The Legacy of One: George Washington , Nationalism and the Modern Nation Craig J. Perrier 8/19 /09 NEH Institute George Washington and His Legacy: Myths, Symbols, and Realities Conceptualizations of nationalism, in relation to the modern nation - state, vary in focus fluctuating among political, cultural, economic, social, and militaristic cores of thought. In general, scholarship responding to Ernest Renan 9s inquiry in 1882 cWhat is a nation? d establishes nationalism either as a n existential force forming a collective or as a phenomenon manifesting from political unification.
Furthermore, nationalism is associated with the construction of collective identities, historical memory, and political policies. In the midst of these int er pretations sits philosopher Ernest Gellner 9s 1983 work, Nations and Nationalism . A rguing for a cuseful typology of nationalisms (defining) crucial factors which enter into the making of a modern society d ( 88), Gellner presents nationalism a s a uni versal principle harmonizing cultural and political units through the interrelationship of power, education, and identity.
Applied to the creation of the United States, Gellner 9s voice manifests itself in the writings of George Washington. Specifically, Washingto n 9s cCircular to the States d, cFarewell Address d, and his cLast Will ... more. less.
and Testament d, corroborates Gellner 9s paradigm. Similarly, later nationalistic movements produce patriarchs whose legacies are captured in their own words, for their own nation, but can 9 t ignore Washington 9s progenitorial template .<br><br> Indeed, modern political heroes, sons of revolution with nationalistic genes, are global offspring of the cFoundingest Father of them all. d 1 The United States 9 emergence as a nation is problematic for the clai ms of some nationalism theories . Difficulties flow from its unique positi on as the first modern republic. Subsequently, critiques generate questions concerning modern cosmology, the rise of nation - states, and an objective definition of nationalism.<br><br> Howeve r, s cholar Anthony Smith, in his work Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era , invites the United States into the discussion of modern nationhood. He summarizes, cNations can be found from earliest antiquity, from the beginnings of records in ancient Sumer and Egypt, and they have dominated political life in every era since that time d (35). Smith continuing his timeline, establishes the existence of nationalism as ca fairly recent phenomenon, dating from the late eighteenth century, but it is also possible to trace the growth of national sentiments which transcend ethnic ties back to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries d (38).<br><br> He challenges the academic tradition (perpetuated in most high school textbooks) of identifying nationalism as a phenomenon of the F rench Revolution. Smith, labeling this idea a fallacy of modernist thought, expands dialogues on nationalism to include the origin of the United States. It is axiomatic, therefore, that George Washington 9s influence on nationalism and the modern nation - st ate be included in any relevant theory or model.<br><br> American Historian Gordon Wood 9s celebration of Washington as an indispensable persona among the Founding Fathers confirms the General 9s impact upon American nationalism at the genesis of the republic. Expan ding the historical context of Wood 9s claim beyond national borders fixes Washington on a global stage casting him as the lead protagonist of nationalism in the modern era (Bender 105 - 6, 212). At the point of separation from Britain, the American colonies were already displaying a cultural nationality but lacked a political unit.<br><br> Expressed in the Declaration of Independence was the existence of a cdistinct, and singular, 8people 9 who had taken the decision to dissolve the political bands which have connect ed them with another d (Grant 160). The process of a collective nationalism, a product of the colonial era for generations, was observed by Hector St. John de Crevecoeur in 1782, noting the American to be different from Europeans by embracing new manners, p rejudices, and government (Grant 164).<br><br> What the Americans did lack was a nationalistic mythology, symbols, and an identity that would underlie the new nation. Simply put, cthe very modernity of their nation was its weakness d (Grant 169). To these ends, Wa shington plays a paramount role, satisfying ideals and epitomizing a new nationalism rooted in republicanism.