Contents Foreword 6 Part 1. EATING OUT 7 Un café 8 Une brasserie 15 Un restaurant 22 Une crêperie, un bouchon& 29 Part 2. TRADITIONAL FOOD SHOPS 37 Une boulangerie 38 Une pâtisserie chocolaterie 45 Une fromagerie 52 Une charcuterie traiteur 59 Part 3.
NOT TO BE MISSED 67 Le marché 68 Un caveau 75 Les spécialités régionales 82 Le shopping à Paris 89 Eating and shopping in France 5 http://www.linguaproduction.com Eating and shopping in France 26 EATING OUT Un restaurant 3 Vous avez réservé ? Did you reserve? 3 Je peux prendre votre manteau ?
Can I take your coat? 3 Vous êtes prêts à passer votre commande ? Are you ready to order?
3 Quelle cuisson pour la viande ? Bien cuite ou rosée ? How do you like your meat cooked?
Well-done or rare? 3 Vous avez choisi votre vin ? Have you chosen your wine?
3 Je vous souhaite bon appétit. Enjoy your meal. 3 Je peux débarrasser?
Can I clear the table? 3 Qu 9est-ce que vous souhaitez prendre pour le dessert ? What would you like for dessert?
3 Je vous propose un petit digestif ? Can I suggest a liqueur? 3 Je vous souhaite une très bonne ... more. less.
fin de soirée.<br><br> Have an excellent evening. YOU WILL HEAR Most restaurant prices are now TTC, toutes taxes comprises . The price on the menu usually includes a service charge as well as any taxes.<br><br> In the past these were added to your bill at the end. You can still leave a tip, as this is always appreciated, but there is no fixed percentage. In expensive restaurants , only the menu of the person who has reserved the table will have the prices marked on it.<br><br> It is considered good manners in France to keep your hands resting on the table when you are not eating. It is also custo- mary to keep your fork in your left hand. However, manners are becoming more relaxed and it is noticeable that people do not dress up as much for a meal out as in the past.<br><br> CULTURAL TIPS In the 19th century, many more restaurants opened to serve workers and craftsmen too, and soon articles about good restaurants started to appear in the press. Michelin, the tyre company, produced L E G UIDE R OUGE in 1900 to help people travelling by car, and in 1920 it included restaurants for the first time. It became very popular and the famous three-star rating system was introduced in 1931.<br><br> Today, if you want to choose a good restaurant in France, the number of Michelin stars it is attributed can still guide you. For a lower budget, you can also look for restaurants with the Logis de France label. Or, you can just wander around and make your own choice by reading the menus displayed.<br><br> The good thing about France is that even modest restaurants can still delight you with excellent food. THE 41 PAINTINGS ON THE WALLS AND CEILINGS OF THE FAMOUS LE TRAIN BLEU RESTAURANT IN PARISARE ADMIRED BY MORE THAN 500 DINERS EVERY DAY. http://www.linguaproduction.com Eating and shopping in France 41 B HISTORY AND TRADITIONS Being a boulanger in France was initially a dangerous trade and early boulangeries had barred windows to prevent angry crowds from attacking them as they were considered to be charging excessively high prices.<br><br> It was only in the early 19th century, as crop failures and famine became less common, and notably with the opening of the Zang Boulangerie bringing the Austrian tradition of les petits pains viennois to Paris, that boulangeries began to change. By the mid-19th century they had become highly decorated shops, with engraved windows and marble counters. Boulangeries soon opened in rural areas also and improved techniques lead to the flowering of the French breadmaking tradition in the mid-20th century.<br><br> The French baguette became reputed worldwide, and by the end of the century numerous special and regional breads were also being made. In rural areas, the evening meal traditionally consisted of soup with bread in it. How well certain breads absorbed the moisture without losing their texture was a serious topic of conversation.<br><br> In 1995, with competition from large industrialised bakers growing, a law was passed to ensure that only when the complete breadmaking process was carried out at the place of sale could the word boulangerie be used. French people used to go out two or three times a day to buy a fresh loaf for each meal. This was mainly because a baguette quickly becomes hard, but also because people had memories of the war, when bread was rationed and often eaten stale, so being able to shop for fresh bread was a sign of improved times.