max speed in service 200 km/h Mass in running order 120 (alt. 165) tonnes (Numbers within brackets refer to the 3-car version with an intermediate trailer) 2 Figure 1-3 cØresundstoget d (OTU) 2 motor coaches + 1 intermediate trailer Number of seats, 1+ 2 class, 20 + 217 = 237 Max speed in service 180 km/h Mass in running order 157 tonnes Figure 1-4 Airport train Type 71 cFlytoget d 3 motor coaches Number of seats, 2 class = 168 Max speed in service 210 km/h Mass in running order 168 tonnes Figure 1-5 Long distance train Type 73 cSignatur d 3 motor coaches + 1 intermediate trailer Number of seats, 1+ 2 class = 201-227 Max speed in service 210 km/h Mass in running order 233 tonnes 3 Scope and limitations of this study The scope of the present study is to determine average energy consumption and the related emissions of air pollutants of representative modern trains in passenger service in Scandinavia. All the trains studied are supplied by Bombardier Transportation.<br><br> Some comparisons will also be made with older train services and 3 to some extent 3 with other modes of transport. In order to achieve a figure on average energy consumption 3 and/or its related air pollution 3 either measured or simulated energy consumption data are needed, per train-km or per seat-km. It is also of interest to convert these data into energy or pollution per passenger- km.<br><br> The latter conversion is possible only if the average load factor, i.e. the seat occupancy rate, is known. The load factor is here defined as the number of passenger-km divided by the number of offered seat-km.<br><br> Energy consumption and its related air pollution, as determined per seat-km, has a large variation over time for a specific type of train, due to the actual speed or the number of stops. If determined per passenger-km there is also a variation due to the actual load factor. However, it is not the aim of this study to determine energy or pollution data for all possible cases.<br><br> In this study a number of train services have been selected, all being believed to be representative for the respective types of railway mainline passenger services on average. The characteristics of these services are presented and discussed in Sections 3.2 - 3.6. A train with electric propulsion consumes energy being produced in some kind of electric power plant.<br><br> In order to determine the air pollution, indirectly resulting from the electric power production and consumption, the means of electric power production is decisive. Electricity can be produced by means of - for example 3 hydropower, nuclear power, wind power or some kind of bio-fuels. Electric power can also be produced by fossil fuels like coal, oil or natural gas.<br><br> The efficiency and energy losses 3 as well as emissions of air pollutions - in fuel-burning power stations may vary over a quite large range depending on the technology used and whether heat (for district heating or industrial use) is produced or not. The present study also discusses these issues in Sections 2.3 3 2.5. 4 2 Structure of railway electric energy consumption and its related air pollution 2.1 Structure of energy utilization on railways 2.1.1 Various purposes of energy consumption There are various purposes of using energy on railways and in train operations.<br><br> We propose energy consumption in train operations to be divided into eight different purposes as shown in Table 2-1. The table is particularly adapted to electric train operations, i.e. the case where electric power is taken from an overhead electrical cable - usually called catenary 3 through the current collector 3 called pantograph 3 for use in an electrically powered rail vehicle.<br><br> 1 Propulsion including auxiliary machinery and the necessary safety systems 2 Comfort during the journey 3 Idling outside scheduled service 4 Stationary vehicle heating at parking on stabling tracks - through the ordinary pantograph (i.e. the current collector) or - through a special stationary cheating terminal d, to be connected to the train 5 Complementary runs 6 Maintenance of vehicles 7 Operation and maintenance of fixed installations not including heating of premises 8 Heating of buildings and other premises serving the rail transportation system Table 2-1 Energy consumption for various purposes The various purposed are further explained and exemplified in the text sections below. In this study energy consumption is determined for purposes 1 3 3.<br><br> In some cases energy for stationary heating at parking (purpose 4) is included in the measured raw data. In such cases energy for purpose 4 is estimated and excluded from reported energy consumption. Energy for purposes 5 3 8 is not regarded at all in this study.<br><br> As a transportation system, the railways thus require more available functions than the actual propulsion and hauling of vehicles. Naturally, this also applies to other modes of transport: road, air and sea transportation. 5 Below are some examples, comments and comparisons given of the various purposes as listed in Table 2-1, for electric rail transportation as well as the corresponding road traffic.<br><br> The examples presented are, however, not claimed to be a comprehensive list. 1 Propulsion Railway - The electric energy received via the pantograph (current collector), to drive the train from A to B or (as used in this study): - The electric energy taken from the public electric power grid, converted and transmitted through the catenary to the train 9s panto- graph, used for driving the trains from A to B. Thus this energy includes losses in the railway 9s supply system.