<br><br> Synthesizing socio - political notions, Washington is an object of nationalism; cAfter the trials of war, America confronted the task of nation buil ding. It was in the context of this task that the veneration of Washington assumed a new and critical significance d (Schwartz 44). Themes and topics of reverence about the General were not difficult to establish.<br><br> The nation 9s first hero was a martial, mor al, familial and political icon whose death consecrated his life. 2 The purest invention of Washington 9s national import, however, is found in his words and not in the constructions of the citizenry. With patriarchal tonality, Washington acknowledged the present realities and future possibilities of the nation at the end of the Revolutionary War, cAt this auspicious period the United States came into existence as a Nation, and if their Citizens should not be completely free and happy, the fault will be en tirely their own d (Circular to the States).<br><br> Washington 9s voice, acting as the subject of American nationalism and defining its incipient character, fortifies the national pillars of power, education and identity hypothesized by Gellner. Applied to his the ory, Washington has Janus - like qualities. He is the bridge between colony and nation, embodying the era when, as Lord Acton stated in the 19 th century, cnations would not be governed by foreigners d (Gellner 134).<br><br> Gellner 9s three factor matrix, formulate d a century after Renan 9s landmark lecture on nationhood , offers a universal typology applicable to a variety of nationalisms. His triad of power, education, and identity, interact in cvarious possible combinations . .<br><br> . which enter into the making of a mo dern society d (88). Considered separately, Gellner defines each, overlapping sociological, political, economic and cultural dynamics.<br><br> Power, his first element, is understood as the process of centralizing national authority, cin the sense that the mainten ance of order is the task of one agency& and not dispersed throughout society d (88). Education, his next factor, crefers to that complex set of skills which makes a man competent to occupy most of the ordinary positions in a modern society d (89). Here Gell ner emphasizes the importance of literacy but adm its the potential for inequality among the populace stating cit may be that only the power - holders have access, that they use their power - privilege to preserve for themselves the monopoly of this access d (90 ).<br><br> Regardless, education acts as a viable method of equipping citizens with skills and talents to continue the nation 9s existence. The third element, identity, is characterized as the cdistinctive style of conduct and communication of a given community d ( 92). Gellner is concerned with the relationship between high culture and anthropological culture in norm established s ocieties emphasizing group identity in social hierarchies.<br><br> T he interaction of Gel lner 9s three factors generates various national models ea ch with distinct specifications. Therefore, nationalism is cthe consequence of a new form of social organization, based on deeply internalized, education - dependent high cultures, each protected by its own state d (48). Washington, two hundred years prior t o Gellner, understood this modern principle.<br><br> Writing to John Augustine on June 15, 1783, the day after his cCircular to the States d was composed, Washington is clear in his vision, cWe are a young nation and have a character to establish, It behooves us th erefore to set out right for first impressions will be lasting d (Morgan 20). Washington , acting as a father of a nation , is unmistakable . The national character he envisions is outlined, in real terms, in three farewell addresses.<br><br> Written over a span of si xteen years, Washington 9s trinity of adieus mark endings in his life while crystallizing his beliefs regarding America 9s national character. Although with each departure his audience varied, the national composite formed timeless ideals for cthe destiny of unborn Millions d (Circular). Washington Domestic Washington 9s first farewell, his cCircular to State Governments d (1783) coincides with his exit from military service (see Appendix 1).<br><br> Historian Joseph Ell is considers the piece to be the General 9s cmos t poignant piece of writing he ever composed. . .<br><br> (calling) forth Washington 9s most visionary energies d (145). Washington speaks in the collective and familial listing four points cessential to the well being &(and) to the existence of the United States a s an Independent Power d. In Gellner 9s terms, the c Circular d is steeped in the factors of power and identity anchoring the new nation 9s character to the revolution just won.