<br><br> Nowadays, a busy lifestyle means that most French people purchase their bread once a day. 3 Je voudrais une baguette bien cuite, s 9il vous plaît. I 9d like a nice, crisp baguette, please.<br><br> 3 Je préfère pas trop cuite, s 9il vous plaît. Not too crisp for me, please. 3 Vous pouvez me le trancher, s 9il vous plaît ?<br><br> Can you slice it for me, please? 3 Vous pouvez ne me donner que la moitié, s 9il vous plaît ? Can you give me just half a loaf, please?<br><br> 3 Je prendrai deux parts de pizza, s 9il vous plaît. I 9ll have two slices of pizza, please. 3 Je voudrais une quiche aux poireaux, s 9il vous plaît.<br><br> I 9d like a leek quiche, please. 3 Deux pains au chocolat, s 9il vous plaît. Two chocolate-filled pastries, please.<br><br> 3 Vous avez un pain complet ? Do you have a wholemeal/whole wheat loaf? TRADITIONAL FOOD SHOPS Une boulangerie USEFUL PHRASES http://www.linguaproduction.com Eating and shopping in France 48 TRADITIONAL FOOD SHOPS Une pâtisserie chocolaterie C HISTORY AND TRADITIONS Catherine de Medicis brought the practice of eating something sweet at the end of a meal from Italy.<br><br> The word dessert comes from the French desservir, meaning to clear the table, after which sweet delicacies were brought for guests. It was considered a sign of wealth that the table could be reset, and the word desserts came to refer to the sweet dishes themselves. Initially only the aristocracy served desserts and this remained true until the 19th century.<br><br> When chocolate was introduced to France in the 17th century, chefs began to include chocolate in desserts too and François Massialot invented la crème au chocolat . In 1730, Nicolas Stohrer left Versailles and opened a pâtisserie in Paris. It is still a renowned pâtisserie today.<br><br> At the court of Louis XIV, desserts were rich and elaborate. Great pâtissiers such as Vatel and Antonin Carême designed complicated, architectural-like structures. But when Carême also introduced the measuring of exact quantities, he took the first step towards creating recipes that could be copied by others.<br><br> 3 Je prendrai la grande tarte aux fruits, s 9il vous plaît. I 9ll take the large fruit tart, please. 3 Je voudrais quatre gâteaux individuels, s 9il vous plaît.<br><br> I would like four small cakes, please. 3 Je préfère un dessert glacé, s 9il vous plaît. I prefer a frozen dessert, please.<br><br> 3 Avez-vous des mille-feuilles ? Do you have any vanilla cream slices? 3 Je voudrais un ballotin de 500g, s 9il vous plaît.<br><br> I 9d like a 500g box of chocolates, please. 3 Vous pouvez me mettre une sélection, s 9il vous plaît ? Can you give me a selection, please?<br><br> 3 Je préfère le chocolat noir. I prefer dark chocolate. 3 Vous pouvez me faire un paquet-cadeau, s 9il vous plaît ?<br><br> Can you giftwrap it for me, please? USEFUL PHRASES In France, Easter is associated with bell-shaped chocolates. The church bells are silenced from the Thursday before Easter as a sign of mourning.<br><br> It is said they have gone to Rome. On their return they bring back chocolate eggs and bells, which they drop in gardens for children to find. La galettes des Rois is a round, flat cake with marzipan filling eaten on Twelfth Night.<br><br> Traditionally, the youngest child present hides under the table and decides which person receives each slice. Hidden inside the cake is a small charm and the person who finds it wears the cardboard crown given with the cake for the rest of the meal. Les madeleines de Commercy, small oval sponge cakes, are, of course, the cakes that triggered the flood of childhood memories for Proust when he ate one dipped in a cup of tea.<br><br> The famous French writer recounts the incident in the first novel of À LA RECHERCHE DU TEMPS PERDU , one of the great classics of French literature. CULTURAL TIPS http://www.linguaproduction.com Eating and shopping in France 54 TRADITIONAL FOOD SHOPS Une fromagerie 3 Il en a fait tout un fromage means he made a big fuss about it. 3 Entre la poire et le fromage means casually or light-heartedly.<br><br> 3 Trouver un bon fromage means to find a cushy job. 3 Changer de crémerie means to go elsewhere. IDIOMS You can inquire about the specialities of the area you are visiting while also discovering the cheeses of other areas of France.<br><br> Choose a creamy Camembert from Normandy, a bleu-veined Roquefort from the valleys of Aveyron, a firm Beaufort from the hills of the Jura or a small round goat 9s cheese from the Ardèche, just to name a few. Once you have made your choice, you will be asked what quantity you require. For hard cheeses and blue cheeses, the fromager will place his knife to indicate a larger- or smaller-sized wedge.