345 Saving Two Nations Compare and Contrast Between Abraham Lincoln and Crazy Horse By James A. Thovson Many people throughout American history have stressed the importance of human life and civil liberties, but two people in-particular have gone beyond the efforts put forth by others and waged war to achieve the very essence of their beliefs. United States President Abraham Lincoln and Chief Warrior Crazy Horse exerted extreme force against what they perceived to be an incompatible enemy.
Though their fight was not so much to win the war they were fighting, it was to restore and preserve a way of life that was being threatened by an outside force. Neither man wanted nothing more than to save his own nation and a way of life that maintained a just and steadfast security from outside oppression that threatened the exist of each nation. Abraham Lincoln has been noted as the president who freed the slaves and preserved the nation after the devastating American Civil War.
Lincoln 9s fight during the war was not so much as to exterminate slavery, but to keep the United States from falling apart due to cession. As for Crazy Horse, his goal was to preserve a way ... more. less.
of life sacred to the Lakota-Sioux and other Indians tribes that seemed to have an imminent forebode clashing into it. What is to be examined is whether or not Lincoln or Crazy Horse achieved their goal of saving their nations?<br><br> By comparing and contrasting the early lives of Abraham Lincoln and Crazy Horse, studying the histories of the slave issue and of the western migration, and then carefully examining the end of and the post-history of each man 9s life, the question can be answered; 8Was Abraham Lincoln or Chief Warrior Crazy Horse successful in saving their nations? 9 Abraham Lincoln was born February 12, 1809 to Thomas and Nancy Lincoln, near Hodgenville, Kentucky. By 1816, the Lincoln family moved to Indiana and in 1830 moved again to Illinois. A notable difference in the states the Lincoln family resided is that Kentucky was a slave state and both Indiana and Illinois were non-slave states.<br><br> Thomas Lincoln was appalled by the fact that a man could own another simply on the basis of race. However, the move from Kentucky to Indiana, Abraham remembered, was cpartly on account of slavery; but chiefly on account of the difficulty in land titles in Kentucky. d 1 Growing up in a household with strong traditional Baptist beliefs, young Abraham shared his fathers views on the issue of slavery. He recalled in 1864, cI cannot remember when I did not so think, and feel. d 2 This early foundation of antislavery sentiments would eventually encourage young Abraham to seek a career in politics and face the issue of slavery and what should be done about it.<br><br> As for Thomas Lincoln, slavery in Kentucky was a thorn in his side economically, because it was difficult to compete 346 with slave labor. To make up monetary loses, Thomas worked young Abraham on the family farm and from time to time leased out his labor for a sporadic income, spoiling Abraham 9s opinion of physical labor. Abraham 9s views of slavery and frontier life were continuously being reinforced during his youth.<br><br> In 1828, when Abraham was nineteen, he was giving the chance to take a load of produce to New Orleans for a local shopkeeper for whom he worked. The trip was intriguing for Abraham for he saw New Orleans as the center of the American slave trade, he read posters that advertised the sale and trade of black men, women, and children. cFriends later claimed that such [sales] angered Abraham, and that he vowed to destroy slavery if he ever had the chance. d 3 Turning twenty-one, Abraham found himself increasingly at odds with his father and began to set out on his own to find his calling, what ever it was.<br><br> The one thing Abraham did know was that he didn 9t want to continue to farm the frontier like his father, so he set out for New Salem, Illinois. Soon after settling in New Salem, Lincoln earned the respect and friendship of many of the town 9s people. 4 In 1832, Lincoln ran for the state legislature but lost the election.<br><br> Soon thereafter, he joined the Illinois militia to fight in the Black Hawk War and was promoted to captain, however the war was over before he saw any military action. 5 He continued to do odd jobs for the next two years and then in 1834, Lincoln ran for the state legislature once again and was victorious. He ran again in 1836, 1838, and 1840, each time winning the legislative seat.<br><br> Lincoln 9s political affiliation was with the Whig Party, who 9s political platform was for internal improvements, such as building roads, bridges, canals, and railroads. The Whigs were also known for their stance against slavery. Lincoln would remain a Whig for much of his political career until the party split over the issue of the Kansas-Nebraska Act proposed in 1854.