Developing The Business Plan Presented by Jeffrey Robinson Assistant Professor NYU Stern School of Business The Berkley Center for Entrepreneurial Studies www.stern.nyu.edu/ei 1 About the Presenter Jeffrey Robinson joined the faculty the Stern School of Business of New York University July 2003 as an Assistant Professor of Management and Entrepreneurship. He holds a B.S. in Civil Engineering and a B.A.
in Urban Studies from Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; an M.S. in Civil Engineering Management from Georgia Institute of Technology and a pending Ph.D. from Columbia University 9s Graduate School of Business.
His dissertation, "An Economic Sociology of Entry Barriers" explores the processes and challenges of entrepreneurs and firms entering inner city markets. His findings provide fascinating insights for policy makers and practicing entrepreneurs. His work has caught the attention of the President 9s Commission on White House Fellowships.
He was recently named a National Finalist in the prestigious White House Fellowship Program. Mr. Robinson is committed to three aspects of community and economic development: community building, entrepreneurship and the development of social enterprises.
His unique combination of experience and training has prepared him well for the research, policy making and leadership endeavors in his future. He spends much of his time ... more. less.
these days researching entrepreneurship and community/economic development issues for urban areas. He believes that long lasting change for inner city communities is stimulated when religious institutions, community leaders and business people work together toward the common goal of community revitalization.<br><br> Mr. Robinson is a 3 rd generation entrepreneur. Both his grandmother and father had active businesses in the 1980s and 1990s.<br><br> Mr. Robinson has co-founded two social enterprises: MBS Enterprises, LLC and Building Community Technology (BCT) Partners. As Seniors at Rutgers University, Robinson along with his college roommates Randal Pinkett and Aldwyn Porter, developed an on-campus music retailing business that funded educational programs they presented in underserved communities.<br><br> As graduate students in 2001, Pinkett, Robinson, and three other co-founders launched BCT Partners, a community technology services and consulting firm that develops affordable solutions for non-profits, foundations, corporations and government agencies that use technology to support change strategies and improve organizational effectiveness. Through BCT he has worked on numerous community technology and community building projects in the State of New Jersey, and the cities of New York, Baltimore, and Atlanta. He now serves as the Chairman of BCT 9s Advisory Board.<br><br> Mr. Robinson is a passionate advocate for entrepreneurship and the development of social enterprises. In 2000, he co-created the e-Commerce Development Program, an AOL funded entrepreneurship program in the Harlem, New York based community technology center named Playing2Win.<br><br> By November 2001 the course he taught assisted 45 inner city entrepreneurs and small business owners in getting on-line and developing business plans used in pursuing seed funding. As a visiting doctoral fellow, he teaches entrepreneurship and business strategy to graduate, undergraduate and executive students at Loyola College's Sellinger School of Business & Management in Baltimore, Maryland. He is often called on to speak about inner city entrepreneurship and business strategy for non-profit organizations.<br><br> As a result, he is in demand as a consultant and advisor to several non-profits and social enterprises in Baltimore, New York, Atlanta, and Chicago metropolitan areas. Mr. Robinson is the son of the late Pastor Ron and Doreen Robinson of Parsippany, New Jersey.<br><br> He resides in Piscataway, NJ with his wife, Valerie Mason-Robinson, formerly of Chicago, Illinois. 2 If a man can write a better book, preach a better sermon, or make a better mousetrap than his neighbor, though he builds his house in the woods the world will make a beaten path to his door. - from a lecture by Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-82), U.S.<br><br> essayist, philosopher and poet ____________________________________________________ 3 Are my goals well defined? Personal Aspirations Business sustainability and size Tolerance for risk Do I have the right strategy? Clear definition Profitability and potential for growth Durability & Rate of growth Can I execute the strategy?<br><br> Resources Organizational infrastructure The founder 9s role If the answer is yes& If the answer is no & From A. Bhide, SSRB Chapter 4 cThe Questions Every Entrepreneur Must Answer d ____________________________________________________ 4 Question about your ventures generally arise from four different areas: Management Team The Opportunity The Resources The Financials Your business plan is only as good as it addresses potential concerns in these areas. 14 cPersonal d Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer Adapted from How to Write a Great Business Plan by William Sahlman 1.<br><br> Where are the founders from? 2. Where have they been educated?<br><br> 3. Where have they worked and for whom? 4.<br><br> What have they accomplished 3 professionally and personally 3 in the past? 5. What is their reputation within the business community?<br><br> 6. What experience do they have that is directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing? 7.<br><br> What skills, abilities, and knowledge do they have? 8. How realistic are they about the venture 9s chances for success and the tribulations it will face?<br><br> 9. Who else needs to be on the team? 10.<br><br> Are they prepared to recruit high-quality people? 11. How will they respond to adversity?<br><br> 12. Do they have the mettle to make the inevitable hard choices that have to be made? 13.