<br><br> Road - The energy content of the fuel that has to be taken from the fuel tank of the car to drive the vehicle from A to B. - As above, with addition of the energy needed for transportation of the fuel from the fuel refinery to the fuelling station as well as for opera- tion of the fuelling station. Besides the energy needed for propulsion, the energy required for running the necessary auxiliary machines and all the safety-related equipment (brakes, external lighting, door closure etc.) is included.<br><br> This is normally the case for both rail and road transport. 2 Comfort during the journey Railway - Heating - Ventilation and air condition in compartments and drivers cabin - Interior lighting - Carbody tilt when negotiating curves at increased speed (where applicable) - Haulage and operation of restaurant car, or other catering facility (where applicable) Road - Heating - Ventilation and air conditioning - Interior lighting - (Roadside inn) Heating, lighting and ventilation are included in the energy consumption reported for trains in this study. Reported energy consumption of trains also includes carbody tilt equipment as well as haulage and operation of restaurant cars where applicable (in the present study for the trains X 2000 and Signatur).<br><br> The restaurant car has no real corresponding facility in road transportation, at least not in private cars. Where a train includes a restaurant car, a normal figure for the additional energy needed for its haulage and operation is usually in the order of 5 3 10 %, although variations exist. 6 3 Idling outside scheduled service Railway - Idling standstill in workshop areas - Idling standstill before departure - Idling during station stops Road - Idling at preparation, checking and repair - Idling before departure - Idling during intermediate stops Energy consumed at idling outside scheduled service is included in the energy figures reported for trains in this study.<br><br> The amount of energy needed for this purpose is estimated to around 2 % of the total energy consumption, as an average. Including idling as above is equivalent of what is normally included in corresponding figures for practical road vehicle operations. 4 Stationary vehicle heating at parking Railway - Stationary heating at parking on stabling tracks, electric power supplied from the catenary through the pantograph - Stationary heating at parking on stabling tracks, electric power supplied from special heating terminals or sockets - Stationary heating in workshops Road - Stationary heating supplied from the ordinary fuel (petrol or diesel) - Stationary heating supplied from an electrical socket connected to an electrical grid - Stationary heating in garages Electric energy for train heating supplied from the catenary and pantograph is in some cases included in the raw data, as measured and stored by the energy meter of the train.<br><br> However, the energy for such heating is normally not included in energy consumption figures, neither for rail nor road transport. Thus, the estimated amount of energy for stationary heating is excluded from the energy reported in this study . 5 Complementary runs Energy for complementary runs , i.e.<br><br> propulsion of trains from the stabling tracks or maintenance facilities to the departure tracks, including shunting operations, is not included in energy consumption data as reported in this study. This is equivalent as for buses or taxis, where energy consumption for such complementary runs is normally not included. Energy for such runs is sometimes included in the measured raw data for the trains in this study, but in such cases also the corresponding running distance is included.<br><br> Therefore the measured energy per running distance (kWh per train-km) does not include extra energy for complementary runs. The amount of energy needed for this purpose is estimated to around 4 % of the total energy consumption, as an average. 7 6 3 8 Vehicle maintenance, operation and maintenance of fixed installations, heating of buildings and other premises Energy used for these purposes is not regarded and is not included in the energy figures reported in this study.<br><br> So is usually also the case for road and other modes of transport. Comments Although not all purposes of energy consumption are included in the figures reported in this study, this is usually the case for other modes of transport. Moreover, from a scientific point of view, it is most important to know what is included and what is not included.<br><br> In addition, the various purposes of energy consumption need various types of electrical equipment, having inherent energy losses. The losses are usually included in the measured (or calculated) amount of energy consumed by the train. However, there is a substantial energy loss in the railway system also before the energy reaches the train, namely in the power supply system of an electric railway.<br><br> These losses are dealt with in Section 2.2.2 and will be added to the energy consumption as measured at the train (pantograph) level. 2.1.2 Variation by season Energy consumption of trains exhibits usually a variation by season. In winter time (December 3 February) temperatures in Scandinavia have averages reaching from about 0 to -7 °C.<br><br> The extremes from day to day may be much more varying, in particular on the low side. These temperature conditions are prevailing in the southern half of Scandinavia where most of the electric train operations are performed. The low temperatures result in an increased need for heating in the trains 3 i.e.