<br><br> During his time as a state legislator, he began to practice law and became a very successful lawyer in Springfield, Illinois. cWhen he wasn 9t practicing law, he was running for office or helping others to do so. d 6 Then in 1846, Lincoln had won himself a seat in the House of Representatives. cBy the time he took his seat, the United States was at war with Mexico. d 7 During the 1820s, Mexico invited Anglo-Americans to settle its northern region and developed economic trade with the United States.<br><br> As southern American farmers migrated to Mexico, they brought their slaves with them. Conflicts began to arise when Mexico outlawed slavery in 1829. In 1836, the settlers of Texas began to rebel cand formed their own nation, the Lone Star Republic. d 8 Lincoln had little to say about the Texas revolt.<br><br> But when President John Tyler urged the annexation of Texas in 1844, Lincoln and several other notable congressmen became concerned about what they deemed as an 8unnecessary expansion of the United States. 9 President James K. Polk announced in a speech before Congress, that it was cMexico 347 [who] had initiated by invading the territory of the State of Texas, striking the first blow, and shedding the blood of our citizens on our own soil. d 9 Lincoln began to question President Polk as to where the war precisely started in his cSpot Resolution; d On December 22  he introduced a series of resolutions requiring the President to provide the House with call the facts which go to establish whether the particular spot of soil on which the blood of our citizens was so shed, was, or was not, our own soil. d 10 Lincoln was confident that the resolutions put forth would be a major victory for his political career and establish a basis for the Whigs to campaign against the Democrats and the issue of slavery. But Lincoln 9s political high was soon brought to a staggering low when virtually nobody in Washington paid any attention to his resolution or speeches.<br><br> Lincoln 9s discontent is very evident in a letter he sent to his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, in April of 1848. He writes; In this troublesome world, we are never quite satisfied. When you were here, I thought you hindered me some in attending to business; but now, having nothing but business-no variety-it had grown exceedingly tasteless to me....I was going to make a little speech during the week; but the week has passed away without my getting a chance to do so; and now my interest in the subject has passed away too....<br><br> 11 Even worse was the striking blow Lincoln received in his home state of Illinois. Predominately the state was Democrat and their party members were giving Lincoln the tongue lashing of his congressional career. Even worse was the lack of support received by his own party members-the Whigs.<br><br> Keeping his head up, Lincoln started to think of ways to retaliate against the Democratic administration. In 1848, he and other Whig members began to campaign for the Mexican War hero, Zachary Taylor, for the presidency of the United States. At the time he seemed to be the perfect candidate, because of chis total ignorance of public affairs and his lack of any political experience. d 12 But little did Taylor or anyone else know, that the Whig party was beginning to split regionally.<br><br> Whigs of northern states were divided over which issue was of more importance; slavery or the influx of immigrants coming into the country and voting predominantly democrat. All the while, southern Whigs were taking their stance for slavery. And here too, Lincoln and Taylor would have their own division over slavery.<br><br> cTaylor was a Southerner and the owner of more than two hundred slaves. d 13 However, Lincoln continued to campaign for Taylor believing that Taylor could be easily swayed into allowing congress to decide the proper legislation of the country without executive interference. But the 348 war with Mexico and the land cessions given to the United States brought any sort of agreement between Lincoln and Taylor to a virtual halt. Winning the Mexican War brought to the United States its western territory and a whole new controversy as to whether or not slavery should exist there.<br><br> Years prior, Congress had worked out a delicate compromise between the free-soil North and Southern slave states with the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state, while Maine was admitted as a free state. Moreover, the compromise cbanned slavery forever north of Missouri 9s southern boundary. d 14 However, once the United States acquired the Mexican Cession, the states found themselves disputing over the territory of California.<br><br> Southerners realized that the newly acquired territory would at least in-part have to become slave or the congressional balance in the U.S. Senate would be tipped in favor of the free states. In 1846, congressman David Wilmot offered an amendment to an appropriations bill of President Polk 9s, stating that cslavery and involuntary servitude would be barred from all lands acquired from Mexico as a result of the war. d 15 The Wilmot Proviso passed the House of Representatives, but the Senate was dominated by pro-slave congressional members and was shot down.