<br><br> Regarding cpower d, Washington 9s refrain is clear, cUnion d. In unambiguous languag e, Washington establishes the foundation of future Federalism, ca Supreme Power to regulate and govern the general concerns of the Confederated Republic, without which the Union cannot be of long duration. That there must be a faithfull (sic) and pointed c ompliance on the part of every State .<br><br> . . that without an entire conformity to the Spirit of the Union, we cannot exist as an Independent Power. d Washington 9s advice calls for something that is still years away, a strong national government.<br><br> His desire t o ccultivate a spirit of subordination and obedience to Government d are means to an end that will insure a nation of liberty, prosperity and happiness. When the Constitution is ratified six years later in 1789, it becomes a sacred text of the American cree d and a model for democratic republics to come. Washington 9s unanimous election as first chief executive under that government is indicative of the esteem, both physical and symbolic, held for him by his contemporaries.<br><br> cPower d , cUnion d and cWashington d we re synonymous. Gellner 9s concept of cidentity d, in 1783, revels in the success of the Revolution and its future promises. Washington emphasizes that momentous victory early in the cCircular d summarizing the last decade of struggle: cWhen we consider the magnitude of the prize we contended for, the doubtful nature of the contest, and the favorable manner in which it was terminated, we shall find the greatest possible reason for gratitude and rejoicing. d Written to the governors of each state, the cCircular d is a call for solidarity throughout the America 9s regions.<br><br> Washington is reassuring and gently coaxes in order to unify each person with a national community, cas Individuals, and as members of Society, (as) Citizens of America . . .<br><br> everyone will reap t he fruit of his labours& without molestation and without danger. d Washington concludes with a final paternal sentiment stressing cbrotherly affection and love for one another, for their fellow Citizens of the United States at large, and particularly for th eir brethren who have served in the field. d The shared histor y of struggle and victory forge a sacred identity characteristic of modern nations. Such baptism by blood, as viewed by Professor Benedict Anderson, forms a cdeep, horizontal comradeship. Ultimat ely it is this fraternity that makes it possible& for so many millions of people, not so much to kill, as willingly to die for (their country) d (7).<br><br> With his first finale Washington sets cornerstones for an enduring nationalism . His first encore (s econd f arewell) builds upon the foundation laid by the Circular. It is a work that will be cel ebrated for generations after its publication.<br><br> Written thirteen years after the Circular, Washington 9s cFarewell Address d concludes his eight years as President of the United States. Reprinted in papers for all Americans to embrace, the piece read s cas if a father granted custody of an infant child was reporting proudly that the child was doing well and was now safely past its infancy d (Ellis 238). A major theme of the cFarewell d regarded peaceful and legitimate transfer of political power.<br><br> This tradition is ritualized every four years as part of American political culture and national ide ntity. Moreover, Gellner 9s factors of power and identity , initially voiced at the end of the war in his cCircular to the States d, are expounded on via presidential experience. In the cFarewell Address d Washington 9s lan guage eloquently synthesizes those factors.<br><br> cThe Unity of Government which constitutes you one people is also now dear t o you& for it is a main Pillar in the edifice of your real independence&it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national Union to your collective and individual happiness&The name AMERICAN, which belongs to you, in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of Patriotism, more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. d Washington equates nationalism with political and social union. It is a powerful marriage of ideas that will sustain the nation and later be em ployed to reconstruct it after the Civil War. Union, c alled cthe pri mary object of Patriotic desire d is, once again, Washington 9s cbuzz word .<br><br> What 9s more, Washi ngton is proactive concerning the longevity of the American nation , c contemplating the causes which may disturb our Union d. He offers advice cto the efficacy and permanency of Your Unio n d declaring c a Government for the whole is indispensable. d At this point, two of Gellner 9s three fac tors are expressed in the cFarewell Ad dress d . Education, a value not commonly associated with Washington, is yet absent.