<br><br> an increased amount of comfort energy - and thus increased energy consumption both in ordinary train operations and for parking at stabling tracks. Also in the operating mode the trains will need an increased amount of energy at low temperatures. Firstly doors are opened frequently, in particular on regional and local trains, thus letting out some amount of heat which must be compensated for by more heating in the trains.<br><br> Secondly, air density will be higher at low temperatures , which produces a higher amount of air drag, proportional to the air density . At the same air pressure the air density is about 10 % higher at -7 ºC than at +20 ºC, thus producing 10 % increased air drag. The latter is particularly important for high-speed trains running at speeds around 200 km/h or more; as these trains have normally more than 50 % of the energy consumption due to air drag.<br><br> There is likely also an increased air drag due to snow dust and similar, although these effects are not studied in detail. On the contrary, in late spring, summer and early autumn (May 3 September), average temperatures are usually in the range of +10 ºC to +20 ºC. The need for comfort energy is at a minimum.<br><br> Outside temperatures are not far from the desired average inside the train. There is sometimes need for air condition (air cooling) consuming some energy, but this need is usually compensated by less energy needed for heating. At very high temperatures in summer time the energy consumption should increase to some extent due to air cooling, but due to the (normally) short periods of high temperatures in Scandinavia this is not obviously reflected in the monthly count of total energy consumption.<br><br> In the present study, energy consumption has been measured in some trains during time periods of up to three years. Figure 2-1 shows an example of such a time series of energy consumption. It is measured on six Regina trains in regional service for X-Trafik in Sweden (see further Section 3.3.2) .<br><br> The tendencies described above are quite clear. 8 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 Jan-03 July Jan-04 July Jan-05 July Nov. Energy cons.<br><br> (kWh/train-km) Month Fig 2-1 Energy consumption for a fleet of six Regina trains during three years. Regional train service at X-Trafik in middle part of Sweden. Monthly averages.<br><br> Energy for parking on stabling tracks is included. Electric energy as measured from the train 9s pantograph, i.e. losses in supply system is not included.<br><br> On some trains reported in this study the energy measurements are performed during a much shorter period than a year. The longer time series should allow corrections of measured energy data (under shorter periods) to an approximate yearly average, although such corrections are not actually made in this study. In doubtful cases the estimations are rather made towards the conservative side.<br><br> 2.1.3 Load factor for different types of trains In this study the load factor is defined as the ratio between the actual number of passenger- km in a specific train operation and the number of offered seat-km . The latter is proportional to the number of seats in the train. The actual load factor varies largely on different trains in the course of the traffic day, week or year.<br><br> The number of passengers also varies on different sections along the line; usually the load factor increases when the train is running through the more populated areas. Trains in big city areas, serving passengers travelling for work or schools have usually very pronounced peaks in the number of passengers during rush hours (07 3 09 and 16 3 18). The number of passengers during the most dominant rush hour may be up to 5 - 6 times higher than the average during the whole traffic day (06 3 24).<br><br> Such trains are usually called local trains or commuter trains , on intermediate distances also regional trains . A special type of local or regional trains is airport trains , serving airline passengers and airport staff. It is usually impossible 3 or very difficult 3 to even out the peaks over the day.<br><br> The passengers have to travel when they need to, and the cost of travel is usually quite modest in relation to the benefits of being on work or schools on due time. The large peaks in rush hours necessitate larger trains (with more seats or standing areas) than otherwise needed. Such trains are therefore running with a considerable spare capacity 9 most of the day or year.<br><br> The average load factor is usually quite modest 3 usually in the range of 20 3 40 %. On the contrary, long-distance trains are different. Travel times are longer and are being spread out over a longer period of the day.<br><br> Also, the cost of travelling long-distance is considerable for most passengers. Therefore, in order to push passengers to use empty seats on non-peak hours, ticket fares are usually lower on these hours. These factors result in a more spread-out travelling, with a higher and more even load factor over the day or the week.<br><br> Modern high-speed trains - with competitive travel time and ticket pricing - usually have average load factors of 50 3 75 %, comparable with most domestic air lines. Slower conventional long-distance trains have usually a more modest load factor. 2.1.4 Load factor and energy consumption In order to understand the importance of the load factor for the energy consumption we will at first discuss energy consumption of trains generally.<br><br> Energy consumption for train operations may be measured and expressed per ton-km, train- km, car-km, seat-km or per passenger-km. In the latter case the energy consumption is related to the number of passengers using the actual train or to the number of passenger-km produced . From an energy efficiency point of view, the latter is the most interesting.