<br><br> cSplit irreparably over the Proviso itself, both Whigs and Democrats sought a different formula on the territorial/slavery extension issue on which their northern and southern members could reunite. d 16 By 1850, Lincoln had declined to run for another congressional term. However, he did seek to endorse other candidates for office. One of whom was a young ambitious Whig named Richard Yates, who sought Lincoln 9s former congressional seat.<br><br> Privately advising Yates, Lincoln told him that he should endorse the newly proposed Compromise of 1850. This compromise would replace the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and would allow for California to be admitted into the Union as a free state. Moreover, the new proposal would enforce a strong fugitive-slave law and allow for the residents of the New Mexico and Utah territories to make their own choice about allowing slavery.<br><br> Though not entirely satisfied, Lincoln was content that the Compromise of 1850 put off the day of reckoning. Lincoln continued to remain out of politics on a personal level until approximately 1854. During Lincoln 9s brief absence from the political arena, another young man was encountering a struggle of his own.<br><br> Though he was known as Curly or Light Hair in his early life, Chief Warrior Crazy Horse would embark upon a life journey, entailing a fight for survival against a country who was contending to hold itself together also. Crazy Horse was born along Rapid Creek about 1842, (the exact date is unknown among scholars). 17 What is known about the man, who would become one of the greatest Lakota warriors, has been passed down by Lakota elders who knew Crazy Horse.<br><br> He was born 349 to Crazy Horse, (his father 9s name) and would receive that name after honoring his family and people in battle and deed. His younger life was similar to that of other Lakota children, but as young Crazy Horse grew older he 9d seen his people 9s traditional lifestyle become threatened by an advancing civilization heading through Lakota homelands. The war with Mexico and the California Gold Rush spurred unwanted white migration into the western territories starting around the 1840s and 1850s.<br><br> The United States government, seeing a need to protect settlers heading west, established forts throughout the plains that were considered to be Native Americans lands. One of the routes heading west was the Oregon Trail established in the mid- 1830s. People taking this trail were heading west to convert Indians of the western frontier to Christianity, so the Lakota called the trail, the Holy Road.<br><br> It was eventually forked northward, west of Fort Laramie, (in present-day Wyoming), to create yet another trail known as the Bozeman Trail. The Lakota called this trail the Powder River Road. As the white migrants became increasingly numerous, many of the old Lakota chiefs and warriors watched them from bluffs above the Holy Road.<br><br> Seeing devastation done to the land laid down by the iron wheels of the wagons the whites brought with them, the natives began to resent their being there. The Indians also began to notice that the buffalo were migrating elsewhere, because the trail was heading through their grazing grasslands. Worse yet was the diseases brought by the whites that the Indians were contracting also.<br><br> The chiefs and warriors were angered by these events happening. cWhen the trader chiefs like Conquering Bear and Bull Tail and old Smoke made strong talk for continued peace with the [whites], the others called them Loaf About the Forts. d 18 Those who had gone to the trading forts had made peace with the whites in exchange for goods, such as food and clothing. But those who did not live next to the forts, were not about to exchange peace for whiteman goods.<br><br> It was then a young Minneconjou warrior rose to speak: cMy friends...these soldiers of the whites who have pushed into our country...are really only a very few, a puff of the breath in the middle of the dark cloud that is our warriors. d 19 The tribal council had decided to go to war. But before the Lakota could make an attack, whites soldiers called for a council meeting at Fort Laramie in 1851. The meeting was to establish a lasting peace between the whites and the Indians and promises of annuity payments would be given every summer for fifty-five years, if the selected chiefs would just touch the pen.<br><br> Even those who wanted nothing to do with the whites thought it would be best to at least investigate what the soldiers were like. One of the tribes that traveled towards Fort Laramie was the Oglalas, who young Crazy Horse was with at the time of the council meeting. As the Oglalas pitched their tepees near the soldier fort, many of the Lakota were anxious about what the whites were like.<br><br> Warned by his father and his uncle 350 not to go near the fort, young Crazy Horse and his friend Lone Bear crode to a slight rise north of the fort. d 20 It was from there that Crazy Horse could see that the whites were not very few, but in fact very many. And now these whites were talking peace when there really wasn 9t even a war. The whites were truly looking to establish three things: ARTICLE 1.