<br><br> It appears , however, towar ds the end of his Presidential parting in a two sentence paragraph. cPromote then as an object of primary importance, Institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened. d It is, in essence, a preview to a grander exposition in his cWill d.<br><br> Washington 9s reference t o education introduces the missing pillar of Gellner 9s matrix. It makes Washington 9s cFarewell Address d the most complete expression of Gellner 9s nationalism. As Ellis observes, the work was cprimarily a great prophecy that the first word in the term cUnit ed States d was destined to trump the second d (236).<br><br> Retirement for Washington followed. The three years he had left were less than one term in office as President . Nevertheless, assuming his identity as cCitizen Washington d , he retired to Mount Vernon wher e he penned his f inal and arguably most intimate farewell.<br><br> Washington 9s cLast Will and Testament d opens with a sentiment reflective of his previous farewells of 1783 and 1796 referencing himself as ca citizen of the United States and lately President of the same. d (see Appendix 2). T he statement is a perfect mirror of his nationalism exemplifying his previous designs of a national character defined by unity through strong central government and a populace that ide ntifies itself as a collective. Likewise, Washington 9s reference to the US Supreme Court as ultimate arbiter of his will (if needed) elevates the authority of the federal government to a status above himself.<br><br> The father of his country is, in essence, personifying his own nationalistic ideal. Th e key passage relating to Gellner 9s terms, however, appears early in the seventh paragraph of his testament. Expressed with obvious sincerity, Washington hig hlights the factor of ed ucation in American nationalism in a manner not done previously.<br><br> That as it has always been a source of serious regret with me, to see the youth of these United States sent to foreign Countries for the purpose of Education, often before their minds were formed& contracting, too frequently, not only habits of dissipation & ext ravagance, but principles unfriendly to Republican Governmt and to the true & genuine liberties of Mankind. . .<br><br> my mind has not been able to contemplate any plan more likely to effect the measure than the establishment of a UNIVERSITY in a central part of the United States, to which the youth of fortune and talents from all parts thereof might be sent for the completion of their Education. An educated populace is imperative for Republican virtue, the ideology most associated with the creation of the A merican nation and identity . Understood as a great equalize r among men, education is an institution that perpetuates the nation in the true sense of the national experiment.<br><br> What 9s more, a centralized university would go far to further the collective natio nal sentiment cby associating with each other, and forming friendships in Juvenile years, (Americans would) be enabled to free themselves in a proper degree from those local prejudices . . .<br><br> thereby to do away local attachments and State prejudices. d Washi ngton 9s cpersonal regret d for his countrymen 9s mode of education is reminiscent of his lament regarding his own academic experience . Like a father with his children, he seeks to offer the next generation of Americans something better i n their lives he lack ed in his. 3 Washington 9s last will was not written for the public and there were no editors to mill his pen 9s words.<br><br> As the third chapter in his trilogy of farewells, it is an exquisite ending to a series regarding the formation of a national character. Washington 9s earlier exits were corchestrated affairs, dramatic departures from the public stage&His will was his ultimate exit statement, a wholly personal expression of his willingness to surrender power in a truly final fashion as he prepared to depart the stage of life itself d (Ellis 265). With no more to say, this was to be the Washingtonian capstone on American nationalism.<br><br> Future Americans were provided a typology for a collective identity, political unity, and cultural heritage. The success and l ongevity of America would be testimony to what Washington called a cLegacy of One. d Washington International The impact, both direct and indirect, of what I called cWashington 9s template d on future n ational patriarchs is observable in their writings and speeches (see Appendix 3). True, the world of the 20 th century is not identical to late 18 th century America, but concepts of the nation an d nationalism have congruencies across eras .