<br><br> The energy consumption of passenger trains have usually two dominating factors, namely the energy consumed for compensating the air drag and the energy consumed for acceleration of the train to the cruising speed. Besides these factors also the rolling resistance (sometimes called mechanical resistance) have some influence, as also energy for comfort (heating, illumination, carbody tilt, catering and others). All equipment utilising energy on the train has energy losses.<br><br> This means that not all consumed energy is converted into the desired effect, but instead into useless heat. Part of the losses are related to the auxiliary equipment such as ventilation and cooling of propulsion equipment, supply of compressed air for brakes, etc. The losses and auxiliaries usually consumes in the order of 20 3 25 % of the energy intake, as an average in modern trains.<br><br> In the most efficient operating mode the losses may be somewhat lower than indicated above; however at lower levels of propulsion output (i.e. at almost idling) the losses are usually higher as a percentage. By acceleration the train mass is given a higher speed.<br><br> Electric energy is converted to kinetic energy. A higher target speed and train mass need more energy for acceleration. Thus, more passengers on the train will principally result in higher energy consumption.<br><br> This is most important for trains with frequent stops and subsequent accelerations to high speed. The additional energy consumption as an effect of increased train mass for additional passengers is, however, very small. For example, a three-car Regina train in fast regional operation (see Fig 1-2) with fully seated load (272 passengers, around 22 tonnes) has approximately 5 % higher energy consumption than an empty train.<br><br> Another example is the X 2000 high-speed train (Fig 1-1). Loaded with the maximum number of seated passengers (320 passengers, around 26 tonnes) the energy consumption of X 2000 is estimated to increase in the order of 3 %. From these figures it is easy to understand that the energy consumption for a train is quite constant and almost independent of the actual number of passengers, i.e.<br><br> independent of the load factor. Thus, per passenger or passenger-km the energy consumption is approximately inversely proportional to the actual load factor. For example, a load factor of 60 % instead of 30 %, gives approximately half the energy consumption as measured per passenger-km.<br><br> 10 In this study we throughout apply this simplifying assumption. Within the actual range of load factors (20 3 60 %) the resulting error would be only 1 3 2 %. Further, in most cases in the present study energy consumption (per train-km) is measured at about the actual average load factor, a fact that will reduce the error to almost zero.<br><br> 2.2 Power supply for electric railways Electric power for rail traffic in Denmark, Norway and Sweden derives from the national power grid. Conversion of electric power (between different voltages and sometimes also frequency of the alternating current) takes place in a number of stages as described in Sections 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 below. 2.2.1 Feeding stations and catenary We will take the Swedish electrical supply system as a basis for the description of the Scandinavian systems.<br><br> In Sweden electric power is usually fed to the railway from the public power grid in the form of high-voltage three-phase alternating current (130 kV, 50 Hz). This power is brought into Banverket 9s (the Swedish National Rail Administration) supply stations; see Figure 2-2. In these stations the electric power is immediately divided into two parts as described below.<br><br> The major part is taken to static converters (to some extent still also the older rotary converters) where the electric power is converted to a low-frequency single-phase alternating current (15 kV at 16 2/3 Hz) to be used by the trains. In order to feed the trains from the converter stations a so-called catenary cable is suspended over the track at a height of 5 3 6 m. On lines with heavy traffic and needs for a high amount of power over long distances, a supplementary high-voltage supply line (130 kV) is used, feeding power to the catenary via transformers.<br><br> The extra high-voltage supply line reduces the voltage drop and the energy losses in the supply system. The low-frequency supply system also comprises socket terminals (1 kV) for stationary vehicle heating at stabling tracks. Figure 2-2 Supply system for electric power on Swedish mainline railways 3 overview.<br><br> 11 The second and minor part is taken to an auxiliary power line feeding the railway 9s fixed installations, workshops, some railway stations, etc. The auxiliary power is finally conver- ted to normal industrial standard, i.e. a three-phase alternating current at 230/400 V, 50 Hz.<br><br> In the previously mentioned study of 1994  the auxiliary electric energy (measured in GWh) was estimated to about 15 % of the total electric power intake. In Norway the supply system is similar to the Swedish system, i.e. electric power is taken from the public electrical grid and is converted to single-phase alternating current of 15 kV, 16 2/3 Hz.<br><br> Some differences exist, however being of minor importance for this study. The supply systems in Sweden and Norway date back to the early 1900 9s at which time the locomotives required a low-frequent current (15 or 16 2/3 Hz), due to their principal technical design and features at that time. Thus, the somewhat complicated supply system in Sweden and Norway (as well as in Germany, Austria and Switzerland) has historical technical reasons.