<br><br> The aforesaid nations, parties to this treaty, having assembled for the purpose of establishing and confirming peaceful relations amongst themselves, do hereby covenant and agree to abstain in future from all hostilities whatever against each other, to maintain good faith and friendship in all their mutual intercourse, and to make an effective and lasting peace. ARTICLE 4. The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby agree and bind themselves to make restitution or satisfaction for any wrongs committed, after the ratification of this treaty, by any band or individual of their people, on the people of the United States, whilst lawfully residing in or passing through their respective territories.<br><br> ARTICLE 5. The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby recognize and acknowledge the following tracts of country, included within the metes and boundaries hereinafter designated, as their respective territories. 21 To conclude the treaty, the Americans asked that the Indians select a chief to represent them.<br><br> But the Indians did not acknowledged a single leader to represent the entire tribe, so they never picked one. The Americans decided to picked chiefs for them. cA warrior named Conquering Bear was chosen to represent the Lakota, and the Fort Laramie treaty was finally signed on September 12th, 1851. d 22 By stopping intertribal warfare, the molestation of whites along the various trails, and confining each nation to their own respective boundaries, the white soldiers were hoping to keep a lasting peace in the western frontier.<br><br> And cso, for the most part, the wagons and their occupants plodded along unmolested, not because of words on a paper or the power of a 8great father 9 but because of the fear of sickness. d 23 However, the fragile peace would come to an end when a stray cow wandered through a Lakota camp. In the three years following the signing of the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851, the government provided annuities as they saw fit. Sometimes the annuities were slow in coming to the forts or the meat was spoiled upon arrival.<br><br> Washakie, a noted warrior and chief of the Shoshone Indians, best describe the situation when he stated; cSince the white man has made 351 a road across our land and has killed off our game, we are hungry, and there is nothing for us to eat. Our women and children cry for food and we have no food to give them. d 24 Distraught over the developments of living off of the annuity payments, many of the plains tribe began wondering if they should go back to living off of the land. However, winter was soon to set in and word had come from the east that Thomas Fitzpatrick, the agent at Fort Laramie, had gone east and died of the whiteman 9s disease-cholera.<br><br> Maybe Fitzpatrick 9s death was why the annuities were late, so the Sioux continued to wait. Then, on August 17, 1854, a Mormon caravan was passing Conquering Bear 9s Brule encampment along the north fork of the Platte River, near Fort Laramie. Crazy Horse just happened to be visiting his Brule relatives that summer as the Mormons were traveling west.<br><br> In the Mormon caravan, an old cow being pushed along as the Mormons traveled west, when all of sudden the cow was frightened and began running through the Brule encampment. During the chaos, the cow was shot and the Mormon man to whom the cow belonged went to Fort Laramie and demanded that the Indian who shot his cow be arrested. Conquering Bear was sent a message that the Mormon was complaining to the soldiers and that there may be trouble.<br><br> On August 19, 1854, the trouble came. Soldiers under Lieutenant John L. Grattan rode out to the Brule encampment, demanding that the perpetrator who killed the cow be turned over at once.<br><br> Conquering Bear tried to reason with Grattan and offered to pay the Mormon a fine horse for the loss of his old cow. Still, Grattan wanted the guilty party turned over. The argument intensified and suddenly Grattan ordered his men to open fire on the encampment.<br><br> Crazy Horse had been watching the event as it unfolded. He also saw that Conquering Bear was the first to be shot. The Lakota warriors became enraged and swarmed over the soldiers until all of them were killed.<br><br> Alarmed whites dubbed the incident the Grattan Massacre and in response, carried out a much more brutal act of their own. On September 3, 1855, 600 troops out of Fort Kearny, under General William S. Harney, swarmed over a Brule village at Blue Water, killing 86 of the scattering Sioux, and taking 70 women and children captive.<br><br> After witnessing the tragic incident with Conquering Bear being shot and then coming across the aftermath of the Blue Water Massacre, Crazy Horse 9s opinion of the whiteman would be one of distrust. Hump, an older warrior and mentor of Crazy Horse, once said, cit was better to die fighting on the plains than to live in the irons of the whites. d 25 Crazy Horse would live his life by those words. By 1854, Crazy Horse had witnessed disastrous events happened to his people.