<br><br> As a political unit, the nation remains the most influential organiza tion today. Even cGlobal Historian d Thomas Bender concedes the primacy of nation - states in the 21 st century (8) concurring with Benedict Anderson 9s dictate that cnation - ness is the most universally legitimate value in the political life of our time d (3).As the post - Cold War world wrestles with concepts of globalization and post - modernism, identity related to the nation resurfaces as a familiar and un derstandable characteristic. Where generations of Americans have creviewed Washington 9s life and character in the context of their own concerns&Other nations& have fashioned their own image of Washington d (Schwartz 109).<br><br> One of the most iconic images was artist Emanuel Leutze 1851 work, Washington Crossing the Delaware (see Appendix 7). Designed for European aud iences, as Germanic nationalism began to flower, the focus on Washington as head of state militarily and politically would later be represented by Otto Von Bismarck. But Washington 9s main cue for future national fathers transcends form.<br><br> His messages from each cFarewell d provide meaning for nationalistic designs much later after Washington 9s death at the end of the 18 th century. Specifically, the words of three national fathers, Jose Rizal, Kem al Mustafa Ataturk, and Getulio Vargas, are analyzed for the inf luenc e of Washington upon their voices . These three figures share similar fame in their own nations as Washington does in the USA .<br><br> Explained by sociologist Emile Durkheim , cIf (society) happens to fall in love with a man and if it thinks it has found in h im the principal aspirations that move it, as well as the means of satisfying them, this man will be raised above the others and , as it were, deified d (Schwartz 13) . This phenomenon elicits the symbolism strongly needed for the ethos of a historical narra tive and values . In other words, t he cult s of personality each leader construct ed are fo undations for their nationalism.<br><br> Jose Rizal, the Philippines 9 national hero, (see Appendix 4) was executed at the age of thirty - five in 1896. An educated man 3 who tr aveled throughout Europe, Asia and the Americas, his voice was marked revolutionary by the Spanish Empire and silenced after brief imprisonment. Killed before his nation achieved independence from Spain (and later, ironically from the USA) Rizal is a natio nal father that never saw the birth of his nation.<br><br> While imprisoned he wrote his final address, a poem, cMy Last Farewell d to Filipino nationalists. Melancholic yet hopeful for a brighter future, Rizal 9s work captures Gellner 9s factor of identity in a styl e different from Washington, but with the identical purpose. Stressing collective cultural unity, Rizal writes: On the field of battle, 'mid the frenzy of fight, Others have given their lives, without doubt or heed; The place matters not 4 cypress or l aurel or lily white Scaffold or open plain, combat or martyrdom's plight, 'Tis ever the same, to serve our home and country's need.<br><br> Pray for all those that hapless have died, For all who have suffered the unmeasur'd pain; For our mothers that bit terly their woes have cried, For widows and orphans, for captives by torture tried, And then for thyself that redemption thou mayst gain. My Fatherland ador'd, that sadness to my sorrow lends; Beloved Filipinas, hear now my last good - by! I give t hee all: parents and kindred and friends, For I go where no slave before the oppressor bends, Where faith can never kill, and God reigns e'er on high!<br><br> Farewell to you all, from my soul torn away, Friends of my childhood in the home dispossessed! Give thanks that I rest from the wearisome day! Farewell to thee, too, sweet friend that lightened my way; Beloved creatures all, farewell!<br><br> In death there is rest! Rizal 9s romantic nationalism establishes a message of the collective through struggle an d death. His martyrdom immortalized the young patriot in Filipino memory making him cfirst in the hearts of his countrymen. d Westward, across the Asian continent, lies the Republic of Turkey.<br><br> A remnant of the once great Ottoman Empire, the caliphate was d ismantled after World War I, and restructured under western eyes. The architect of Turkey 9s modernization, secularization, and industrialization was nationalist Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (see Appendix 5). As the founder of the modern republic in 1923, Ataturk , in more Janus like fashion than Washington, directed an intense plan of reform impacting social institutions, norms, and values.