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Illinois 61820 Museum Gallery Hours: Monday through Saturday, 9:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m.; Sunday 2:00 5:00 p.m. Admission free.
Closed on National Holidays. Reservations: Those desiring guided group visits may make reservations by writing or calling the Krannert Art Museum, 500 Peabody Drive, University of Illinois, Champaign 61820 (telephone: area code 217/ 333-1860). Cover.
Punch Bowl, details. French, Sevres. 1770.
soft paste porcelain with bleu celeste glaze. 13-3/8" diam. (33.97 cm.), Gift of Mr.
Harlan E. Moore. 1976.
76-5-1. Tentative Exhibition Schedule 1978-1979 Academic Year Krannert Art Museum University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign August 27-October 1 Atelier 17; Retrospective A selection of over 100 prints by 68 artists commemorates the 50th anniversary of the famous workshop, Atelier 17, founded by Stanley William Hayter in Paris in 1927. The transfer of the workshop to New York in the 1940's and back to Paris in the 1950's is traced by the production which includes a number of prints by Hayter and by artists such as Alechinsky, Calder, Kandinsky, Lasansky, Masson, Nevelson, and Tanguy who worked at Atelier 17.
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exhibition was assembled by the Elvehjem Art Center at the University of Wisconsin-IVIadison; the Guest Curator was Dr. Joann tvloser of the University of Iowa Museum of Art. August 27-October 1 Photographs of the American Wilderness by Dean Brown Seventy-five photographs, 60 in color and 15 black and white, record Dean Brown's love of the wilderness.<br><br> He worked in remote parts of Arizona, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Alaska, Texas, New York, New Hampshire, and California. Using a 35mm camera and tripod he worked with an artist's eye and did not crop his pictures. He died while on an assignment for Time-Life Soo/ts.<br><br> October S-November 5 American Sculpture for American Cities Models and preliminary drawings by twelve contemporary American artists represent projects for urban sculptural monuments. Mark di Suvero, Lyman Kipp, Alexander Lieberman, Tony Smith, Clement Meadmore, Kenneth Snelson, and others created sculptural designs to function as a symbol of a city or to complement an urban site. The exhibition originated at, and is circulated by, the Akron Art Institute.<br><br> November 12- Work by Faculty in the Department of Art and Design December 17 The annual display of works in crafts, graphic and industrial design, mixed media, painting, sculpture, photography, and printmaking by faculty members in the University of Illinois, Department of Art and Design at Urbana-Champaign will be on exhibition preceding the mid- winter holiday. January 14-February 18 World Print Competition 77 One hundred prints by 97 artists from 24 countries compose the exhibition sponsored by the California College of Arts and Crafts and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Over 4,000 prints were reviewed by three internationally known jurists: Tatyana Grosman, K.<br><br> G. Pontus V. Hulten, and Prithwish Neogy.<br><br> The exhibition of prints is being circulated by the Smithsonian Institution. March 4April 8 Sol LeWItt Modular and serial constructions, wall drawings, and books 4 about 140 objects 4 by Sol LeWitt illustrate the theories and procedures of one of the most influential artists of the last decade. A pioneer Minimalist in the early 1960's, LeWitt's emphasis upon "idea" in his work and his writings had a profound effect upon contemporary Conceptual and Post-Conceptual artists.<br><br> The exhibition was organized by The Museum of Modern Art and is being shown in New York, Montreal, Champaign, and La Jolla, California. April 22May 13 Work by Graduate Students In the Department of Art and Design Paintings, sculpture, prints, photography, assemblages, and crafts by students completing Graduate Programs in the Department of Art and Design at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign will be on exhibition. Special Exhibitions Pierre Alechinsky, Belgian, b 1907, Les Ombres, 1952, lift-ground etching, H.<br><br> 20-4/5" x W. 26-1/5" (52,83x70.55 cm), Lefebre Gallery, New York, Among graphic artists and print collectors "Atelier 17" is synonymous withi the revival of the workshop tradition and of intaglio printmaking during the 1930's and 1940's. This activity v\/as generated largely by Stanley William Hayter.<br><br> Born in England in 1901 and educated as a chemist, he gave up science in 1926 and moved to Paris. He soon became acquainted w/ith artists of several nationalities who were living in Paris between the two World Wars. It was in the studio of the Polish artist, Joseph Hecht, that Hayter learned engraving.<br><br> His enthusiasm for the method attracted others who wished to learn printmaking techniques. Hayter's workshop became known as Atelier 17 from the address of his studio at 17 Rue Champagne-Premier, to which he moved in 1933. There, artists shared ideas and experimented with new methods of color printing.<br><br> When war was declared in Europe Hayter returned to England where he served for a while in a reserve unit. After this was disbanded, he moved to New York, establishing his studio there in 1940. An exhibition of prints held at The Museum of Modern Art in 1944 directed national attention to work produced at Atelier 17 and brought about a new interest in contemporary printmaking in America.<br><br> Although Hayter moved back to Paris in 1950, and the New York studio officially closed in 1955, the influence of Hayter and Atelier 17 in the development of printmaking in the United States continued. The exhibition, which will be on display at the Krannert Art Museum from August 27 to October 1, contains examples of Hayter's work including prints made during the 1930's when he exhibited with the Surrealists in Paris; and it contains prints by many artists of international reputation who worked in his studio at one time or another. The exhibition was assembled by the Elvejhem Art Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Dean Brown died while on assignment in 1973.