<br><br> From this point on, he would continue to grow up mistrusting whites and resisting reservation life until his mid-30s, when he was killed. Lincoln too, by 1854, had witnessed the country falling apart 352 over the issue of slavery and had decided to enter back into politics again upon passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. He too, would spend the rest of his life struggling to save the Union and emancipating African Americans and then die shortly thereafter.<br><br> The 1850s proved to be a decade of escalated controversy, both in the states and out on the frontier. Neither Lincoln nor Crazy Horse could prevent the eruption of war, without having to stand up for what each man believed in. Both Lincoln and Crazy Horse were young men when they developed their animosity towards a subculture that posed conflict and that animosity was not about to be tamed until each of the two men faced their foes on the battlefield.<br><br> Though Lincoln and Crazy Horse were fighting to save their nations, the two men were very different in they ways they tried to achieve it. Lincoln was a political orator who was looking at slavery in a constitutional sense. That every man is created equal in the eyes of God and that the United States as a country was founded on that very belief.<br><br> Crazy Horse was a warrior who looked to save his nation by might, to uphold traditional values of the plains indians. Both men believed in the right of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. And neither of them was going to give up what they believed in without a fight.<br><br> But the question remains, 8Was Abraham Lincoln or Chief Warrior Crazy Horse successful in saving their nations? 9 To answer this, an examination is needed of each man 9s accomplishments and the post-history of their lives. On April 9, 1865, the Confederate General Robert E. Lee rode into of Appomattax, Virginia and surrendered to Union General Ulysses S.<br><br> Grant. The Civil War was over and the South had been defeated. Immediately, Lincoln planned to submit his Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction to Congress and welcome back the southern states.<br><br> Lincoln 9s proclamation, a.k.a. Ten Percent Plan, set forth the criteria for the South to come back into the Union, with representation in Congress, but with the stipulation that each state much abolish slavery by ratifying the Thirteenth Amendment. Aside from that, all was to be forgotten and forgiven according to Lincoln.<br><br> This assurance is detected in Lincoln 9s second inaugural address: With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation 9s wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan-to do all which may achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations. 26 353 Though the Civil War was over, it is easy to see that the nation Lincoln was trying to save did become the true Union once again. However, war was not entirely over.<br><br> The western plains were still festering and working its way to a climax of warfare. It would still be another twelve years before the Indian Wars would come to a close and that day was marked by the death of Crazy Horse. In the years following the Blue Water Massacre, Crazy Horse rose to the top of his warrior society, but the decade consisted of harsh time for him and his people.<br><br> Battles ensued with the U.S. Army, railroad hunters almost exterminated the buffalo, disease killed many of the plains people. Eventually after the Battle of Little Bighorn, the United States had had enough.<br><br> All Indians would be brought into the reservations for good. But does it mean that Crazy Horse lost his fight to save his nation? His quote, cMy lands are where my dead lie buried d may signify defeat.<br><br> But Crazy Horse 9s surrender was printed in the Omaha Weekly Bee on May 16, 1877 and stated this about the warrior chief and his surrender: Red Cloud Agency, Nebraska-May-7 The surrender of Crazy Horse and his entire band occurred here yesterday. Lieutenant Clark met the savages five miles from the Agency at 10 a.m. Crazy horse was riding a few steps in advance of the cavalry while a file of the principal chiefs followed their leader....Crazy Horse ordered a halt, dismounted, and shook hands with Lt.<br><br> Clark, and in a few words told his spokesman to say that he would smoke the peacepipe now, and with the help of the Great Spirit establish eternal peace. 27 Though Crazy Horse had surrendered and smoked the peacepipe, there is no indication that he lost the battle to save his nation. In many respects, the Lakota culture is alive and well, just as I would hope that Crazy Horse would want it to be.