<br><br> How committed are they to this venture? 14. What are their motivations?<br><br> 5 9 Questions About the Business Every Business Plan Should Answer Adapted from How to Write a Great Business Plan by William Sahlman 1. Who is the new venture 9s customer? 2.<br><br> How does the customer make decisions about buying this product or service? 3. To what degree is the product or service a compelling purchase for the customer?<br><br> 4. How will the product or service be priced? 5.<br><br> How will the venture reach all the identified customer segments? 6. How much does it cost (in time and resources) to acquire a customer?<br><br> 7. How much does it cost to produce and deliver the product or service? 8.<br><br> How much does it cost to support a customer? 9. How easy is it to retain a customer?<br><br> Questions Likely to Be Asked Adapted from Entrepreneurship: Strategies and Resources by Marc J. Dollinger Resources What rare, valuable, hard to copy, and non-substitutable resources does the firm have, can it control or will it produce? The Financial Projections and Returns What are the underlying assumptions?<br><br> What are the start-up costs? What are they used for? What are the cash flows and projected returns on the investment?<br><br> 6 Figure 5-1 Rich- Gumpert Evaluation System (SSRB Chapter 5) Management Status Level 4 Fully Staffed, experienced management team. Level 3 Partly staffed management team. Absent members identified, to join when firm is funded.<br><br> Level 2 Two founders. Additional slots, personnel not identified. Level 1 A single, would-be entrepreneur 1/4 1/3 1/2 1/1 Level 1 A Product or service idea, but not yet operable.<br><br> Market assumed. 2/4 2/3 2/2 2/1 Level 2 Product/service pilot operable. Not yet developed for production.<br><br> Market assumed. 3/4 3/3 3/2 3/1 Level 3 Product/service fully developed. Few (or no)users as yet.<br><br> Market assumed. M o r e d e s i r a b l e 4/4 4/3 4/2 4/1 Level 4 Product/service fully developed. Many satisfied users.<br><br> Market established. Product Service Level More desirable 7 Business Plan Outline The following is a top-level outline for a business plan. You should feel free to adapt this outline to the specific needs and nature of your business opportunity, but be aware that you should still incorporate the key elements.<br><br> I. Executive Summary (The Executive Summary should encapsulate the key points from the full plan; it should grab the readers attentions, and be forced on the key arguments for investors. This will serve as a foundation for your oral presentation.<br><br> It should be no more than two pages, although 1 page or 1½ pages are preferable). Make sure to briefly cover the following. It will need to written or revised a number of times 3 when you start the plan, when you are the middle and again when everything is done.<br><br> Business Concept Market Size and opportunity Product/Service Description Intellectual Property Summary (if any) Business Model (i.e. how you will make revenues and profits) Key Competition Key Points of Advantage and Difference Management biographies (1 paragraph) Financial Summary II. Business Concept Company Overview/History Description of Industry Product/Service Overview Factors giving rise to opportunity Market opportunity and strategy to exploit it Industry segment and current participants Target addressable market and projections Sources of revenue Milestone Key drivers for success and critical assumptions III.<br><br> Market Analysis and Research Demonstration of market need Customer Base Market Size and Trends 8 Target addressable market and projections Pricing Willingness of Customers to Pay Above Corporate Cost Value Added For Customers, Customer Benefits/Problems Solved Competition and Competitive Advantage Overall marketing and selling strategy Projected sales and market share IV. Business Model Economics Gross and Operating Margins Fixed and Variable Costs Cash Flow Analysis (time and money to cash flow positive) Break-even analysis (time and money to break-even) Product or service unit analysis (cost and profit margins) V. Marketing Plan Strategy and positioning Tactics Pricing Distribution and selling Communication strategy (Advertising, promotion and PR) Selling and Collection Cycle Critical Mass/Reference Customers Required for Market Traction Implementation Strategy (Customer service, retention, warranty) VI.<br><br> Product Development Development Status and Next Steps Risk Factors Costs and Budget Opportunity Specific Issues VII. Operations Plan Operating Cycle How the Business Works Manufacturing Process (or Retail Locations) Shipping/Product Delivery Geographic Locations and Local Resources Physical Facilities and Equipment Human Capital (hiring, requirements, training, compensation) Regulatory and Legal issues Business timeline and schedule 9 VIII. Management Team Organization (Chart) Key Management Personnel (biographies, esp.<br><br> key relevant accomplishments) Management compensation and ownership Employee Incentive Plans Board of Directors and other advisors IX. Critical Risk Factors and Mitigation of them/Contingency Plans X. Financing Requirements and Opportunity Target financings (equity and debt) Current Offering Capitalization Use of Proceeds XI.<br><br> Financial Projections 5 year summary projections 3 year detailed, quarterly projections Balance Sheet Income Statement Cash Flow GAAP Cash Flow Operational Break-even Analysis XII. Appendices Exhibits, articles, tables, specifications, references 10 Resources ON-LINE Inc. Magazine www.inc.com EntreWorld www.entreworld.org Business Toolkit www.toolkit.cch.com Google www.google.com ARTICLES HBR Reprint #584X 3 cHow to Write a Winning Business Plan d by Stanley Rich and David Gumpert HBR Reprint 3 cHow to Write a Great Business Plan d by William Sahlman BOOKS Portable MBA for Entrepreneurship, 2 nd Edition edited by William Bygrave The Entrepreneurial Venture by Sahlman, Stevenson, Roberts and Bhide, 1999.<br><br>