<br><br> Don 9t be afraid to ask for the knife to be moved to give the thickness you require. Soft cheeses will usually be sold as circular, square or log-shaped units depending on the type of cheese. When you are ready to pay you may be a little surprised.<br><br> Good cheese is expensive. But the final pleasure is still to come: tasting that newly discovered French cheese with a freshly baked baguette . When a selection of cheese is offered during a meal and you wish to take a piece from a cheese which has a pointed shape, such as a piece of Brie, or is thinner at one edge, such as a Roquefort, make sure you don 9t cut off the point or just take the thinner edge.<br><br> It is frowned upon to have coupé le nez au fromage , or cut the nose of the cheese. Just cut a piece down the side of the cheese to show your savoir-faire. If you take a selection of two or three cheeses, you should eat the milder- tasting cheeses first and leave the stronger cheeses, such as blue cheeses, until the end so as to fully appreciate each cheese.<br><br> In a fromagerie , you may see little plastic pots, often with holes down the sides. They contain fromage blanc , which is a creamy product made from drained milk curds and usually eaten with sugar and topped with cream. CULTURAL TIPS http://www.linguaproduction.com Eating and shopping in France 59 TRADITIONAL FOOD SHOPS Une charcuterie traiteur Une charcuterie traiteur S WHAT TO EXPECT Savour a slice of saucisson sec as you drink your apéritif .<br><br> Bite into a baguette filled with ham and butter on a picnic. Enjoy a slice of pâté as a starter. The essential ingredients can all be bought at the local charcuterie .<br><br> The main street of every French town will have at least one, and probably several, charcuteries . These shops traditionally sell food products made from pork, so when you go in, you will see enticing displays of sausages, salami, hams, black puddings and lots of pâtés. Various knives and machines allow the charcutier to serve wafer-thin slices of salted raw ham or thick wedges of crusted pâtés.<br><br> The choice is yours. Most charcuteries are also traiteurs or caterers, so you will see lots of attractive prepared dishes, too, ranging from simple grated carrots with a French dressing to coq au vin . Every day, different dishes are presented to tempt those who want to take some time off from cooking.<br><br> Some charcuteries will have particular dishes on sale on a specific day of the week so that customers who have particular favourites know when to come by. Many French people, however, just walk in knowing that there will always be something to delight them. When French people are preparing a picnic, they will often buy a saucisson , a dry sausage.<br><br> This is so commonly associated with picnics that the word saucissoner has come to mean to have a picnic or to eat a snack. Le boudin blanc is a white sausage filled with a mixture of minced white meat, milk and bread. Unlike le boudin , there is no blood in it.<br><br> Other ingredients such as truffles can be added and most charcutiers will have their own recipe. Le boudin blanc is particularly present in charcuteries around the end-of-year holiday period. It is usually fried gently in butter until the skin becomes golden.<br><br> CULTURAL TIPS http://www.linguaproduction.com Eating and shopping in France 72 I LANGUAGE TIPS If you don 9t know the name of something in French, you can point and say: 3 Je prendrai celui-là, s 9il vous plaît. I 9ll take that one, please. A pound in weight is une livre , whereas a book is masculine and is un livre.<br><br> If you 9re not very sure of the weight you require, you can say: 3 Il y a combien de pommes dans un kilo ? How many apples are there in a kilo? Or, if you realise when the stallholder is weighing what you have asked for that you have asked for too much, you can say: 3 Vous pouvez en enlever un peu, s 9il vous plaît ?<br><br> Ça me fait trop. Can you take some off, please? That 9s too much for me.<br><br> 3 C 9est à vous, Madame ? Are you next? 3 Combien en voulez-vous?<br><br> How much/many do you want? 3 Désolé, je n 9en ai plus. I 9m sorry, I 9ve sold out.<br><br> 3 Autre chose ? Anything else? 3 Et avec ça ?<br><br> Do you need anything else? 3 Ça fait trop ? Is that too much/many?<br><br> 3 Goûtez les cerises. Elles sont très bonnes. Try the cherries.<br><br> They 9re really good. 3 Vous n 9avez pas de monnaie ? Do you have any change?