<br><br> The traditional nomadic lifestyle maybe gone, but the heart of the people is still there. With some consideration, people can view that both Lincoln and Crazy Horse saved their nations, but on the opposite side a person can argue that neither nation has truly been saved. With the current conflicts in Iraq, Korea, and Afghanistan that the United States is involved in, we must always remember that nothing is saved, until we as a people of earth can come to a consensus that we are our own worst enemy and in-order to survive, we must end our petty differences.<br><br> Joseph M. Marshall summed it up best when he wrote: cIf we as a nation have learned anything from the tragic events of 354 September 11, 2001, and of the issues and challenges that have unfolded since, one of the lessons surely is that we are not immune to attack no matter how strong or invincible we think we are. Within the shadows of that lesson is one as equally important: we must be prepared to defend ourselves.<br><br> The survival of any group, society, or nation is directly connected to its willingness to defend itself, and the willingness and ability to defend itself is dependent on the depth of the devotion of its people. That kind of devotion is not the exclusive domain of any one culture or race of people. It is a basic human characteristic augmented by cultural beliefs and traditions. d 28 355 EndNotes 1.<br><br> David H. Donald, Lincoln (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995), 23-24. 2.<br><br> Donald, 24. 3. Albert Marrin, Commander in Chief: Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War.<br><br> ( New York: Dutton Children 9s Books, 1997), 20. 4. Donald, 36.<br><br> 5. Philip B. Kunhardt Jr., Philip B.<br><br> Kunhardt III, and Peter W. Kunhardt. Lincoln: An Illustrated Biography.<br><br> (New York: Gramercy Books, 1992), 48-49. 6. Harold Holzer, ed.<br><br> Abraham Lincoln the Writer: A Treasury of His Greatest Speeches and Letters. ( Honesdale: Boyds Mills Press, 2000), 21. 7.<br><br> Marrin, 35. 8. Marrin, 35.<br><br> 9. Donald, 123. 10.<br><br> Donald, 123. 11. Kunhardt, 75.<br><br> 12. Donald, 126. 13.<br><br> Donald, 127. 14. Marrin, 55.<br><br> 15. Michael F. Holt, Ph.D.<br><br> cThe Wilmot Proviso, d 2002 (http:// dig.lib.niu.edu/message/ps- wilmotproviso.html). 16. Holt.<br><br> 356 17. Mari Sandoz, Crazy Horse: The Strange Man of the Oglalas. cLincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1942 d, Forward.<br><br> 18. Sandoz, 4. 19.<br><br> Sandoz, 5. 20. Joseph M.Marshall III, The Journey of Crazy Horse: A Lakota History.<br><br> ( New York: Penguin Group, 2004), 28. 21. Rev.<br><br> Raymond A. Bucko, cCreighton University, d May 19, 2000. (puffin.creighton.edu/lakota/1851_la.html).<br><br> 22. http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/program/episodes/threes/ conquest.htm 23. Marshall, 36.<br><br> 24. http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/program/episodes/threes/ conquest.htm 25. Marshall, 21.<br><br> 26. Holzer, 87. 27.<br><br> Omaha Weekly Bee, May 16, 1877: Red CLoud Agency. 28. Marshall, 270.<br><br> 357 Bibliography Brown, Vinson. Great Upon the Mountain: The Story of Crazy Horse, Legendary Mystic and Warrior. Healdsburg: Naturegraph Publishers, 1971.<br><br> Bucko, Rev. Raymond A. cCreighton University, d May 19, 2000.<br><br> (puffin.creighton.edu/lakota/1851_la.html). Burchard, Peter. Lincoln and Slavery.<br><br> New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 1999. Donald, David H. Lincoln.<br><br> New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995. Freedman, Russell. The Life and Death of Crazy Horse.<br><br> New York: Holiday Press, 1996. Holzer, Harold., ed. Abraham Lincoln the Writer: A Treasury of His Greatest Speeches and Letters.<br><br> Honesdale: Boyds Mills Press, 2000. Holt,Michael F. Ph.D.<br><br> cThe Wilmot Proviso, d 2002 (http:// dig. lib.niu.edu/message/ps-wilmotproviso.html). Hyde, George E.<br><br> Red Cloud 9s Folk: A History of the Oglala Sioux. University of Oklahoma Press, 1937. Kadlecek, Edward, and Mabell Kadlecek.<br><br> To Kill An Eagle: Indians Views on the Last Days of Crazy Horse. Boulder: Johnson Books, 1981. Kunhardt, Jr., Philip B., and Philip B.<br><br> Kunhardt III, and Peter W. Kunhardt. Lincoln: An Illustrated Biography.<br><br> New York: Gramercy Books, 1992. Lazarus, Edward. Black Hills/White Justice: The Sioux Nation Versus the United States, 1775 to the Present.<br><br> Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991. 358 Marrin, Albert. Commander in Chief: Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War.<br><br> New York: Dutton Children 9s Books, 1997. Marshall III, Joseph M. The Journey of Crazy Horse: A Lakota History.<br><br> New York: Penguin Group, 2004. McMurtry, Larry. Crazy Horse.<br><br> New York: Viking Penguin, 1999. Omaha Weekly Bee, May 16, 1877: Red CLoud Agency. Polley, Robert L., ed.<br><br> Lincoln: His Words and His World. Waukesha: Country Beautiful Foundation, 1965. Sandoz, Mari.<br><br> Crazy Horse: The Strange Man of the Oglalas. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1942. 359 Research Papers Related to Crazy Horse Memorial cHow exciting to be with someone who knew Korczak! d 360<br><br>