<br><br> Central to cthe Father of Turks d reforms was education. On the 10 th anniversary of modern Turkey, Ataturk emphasizes Gellne r 9s factor of education in his national speech given in 1933. The Turkish nation is intelligent, because the Turkish nation is capable of overcoming difficulties of national unity, and because it holds the torch of positive sciences.<br><br> I must make it cl ear with due emphasis, that a historical quality of the Turkish nation, which is an exalted human community, is its love for fine arts and progress in them. This is why our national ideal is to constantly foster and promote, wi th all means and measures , our nation's excellent character, its tireless industriousness, intelligence, devotion to science, love for fine arts and sense of national unity. This ideal, whi ch very well suits the Turkish nation, will enable it to succeed in performing the civi lized task falling on it in securing true peace for all mankind.<br><br> The Great Turkish Nation! . .<br><br> . How happy it is to say that I am a Turk! Ataturk embodies an intense sense of nationalism in World History.<br><br> His focus on education as a major factor in the character of his nation links him to Washington. A military hero (a la Washington) in the Great War who also became his nations 9 first President, Ataturk was persistent in his quest for peace. Ataturk 9s motto cPeace at home, peace in the world d further c onnects him to Washington who avoided war with England and France to preserve the union.<br><br> Like Washington before him, Ataturk was both cfirst in war and first in peace. d Brazilian Independence, compared to the United States 9, came relatively easily. Typic ally cast as a bloodless transfer of power from king to prince in the early 1800s, the Brazilian Republic formed later in 1889. Twentieth century nationalism stressed centralizing political power in urban settings wresting it from landed elite.<br><br> At the cent er of this movement was populist leader Getulio Vargas (see Appendix 6). Labeled cFather of the Poor d, Vargas experienced a unique history as Brazil 9s chief of state serving both as an elected president and dictator from 1930 - 1945 and again from 1951 - 1954. His farewell to the Brazilian people was a suicide note written in the wake of an ultimatum issued by the military.<br><br> Reflecting Gellner 9s factor of power in nationalism, Vargas equates himself with that element. As a dictator Vargas not only embodies Bra zilian nationalism, he is Brazilian nationalism. I placed myself at the head of a revolution and won.<br><br> I began the work of liberation and I installed a regime of social freedom. I once had to resign but I returned to the Government on the shoulders of t he people. .<br><br> . I have fought month after month, day after day, hour after hour, resisting constant pressure, suffering everything in silence, forgetting everything, giving of myself in order to defend the Brazilian people who are now left deserted. There is nothing more I can give you except my blood.<br><br> If the birds of prey want someone's blood, if they want to go on draining the Brazilian people, I offer my life as a holocaust. I choose this means of being always with you. When they humiliate you, you w ill feel my soul suffering at your side.<br><br> . . I have given you my life.<br><br> Now I offer you my death. I fear nothing. Serenely I take my first step towards eternity and leave life to enter history.<br><br> The drama of Vargas 9 exit, like Washington 9s, had great impa ct on the populace of each respective nation. Emphasizing the centralization of authority in nationalism, Vargas 9 positivism strays from Washington 9s republicanism. Although not of his nation 9s founding generation, the Brazilian father left a vivid mark on the Brazilian character regarding civil and military authority.<br><br> Similar to Washington, Vargas 9 example was as cedifying to all around him as were the effects of that example lasting&. Such was the man for whom our nation mourns. d A Global Patriarch? Th e possibility of an emergence of a global culture typically trumpets the downfall of nationalistic histories and heroes.<br><br> Globalization, fostering a cosmopolitan identity, would seemingly marginalize national patriarchs and glorify international identities. Regarding American history, the concept of exceptionalism has come under fire and with the role of the USA being rethought as a nation in the world and not the nation. Jefferson 9s cempire of liberty d takes a back seat to regional and national political mo dels.