Voices from the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Overview In this lesson, students will gain an understanding of the history of the African slave trade, the Transatlantic slave trade, and the development of slavery in America through discussing historical facts, art work, and excerpts from the book Copper Sun. Students will focus on the humanization of those enslaved by completing a project in which they assume the persona of an African forced into slavery and recreate a personal journal kept by the enslaved. Grade 8 Course North Carolina: Creation and Development of the State North Carolina Standards MCompetency Goal 1.5: Describe the factors that led to the founding and settlement of the American colonies including religious persecution, economic opportunity, adventure, and forced migration.
"Competency Goal 1.7: Describe the roles and contributions of diverse groups, such as American Indians, African Americans, European immigrants, landed gentry, tradesmen, and small farmers to everyday life in colonial North Carolina, and compare them to the other colonies. "Competency Goal 3.4: Describe the development of the institution of slavery in the state of North Carolina and nation, and assess its impact on economic, social, and political conditions. Essential Questions \x2 When and why did African slavery begin?
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the causes and effects of the Transatlantic slave trade? " What was the Triangle Trade Route and how did it affect the continents involved? " What was the experience of enslaved Africans during the Middle Passage?<br><br> " What were the experiences of individuals who were enslaved and the effect of enslavement on t heir livelihood and culture? " How did slavery develop in the southern colonies, particularly in North and South Carolina? " In what ways did slavery impact America?<br><br> Materials " Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade Power Point, attached " Copper Sun , a novel by Sharon Draper " Create an African Journal Assignment Sheet, attached Created by the North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www.civics.org Duration 2 days; 70 minute periods Procedure Day 1 1. Warm Up: Project the image found on the first page of the cVoices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade d Power Point (attached) as students enter class. Either verbally or in writing, ask students to brainstorm and discuss the following: " What do you see in this picture?<br><br> " What do you think the shading represents? " What is the story behind this drawing? (Imagine what happened right before this, what is happening now, and what you predict will happen next?) " What do you think the artist was trying to convey in this drawing?<br><br> " What do you already know about slavery? (Write responses from the brainstorming on the board.) 2. Click to the second page of cVoices from the Transatlantic Slave Trade d and explain to students that class will be spent discussing the history of the African slave trade and the development of slavery in America, culminating with a focus on the individual humans that experienced enslavement.<br><br> It is important that the Power Point be used as a catalyst for class discussion and not lecture. Discussion points and questions can be found in the cNotes d section at the bottom of each slide within the Power Point. As you facilitate discussion, you may wish to instruct students to take notes in Cornell Note format, or another preferred way.<br><br> Teachers should amend and edit the Power Point as they deem necessary. During discussion, allow students to express opinions and state their understanding of facts. However, the teacher should make sure to dispel respectfully any incorrect information that is discussed.<br><br> 3. Go through the Power Point, stopping at slide 9. Explain that you want to focus on the individuality and humanness of Africans who were enslaved.<br><br> Often, when considering slaves, we strip them of any identity beyond this forced role. Explain to students that it is important to remember that the thousands of Africans who were enslaved were individuals, with day-to-day lives, hopes, dreams, fears, intelligences, etc., just like us. To reinforce this point, explain to students that they will be entering the world of Amari, a 15- year-old Ashanti girl who was happily living her life when strangers enter her village and turn her world upside down.<br><br> Either read chapters 1-2 aloud to students or have them read individually/in partners. Then, allow students to discuss as a class or in small groups: Copper Sun Chapter 1: " Describe Amari 9s relationship with her little brother Kwasi. How can you relate?<br><br> How do you think Amari sees the future of her relationship with Besa? Predict how it will turn out. " Visualize Amari 9s village.<br><br> What do you see? Smell? Hear?<br><br> What do you think is important to Amari? What does she value? Created by the North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www.civics.org " What roll do you think women in this society play?<br><br> How does this make you feel? " Interpret the quote on pg. 5: cWe must welcome our guests then Amari.<br><br> We would never judge people based on how they looked-that would be uncivilized. d " Predict what will happen next, following chapter 1. Copper Sun Chapter 2: " What example of foreshadowing do you find on pg. 7?<br><br> " If you were one of the cvisitors, d what would you be thinking throughout this welcome? " On pg. 12, Amari says, cAn Ashanti, how could this be? d If you were able to answer her, what would you say?<br><br> How would you explain? " Imagine losing everyone you love this quickly. How would you feel at the end of this chapter if you were Amari?<br><br> Can you think of any other events in history to connect this to? *The above questions can be used as discussion questions, as a writing response activity, homework responses, or in combination. 4.<br><br> Students will be anxious to find out what happens to Amari. Close class by telling them they will find out more tomorrow about Amari and about slavery in general, and ask: " What do you predict will happen to Amari next? Day 2 5.<br><br> As a warm up, project slide 10 of the Power Point, cVoices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. d Ask students to consider, verbally or in writing: " Based on this map, what do you think the Triangle Trade Route was? " How do you think each continent was affected by this trade? " We know that enslaved Africans were brought to the colonies as they formed along the East Coast of North America.<br><br> Infer how you think these enslaved humans affected the colonies. 6. Continue with the Power Point, again using it as a basis for discussion rather than lecture.<br><br> Once you arrive at Slide 17, stop and tell students that it is time to check back in with Amari. Chapter 7 in Copper Sun deals with the beginning of Amari 9s trip on the Middle Passage. For the purposes of this lesson, it is recommended to skip ahead to this point.