<br><br> In Denmark the electric supply system for the mainline railways is different from Sweden and Norway. The mainline railway electrification started in the 1980 9s, at which time it was feasible to have a supply system according to the normal industrial standard of 50 Hz. Such a system requires (somewhat simplified) only transformers between the public electrical grid and the catenary, i.e.<br><br> the special frequency converter is not needed. The voltage is 25 kV according to modern international standards for railway mainline electrification. This system is simpler and less expensive and more efficient with less energy loss than in the older systems in Sweden and Norway.<br><br> Although the description of the supply systems is simplified it reviews the most important parts and features of interest to the present study. 2.2.2 Losses and energy efficiency Energy consumption of trains is usually primarily measured (or calculated) at the pantograph level, i.e. at the intake to the train.<br><br> However, the energy needed at the train 9s pantograph causes energy losses in the supply system. In order to estimate the energy being consumed in the railway system as a result of a specific train operation, these losses should be added to the energy intake to the trains. The losses in the supply system are dependent on the power load, which varies over time.<br><br> In this study, however, we will estimate and consider the average losses in the system. If the utilised energy is E (at the pantograph) and the energy intake is E in the energy loss is E loss = E in 3 E. The relative loss e loss (of the intake) is determined by e loss = E loss / E in .<br><br> The energy efficiency · is then determined by · = E / E in or · = 1 3 e loss . Also, e loss may be determined by e loss = 1 - · If the utilised energy is known to be E , the energy intake E in is E in = E / · . Example: If the energy consumed at the train 9s pantograph is 1000 kWh and the average efficiency is 83 %, the energy intake E in = 1000 / 0.83 H 1200 kWh.<br><br> The energy loss E loss = 1200 - 1000 = 200 kWh, and the relative loss e loss = 200 / 1200 H 0.17, i.e. 17 % loss of the intake. The energy intake is 20 % higher than the utilised energy.<br><br> 12 In the Swedish and Norwegian systems both the converters (with necessary transformers) and the catenary generate losses. In the Danish supply system there are no converters at all, and a less number of transformers, all factors reducing the losses. The higher voltage (25 kV instead of 15 kV) means less current at a fixed power output, which also reduces losses.<br><br> Some of the Swedish and Norwegian converters are still rotary converters being tedious to start and phase-in to the electrical grid. Therefore these converters are running quite a lot idling while producing idling losses. The average efficiency of these converters is therefore lower than the more modern static converters, being easier to start-up.<br><br> There are energy losses also in the catenary system. Losses in the catenary increase with an increased amount of current. Efficiency and losses in the actual supply systems The exact efficiency of the whole supply system, including converters, transformers, catenary and other parts is actually not exactly known.<br><br> In Sweden Banverket has recently measured the efficiency of the converter stations for part of one year (Jan 3 August 2004) . The average ratio between supplied energy to the catenary system and the energy intake from the public grid (excluding auxiliary power) was 0.915. This means that the average efficiency of the converter stations was 91.5 % during that time period.<br><br> This is actually some 3 - 4 % better than in 1994 , likely due to a change from rotary to static converters. No recent measurements or estimations on the efficiency of the Swedish catenary system are known according to Banverket. In 1994  the average energy efficiency of the catenary system was estimated to 93 % for the older electric vehicles with thyristor control, consuming an increased amount of current for a fixed power intake.<br><br> This is (technically) due to the out-of-phase current in relation to the phase of the voltage. For the more modern vehicles, the current is essentially in-phase with the voltage, the consumed current and thus the losses are lower. Also the harmonics in the current are lower, also producing a less amount of losses.<br><br> Modern electrically propelled rail vehicles have induction motor drives fed by advanced semiconductor converters. Practically all new electric trains delivered on the Scandinavian market since the early 1990 9s have these features. For this type of electric vehicles the average efficiency in the catenary system was estimated to 96 % in 1994.<br><br> For 2004 the same total efficiency is assumed for the Swedish catenary system. The traffic has increased from 1994 to 2004, in particular passenger services, to a minor extent also the rail freight transport. The higher power transferred should increase the percentage losses in catenaries, all other factors being equal.<br><br> However, the supply system has been improved considerably during the 10 years. More 130 kV supply lines have been installed in parallel with the catenary, which should reduce the losses at higher power loadings. In all it is judged that the average efficiency of the catenary system should be approximately the same in 2004 as in 1994.<br><br> Total average efficiencies in the Swedish supply system (2004) are therefore estimated to - 0.915 · 0.96 H 0.88, i.e. 88 %, for supply to modern electric trains, and - 0.915 · 0.93 H 0.85, i.e. 85 %, for supply to the older types of trains.