<br><br> Smith, considering the future of nationalism in this context argues that the phenomenon, cdisembedded from any context, are like currencies, interchangeable in the world market of consumer culture, with the result that the national state and national identities are bypassed and relativized d (17). How would Washington fit into this reality? Surely Washington 9s relevance goes beyond the borders of the nation.<br><br> Overall, Washington 9s position in global history is undeniable. Under an auspicious foreign p olicy and the lure of soft power, Washington 9s legacy could seemingly be embraced as an international hero. It would, however, move ownership of his character from the American people to all nations making him the first father of global history.<br><br> End N otes 1. Taken from the back cover comments of His Excellency by Joseph Ellis. 2.<br><br> Mourning for Washington was a yearlong event in the United States. Communities had mock funerals and burials, hundreds of eulogies were given and black cloth became scarce. 3.<br><br> Altho ugh a national university, as envisioned in Washington 9s will, was never realized, his personal wealth wen t elsewhere . cFounded in 1749, Washington and Lee University is named for two of the most influential men in Amer ican history: George Washington (and Robert E. Lee) whose generous endowment of $20,000 in 1796 helped the fledgling school (then known as Liberty Hall Academy) survive& d http://www.wlu.edu/x8.xml 4.<br><br> It is written on the website http://www.ac.wwu.edu/ , that Rizal mastered 22 languages. cThese include Arabic, Catalan, Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Malayan, Portuguese, Russian, Sanskrit, Spanish, Tagalog, and other native dialects. A versatile genius, he was an arch itect, artist, businessman, cartoonist, educator, economist, ethnologist, scientific farmer, historian, inventor, journalist, linguist, musician, mythologist, nationalist, naturalist, novelist, ophthalmic surgeon, poet, propagandist, psychologist, scientis t, sculptor, sociologist, and theologian.<br><br> He was an expert swordsman and a good shot. d Works Cited Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities . Verso.<br><br> London. 1983. Ataturk, Kemal.<br><br> c10 th Anniversary Speech of the Turkish Republic d. October 29 th , 193 3. Taken from http://www.ataturksociety.org/ataturkspeech/index.html Bender, Thomas.<br><br> A Nation Among Nations. Hill and Wang. New York.<br><br> 2006 Ellis, Joseph. His Excellency: George Washin gton. Knopf.<br><br> New York. 2004. Gellner, Ernest.<br><br> Nations and Nationalism. Cornell University Press. Ithaca.<br><br> 1983. Grant, Susan - Mary. cWhen Was the First New Nation?<br><br> Locating America in a National Context d. Routledge. London.<br><br> 2005. Grizzard, Frank. 143 Que stions &Answers About George Washington.<br><br> Mariner. Virginia. 2009.<br><br> Mazlish, Bruce. The New Global History. Routledge.<br><br> New York 2006. Morgan, Edmund S. The Genius of George Washington.<br><br> W.W. Norton. New York.<br><br> 1977. Rizal, Jose. cMy Last Farewell d.<br><br> Taken from http://www.schillerinstitute.org/educ/hist/rizal.html . Schwartz, Barry. George Washington: The Making of an American Symbol.<br><br> Cornell University Press. Ithaca. 1987.<br><br> Smith, Anthony. Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era. Polity Press.<br><br> Cambridge . 1995. Vargas, Getulio.<br><br> cCarta Testamento d . August 24 th , 1954. Taken from http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/vargas.htm Washington, George.<br><br> cCircular to the States d . June 14, 1783. Taken from http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?doc ument=357 Washington, George.<br><br> cFarewell Address d. October 19, 1796. Taken from http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=82 Washington, George.<br><br> cWashington 9s Will d. July 9, 1799. Taken from http://gwpapers.virginia.edu/documents/w ill/text.html Appendix 1) cThe Resignation of Washington at Annapolis d (1824) By JohnTrumbull 2) cWashington on his Deathb ed d (1851) by Junius Brutus Stearns 3) 4) Father of all modern nations?<br><br> Rembrandt Peale 9s Filipino Jose Rizal, executed patriarch in 1896 , Washington, Patriae Pater 1824. is the nation 9s national hero. 5) 6) Atatu rk, "Father of the Turks d giving his c 10 th Getulio Vargas, Brazil 9s cFather of the Poor d.<br><br> Anniversary Speech d of modern Turkey 1933. His farewell address was a suicide note in 1945. 7) cWashington Crossing the Delaware d by Emanuel Leutze (1851) 8) 9) Jose San Martin, Argentina 9s national Simon Bolivar, the Washington of So uth Hero and liberator of Peru was exiled in Europe.<br><br> America, kept a lock of GW 9s hair in his pocket.