<br><br> Explain to students that at this point in the story, Amari has been marched to the shore and placed on a slave ship along with hundreds of other captives, though she is not aware of where she is, where she is going, where Besa is, or why this is all happening. Read the chapter out loud, then discuss: " In your opinion, what is the worst part of what Amari has had to deal with thus far? " What did you visualize as I read this chapter to you?<br><br> " Interpret the line, cThe ship of death was surprising very much alive. d " What do you think Amari is thinking at this point in the story? What do you think will happen to her? 7.<br><br> Return to Slide 18 of the Power Point and continue until slide 23. Created by the North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www.civics.org 8. At this point, remind students that Africans who were sold into the slave trade had identities beyond being ca slave. d They were people living their lives and performing day-to-day activities.<br><br> These people were individuals with skills, hopes, dreams, and feelings. They had identities beyond the world they were forced into once captured. Tell students that they will assume the role of an African and create a personal journal that details the African 9s life both before and after being sold into slavery.<br><br> Hand out the cCreate an African Journal Assignment d (attached), and go through slides 24-29 to explain the project. Students should be realistic and creative in their development of this person and their writing, but teachers may wish to give specific direction as to the level of description expected in the journals. (Students sometime portray very graphic realities of slave life in their journals, and you should let them know up front what is acceptable to write as part of this assignment and what is not.) Also encourage students to be creative in the artistic design of the journal.<br><br> 9. The teacher should determine how much time to permit for completing the project, as well as how much time will be provided in class for research and/or brainstorming. Close class by helping students begin brainstorming ideas and addressing questions.<br><br> Culminating Activities/Assessments " Show excerpts from cSlavery and the Making of America, d a PBS documentary " Have students present their journals to class by describing the African person they imagined and also choosing a few of their favorite entries to read aloud. " Use Copper Sun as a supplemental classroom novel Differentiation Students with special needs " Provide students with a copy of the Power Point " Allow students to work with a reading partner if Copper Sun is read individually " Modify the journal project by requiring a limited number of entries; some students may also benefit from narrowed choices, thus the teacher might consider assigning the African region, time period, and African name for the journal project AIG Students " If the entire class does not use Copper Sun as a supplemental reading, have AIG students read it and make a presentation about the book to class. Presentations could include dramatic scene reenactments, summaries, a Power Point, etc.<br><br> Allowing students to choose a way to present the book to class will give them ownership of the project. " Have students do further research on particular slave rebellions in the south (i.e. Stono Rebellion, Gabriel in Virginia in 1800, Denmark Vesey in Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, Nat Turner at Southampton County, Virginia, in 1831, etc.) Resources " Slavery and the Making of America: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery " Copper Sun Resources: http://sharondraper.com/copper-resources.asp Multiple Intelligences Addressed Linguistic Logical-mathematical Visual-spatial Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Created by the North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www.civics.org Name: ____________________________________ Creating African Journals Assignment Africans who were sold into the slave trade had identities beyond being ca slave. d They were people living their lives, surviving as human beings, and performing day-to-day activities.<br><br> These people were individuals with skills, hopes, dreams, and feelings. They had identities beyond the world they were forced into once captured. Assignment: Students will assume the role of an African and create a personal journal that details their life both before and after being sold into slavery.<br><br> Due Date: ____________________________________________ Steps for Completion : 1. Brainstorm 2. Choose a region of Africa and a particular time period to research.<br><br> In your research, focus on finding out information that will help you infer your character 9s day-to-day life. For example, you may want to find out information about: - Environment/habitat - Jobs and daily habits - Culture and traditions - Religion 3. Choose an African name and begin to imagine this person 9s life.<br><br> Examples include: Women: Men: Adanna Babu Adetokumbo (ah-Deh-toh-koom-boh) Banga Adebumi (Ah-day-boo-me) Faraji Adowa Fela Aina (eye-nah) Abimbola Dacia Adisa Dericia Besa Tanginika (Tann-J-Nee-ka) Adofo Takiyah Kantigi Tatu Kashka Obax (OH-bah) Zahur Obioma (O-be-o-ma) Barrak Created by the North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www.civics.org 4. As you brainstorm, begin to create your African 9s journal entries. Your journal should contain beginning, middle, and closing entries.<br><br> a) Your beginning entries should be set in your African home. In your beginning entries, consider: - Who are you? - Describe where you live.<br><br> - What do you do each day? - Who is around you? Who do you spend your time with?<br><br> - What do you enjoy? - What are your hopes and dreams? - What are your skills?<br><br> - What do you dislike? b) Middle entries should take place after you have been captured. Write about the voyage across the Middle Passage and your arrival in the Americas.<br><br> - Where are you while writing each entry (on a boat, in a cell/stockade, at a sale&)? - How were you captured? Who captured you?<br><br> What were you doing before captured? What was your life like before captured? - What is happening around you?<br><br> - What do you see? Smell? Hear?<br><br> Feel? Hope? Fear?<br><br> Wish? - How are you handling this situation? - How are others around you handling this situation?<br><br> - What do you think is going to happen? - How are you managing to survive? c) Final entries should conclude your experiences.<br><br> - What have you discovered about yourself? - What are your reflections regarding this experience thus far? - What happens to you?<br><br> (Does your journal have an ending entry, does the writing simply drop of the page and we never know, etc.?) 5. Be creative in how you artistically design your journal. How did the environment and experience of your journal 9s African owner affect the design and type of the journal?<br><br> Was it bought or homemade? Does it look aged? Has it suffered damage over the years?<br><br> What materials would it have been made of and what would have been used to write the entries? Infer and be creative! Created by the North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www.civics.org<br><br>