<br><br> These efficiencies are about 3 % better than in 1994. However, the overall average efficiency has improved by more than that, due to the larger amount of modern electric trains. A modern train of 2004 has about 6 % better efficiency (7 % less losses) in the supply system than the older types of trains in 1994.<br><br> 13 Estimations of losses and energy efficiency have been made also in Denmark and Norway. For electric mainline railways in Denmark the average efficiency is reported to 95 % . For southern Norway the average losses are reported to 14 % of the intake , i.e.<br><br> the efficiency is 86 %. This is an average, so modern trains may have a slightly higher efficiency. As no other figures are known we use the (likely) conservative figure as above.<br><br> Losses in the supply system are included in the energy estimations As pointed out previously losses in the power supply system will be included in the energy consumption estimations as reported in the following Chapters 3, 4 and 5. The energy measured at the train pantograph level is multiplied with the following factors - 1 / 0.88 H 1.14 for Sweden, - 1 / 0.95 H 1.05 for Denmark and - 1 / 0.86 H 1.16 for southern Norway. Comments It could be discussed whether the above kind of estimation is comparable to the energy consumption usually reported for road vehicles using petrol or diesel fuel, or in the air transport system using kerosene.<br><br> In the latter cases the losses in the croad d or cair d systems 3 for fuel transport and others 3 before the petrol reaches the fuel tank, are usually not included in the energy consumption estimations. However, the losses in the railway supply system have no direct equivalent in the other transport systems. The power supply system is very well integrated into the total railway system.<br><br> This may be an argument for inclusion of losses in the railway supply system. Another argument is that we would like to make a somewhat conservative estimate rather than an estimate on the low side. Finally, most important from a scientific point of view is that it is declared what is included and what is not included, in order to be transparent for further evaluations and considerations .<br><br> 2.2.3 Energy recovery A train consumes energy when it is accelerating or running uphill. The train also consumes energy due to air drag, mechanical (rolling) resistance and comfort needs. The energy consumed for pure acceleration is converted into kinetic energy of the train, with exception of the losses in the propulsion system (including the need for auxiliary power).<br><br> The energy needed for running uphill is converted to potential energy of the train, with exception of losses. The kinetic energy of the train can principally be converted to electric energy if the electric motors are switched over to electrical generators, thus also producing a torque being able to contribute to the braking effort of the train. The generated electric energy can be fed back to the catenary through the electric propulsion equipment of the train.<br><br> Thus energy is regenerated and partly recovered. Also this 8reverse 9 process will be subject to energy losses. Despite the losses, if the braking is made entirely by the celectric d regenerative brakes (except at very low speeds) a modern electric train can regenerate and recover as much as 60 3 70 % of the energy input for accelerating the train.<br><br> Principally the same applies to the uphill and downhill cases. 14 Energy needed to overcome the air drag and mechanical resistance is dissipative and can not be recovered at all. Energy for providing a comfortable environment in the train (heating & air condition, lighting, catering etc) can not even be recovered.<br><br> Therefore, in total the percentage amount of energy recovery is usually much less than the 60 3 70 % as mentioned above. However, trains running at modest speeds (100 3 140 km/h) stopping at closely located stations, may have a considerable degree of energy recovery, in some cases up to 30 3 40 %. In the regenerative braking mode the motors are working as generators and electric energy is fed back via the pantograph to the catenary.<br><br> Normally this regenerated energy can be used by other trains on the line. If other trains are not capable of absorbing the regenerated amount of energy, the energy may be fed back to the public network if the converter station is technically equipped accordingly. In some supply stations this is possible.<br><br> Some recovered energy may also be used to provide auxiliary power. However, sometimes these possibilities are occasionally insufficient to absorb all regene- rated energy. In such cases the voltage on the catenary will rise.<br><br> When the voltage is rising too high the regeneration is stopped automatically and the braking effort is produced by the mechanical brakes or the magnetic brakes. Mechanical brakes are also used as a supplement to the electric regenerative brakes if more braking effort is occasionally needed than the electric brakes are able to produce. Whatever the actual case, the energy recovery, as measured at the pantograph level, will include and reflect all these positive and negative effects.<br><br> A great proportion of electrically powered axles in the train, and a large amount of propulsion power, increase the chances of a large degree of energy recovery. To conclude, modern electric trains with a high amount of propulsion power, and a large proportion of powered axles, are able to recover a considerable amount of the gross energy consumption, without loosing too much of the braking effort in normal operation. Most of the recovered energy, being fed back to the catenary, can normally be utilised by other trains or for other purposes.