<br><br> 3 Vous avez un panier ? Do you have a basket? YOU WILL HEAR Markets in big cities will often be smaller in summer, particularly during the month of August.<br><br> In regions that attract a lot of tourists, the opposite will be true, and markets in July and August will be bigger than usual. December is a particularly busy time for markets with the build-up to the holiday period. Most outdoor markets will be once a week, although in bigger towns they may be more frequent, sometimes nearly every day, including Saturdays and Sundays.<br><br> Covered markets will usually be open at least two or three days a week. Some products, such as prized varieties of mushrooms, will only be on sale at particular times of the year, and sometimes there will be special annual markets such as the markets for truffles, a highly valued delicacy. CULTURAL TIPS NOT TO BE MISSED Le marché http://www.linguaproduction.com Eating and shopping in France 85 NOT TO BE MISSED Les spécialités régionales I HISTORY AND TRADITIONS In early December, in households in Provence, families set up a nativity scene peopled with the traditional santons , or little saints.<br><br> As well as the shepherds and the Wise Men, there will be Provençal characters bearing presents. These colourful terracotta figures represent traditional tradesmen, each with the tools or clothes of their trade. The tradition started after the closure of the churches during the French Revolution when families in Provence, who could no longer attend Midnight Mass, started to create nativity scenes in their own homes.<br><br> Later, a market where santons could be purchased in November and December was established in Marseille. It still exists today. 3 A cadeau, a present, doesn 9t always have positive associations in French.<br><br> 3 C 9est pas un cadeau means something is a real pain! 3 Ils ne font pas de cadeaux means they don 9t let you off lightly. 3 Je vous fais cadeau des détails means I 9ll spare you the details.<br><br> 3 C 9était un cadeau empoisonné means it was more of a curse than a blessing. IDIOMS 3 C 9est typique de la région ? Is it typical of this region?<br><br> 3 C 9est une fabrication traditionnelle ? Is it made in a traditional manner? 3 C 9est possible de visiter l 9atelier de fabrication ?<br><br> Is it possible to visit the workshop? 3 Tout est fait à la main ? Is everything handmade?<br><br> 3 En quoi c 9est fait ? What 9s it made of? 3 Est-ce que je peux l 9essayer, s 9il vous plaît ?<br><br> Can I try it on, please? 3 Je regarde simplement, merci. I 9m just looking, thank you.<br><br> 3 C 9est trop cher pour moi. It 9s too expensive for me. 3 C 9est possible de commander en ligne ?<br><br> Can I order online? 3 J 9en prends un de chaque, s 9il vous plaît. I 9ll take one of each, please.<br><br> USEFUL PHRASES http://www.linguaproduction.com Eating and shopping in France 91 NOT TO BE MISSED Le shopping à Paris The long rue du Faubourg-Saint-Honoré is the street to explore if you are looking for luxury goods or antiques. Again you can mix tourism and history as you shop, for the street is also famous for l 9Élysée, the official residence of the French president, numerous embassies and some of the capital 9s luxury hotels. Other shopping experiences you will not want to miss are Paris 9s covered galleries, the famous shops near La Madeleine, the boutiques of Saint-Germain-des-Prés and for chains, the rue de Rivoli.<br><br> The famous historic flea market, les Puces de Saint-Ouen, is also well worth a visit. No shopping agenda in Paris is complete without a trip to Les Champs- Élyées though. Whether you walk down this celebrated and always bustling avenue in the daytime, or at night with all the lights, it is a special experience.<br><br> You may well want to buy something here just to say that you bought it on Les Champs-Élysées. Yet again you will find that le shopping in Paris takes you to the heart of the capital 9s history and identity. les grands magasins department store le rayon department le rez-de-chaussée ground floor, first floor (US) le premier étage first floor, second floor (US) le sous-sol basement les produits de beauté beauty products la maroquinerie leather goods les vêtements hommes/ men 9s/women 9s/children 9s clothing femmes/enfants une cabine d 9essayage fitting room la taille size la pointure shoe size la couleur colour une vendeuse sales assistant la caisse cash desk un foulard scarf un sac à main handbag du parfum perfume un pull sweater, pullover une cravate tie un collier necklace des boucles d 9oreille earrings un portefeuille wallet KEY WORDS http://www.linguaproduction.com<br><br>