<br><br> The net energy consumption, i.e. energy intake minus regenerated energy, can be reduced by 10 3 30 %, where the lower figure is typical for high-speed trains with few stops; the higher figure is more typical for modern stopping trains at fairly low speeds. The cases shown in the following Chapter 3 will present examples of energy regeneration and recovery.<br><br> However, none of these cases is a stopping train at a fairly low speed. 15 2.3 The various modes of electric power production Electric power (or energy) is e.g. a carrier of energy produced (or converted) in some kind of power station.<br><br> Electric power can be produced from various sources of primary energy. The Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) have a common market for electric energy (Iceland is in this study not included in the common Nordic market for electric energy). Deficiency or surplus in one region or country is normally balanced by an exchange of electric energy through the high-voltage transmission grid connecting the different regions.<br><br> On the Nordic market a number of production modes are used. The different modes are used to varying extent from year to year, depending mainly on the availability of hydropower and closure of nuclear power stations. Therefore an average over a longer period should be estimated.<br><br> In this study a 5 year period (2000-2004) is judged as being representative for the present electric power production. Table 2-2 below lists the quantities of electric energy as produced with various modes, as an average over the years 2000 - 2004. As no summary is known, statistics from different sources [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] are being used and summarized.<br><br> Table 2-2: Electric power production on the common Nordic market, Year average 2000 3 2004. Average el. generation (TWh) (%) year: 2000-04 Total generation 377 100 Nuclear power 86 23 Thermal power 85 23 - condensing power 29 8 - CHP 1 , district heating 36 10 - CHP 1 , industry 20 5 - gas turbines, etc.<br><br> 0 0 Hydropower 200 53 Other renewable power 6 2 - wind power 6 2 1) CHP = Combined Heat and Power Generation. Comments Between year 2000 and 2003 wind power is accounted for as 8 9other renewable power 9 9 in the statistics . Power produced by waste and peat is accounted for as 8 9other thermal power 9 9.<br><br> However, in year 2004 peat and waste is accounted for as cother renewable power d . For the consistency of Table 2-2, power produced by peat and waste during 2004 is here accounted for as cother thermal power d as well. When considering the average emissions in years 2000 3 2004 the waste and peat are treated as renewable energy sources.<br><br> Existing condensing power stations have efficiencies in the range of 33 3 47 % [8, 9, 10], the most modern having about 47 %. This means that 53 - 67 % of the energy content become energy losses (low temperature heat). The combined gas cycle (gas turbines + steam turbines) is a modern mean of electric power production from fossil or other fuels, 16 having an efficiency of 50 3 58 %.<br><br> With combined electric and heat production (CHP) a total energy efficiency of 75 3 92 % can be reached [8, 9, 10]. The total amount of electric power generation is split between the different Nordic countries according to Table 2-3. Iceland is excluded in this study, since it is not connected to the Nordic grid connecting the other countries.<br><br> Table 2-3: Electric power production in the Nordic countries, year average 2000 3 2004. El. gen.<br><br> (TWh) El. gen. (%) Denmark 38 10 Finland 75 20 Norway 123 33 Sweden 142 38 Total 377 100 In Sweden hydro and nuclear power is dominant.<br><br> In Norway hydropower alone contributes to 99 % of the production. In Denmark coal-, oil- and gas-burning power stations produce about 3/4 of the country 9s electric power and about 7 % of the Nordic power. Finland has a more diversified production with almost 50 % being nuclear and coal, but also considerable amounts from hydropower, bio fuels, natural gas and peat.<br><br> Regarding CO 2 emissions Denmark has the highest contribution on the Nordic electric power market, followed by Finland. 17 2.4 Average, marginal or cgreen d electric power? There are a number of different opinions on how electric power (or energy) for rail operations 3 and its related air pollutions - for rail operations should be assessed and compared with other means of transport mainly using fossil fuels, mostly oil and sometimes natural gas.<br><br> In most railway systems there are no electric power stations exclusively dedicated for the railway operations, although such systems exist. Instead, the electric energy is taken from the public electrical grid, normally from the high-voltage system (for example 130 kV in Sweden). In the public electric grid there is a large number of different types of power stations supplying the electric energy; see for example Section 2.3.<br><br> These different production means have very different characteristics regarding energy efficiency, emissions of air pollution etc. As a matter of fact, one of the advantages with the use of electric energy is that it can be produced by a number of different means, the cbest d of them could be chosen. For example, it is not necessary to produce electric power by burning fossil fuels with its related emissions of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , NO x ) and other emissions.<br><br> In the long term it is possible to use hydro, wind, solar, bio or nuclear power, at every time using the mode of electric power production that is considered to be the best from a number of considerations such as reliability of supply, economics and environmental performance. In practice, in a public electric grid there is usually a mixed electric power production. The issue here is how to determine a comparable measure of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions in such a mixed system.<br><br> This issue has been discussed by many authors; see for example . There are at least three possibilities, according to Sections 2.4.1 3 2.4.3 below. 2.4.1 Average electric power production, with average emissions This principle can be applied on a limited common market with a high amount of trading and exchange, in order to even out the deficiencies and surplus of electric energy between different regions and users at every time.<br><br> The common Nordic electric power market fulfils these criteria. This principle will be applied as one alternative in the estimations and conclusions in the following Chapters 3 3 5. 2.4.2 Marginal electric energy Marginal electric energy is the energy being produced for an additional rail passenger or an additional train, or for an increased amount of rail transport, or a certain amount of rail transport instead of no rail transport at all.<br><br> In principal it is easy to understand the rationales behind such an approach. However, in practice it has not always been easy to determine the cmarginal d energy and its related cmarginal d emissions. The result depends on what production means being available when the demand for electric power increases.<br><br> It also depends on the available transmission capacity. These factors vary over time. The result is also depending on the regulatory framework and other restrictions.<br><br> The result is also dependent very much on the timeframe in which the additional rail transport is carried out. We will consider two principally different timeframes as described below. 18 Short-term This is the case where an additional passenger travels in one of the trains being run within a timetable period, being planned and decided by the train operator about a year before the real travel occurs.<br><br> This passenger uses an otherwise empty seat. The additional cmarginal d energy consumption related to this additional passenger - or a limited number of passengers using a fixed number of trains - is very small or negligible. For example, according to an estimation made in this study, an additional passenger travelling in an electric train from Stockholm to Gothenburg (455 km) would cause an additional energy amount in the order of 0.5 kWh (taken from the public electrical grid), or about 0.001 kWh per km.<br><br> This corresponds to the energy content in about 0.05 litres of petrol or diesel fuel, for the 455 km additional journey. This marginal energy is very small, c.f. for example Chapter 4 in this report.<br><br> The very small amount of cmarginal d energy for a single passenger is thus very small 3 practically negligible. Such a marginal contribution is very relevant for travel and travel decisions on an individual basis within a short timeframe (a year or less). However, such marginal effects will not be considered in the following chapters 3 -5, although this issue may be highly relevant for the individual potential passenger in the choice between different transport modes.<br><br> Instead more long-term effects will be taken into account, being of interest for the planning of the future transport system. Intermediate or long-term Larger long-term variations in rail transport would cause an increased number of trains on the existing or extended rail infrastructure. If these trains will consume more electric energy than the existing trains, thus a cmarginal d or additional amount of energy will be needed.<br><br> An interesting issue is what amount of additional emissions of air pollutions that will result from the additional electric energy production. Since 2005 onwards a regulatory framework 3 the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) - is in effect within Europe . It is aimed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions according to the Kyoto obligations, by allocating gradually reduced emission allowances to different sectors and entities.<br><br> If one entity is not able to reduce its emissions, or wants to even increase them, that entity must buy allowances from another entity being able to reduce emissions at a cost less than the price of the transferred allowances. During the initial phase (2005 - 2007) only emissions of CO 2 will be regulated and subject to trading. It will cover large emitters in the power and heat generation sectors and in energy-intensive industries.<br><br> Electric power generation is subject to this regulation and emission trading. In the second phase the scheme may be extended to other sectors (such the transport sector using fossil fuels) and to other greenhouse gases (NO x , methane and others) also being part of the obligations in the Kyoto protocol. As a result this regulatory scheme will limit the emission of greenhouse gases in the sectors being subject to the regulation.<br><br> This means, for example, that any increase in electric energy demand will either force the electric power companies to make improvements in their power stations, or to build new 8 9green power 9 9 production facilities, in order to reduce their specific emissions, or force them to buy allowances from other companies being able and willing to make the necessary improvements. This is under the likely assumption that most of the available allowances are utilised, i.e. th<br><br>