<br><br> He was photographing Table Mountain in New Hampshire. Torrential rains during a two- week period had formed a new waterfall over the face of a sheer, granite cliff. After climbing almost to the top in order to take the picture, he slipped on the wet rock and fell.<br><br> Although he was a professional musician, scholar, and linguist, he also was a hiker and photographer with an intense love of the wilderness. He preferred to print small as he wanted the scenes experienced by the viewer in an intimate way 4 as he had first viewed them in nature. His wife, Carol Brown, who selected the prints for the exhibition, wrote "Dean Brown brought to landscape photography an artist's eye for color, value and form; a reporter's zeal for accuracy and documentation; and a craftsman's obsession for perfection." The exhibition was made possible by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts and was assembled at the Akron Art Institute.<br><br> It will be shown concurrently with the Atelier 17 prints. drawings for new urban monuments. The exhibition will contain work by sculptors who in recent years have created monumental works of sculpture for American cities.<br><br> Such projects usually have involved a collaboration of patron and artist: sometimes municipalities have commissioned such work, sometimes corporations, and in some cases the commissions represent the gift of a private patron to his native city. The monumental designs decorate parks, architectural plazas, boulevards, and city centers. They have presented new problems to the sculptor, who must conceive in the studio works which in their greatly enlarged scale will be seen in relation to the sizes of surrounding spaces and buildings.<br><br> Such projects also have involved new technology in the choice of materials and methods of construction suitable for the new designs and for outdoor display. The exhibition was suggested by Clement Meadmore and Patricia Hamilton. Mrs.<br><br> Hamilton served as Guest Curator. The exhibition was assembled by the Akron Art Institute. The Museum will have on display from Octobers through November 5 an exhibition of sculptors' three-dimensional models and Fall Lecture-Luncheon The Fall Lecture-Luncheon will provide an exceptional opportunity for members to hear about the dally life, and the art which surrounded it, in the buried cities of Campania: Pompeii and Herculaneum.<br><br> Janina Darling, who is Chairperson of Art History at Eastern Illinois University and who previously has taught at the University of California, the University of Illinois, and San Francisco State University, will be the speaker. She carried out extensive research on Pompeiian art while a graduate student at Berkeley and later in Pompeii, in Herculaneum, and at the National Archaeological Museum in Naples while on a Fulbright Fellowship at the American Academy in Rome. These studies were contributory to her doctor's dissertation on the subject of Roman landscape painting, which she discusses particularly in relation to the painting styles at Pompeii and Herculaneum.<br><br> Professor Darling has published articles on classical art in scholarly journals such as the American Journal of Archaeology and California Publications in Classical Archaeology; she has lectured before academic and archaeological societies in various parts of the United States. Professor Darling states that her lecture will introduce listeners to some of the famous citizens of Pompeii and Herculaneum, in their own homes; it will discuss the fine points of living, the plan of the typical house, the kitchen, furniture, interior decoration and garden. She also will review some of the principal public buildings such as the forum, several temples, theater, and baths.<br><br> The lecture will offeran excellent historical and artistic backdrop for the objects that will be on display at The Art Institute of Chicago in the exhibition Pompeii AD. 79. The luncheon will be held on Thursday, September 21, at the Champaign Country Club at twelve o'clock; the lecture will follow at one-thirty.<br><br> Krannert Art Museum Associates will receive reservation information by mail. Fall Exhibition Trip A visit to the exhibition Pompeii A. D.<br><br> 79 at The Art Institute of Chicago is planned for Tuesday, October 17. The exhibition has been seen in Copenhagen, London, and Boston. From Chicago it travels to Dallas and New York.<br><br> It brings together objects of art and artifacts which w/ere preserved below the over-twelve feet of punnice and volcanic ash that buried Pompeii and Herculaneum after the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius on August 24, A.D. 79.<br><br> The objects, lent by the Pompeii Antiquarium and the National Archaeological Museum of Naples, include jewelry, silverware, sculpture, mosaics, frescos, tools, pottery, glass, and furniture. Pompeii was located on a spur of lava just north of the mouth of the Sarnus (Sarno) river. In Roman times Pompeii was the Pompeii.<br><br> A View of the Forum with Mt. Vesuvius in the Distance maritime, commercial, and agricultural capital of the lower Sarnus valley. In A.D.<br><br> 62 or 63 a severe earthquake devastated much of Pompeii and nearby Herculaneum. The cities were still rebuilding in A.D. 79 when the volcanic eruption completely obliterated them.<br><br> Although an eye-witness account by Pliny the Younger described the tragedy in letters to the historian, Tacitus, and although the mound which covered Pompeii was known for centuries thereafter as La Civita, the site remained buried for over fifteen hundred years. In the late sixteenth century the ruins of some buildings and paintings were unearthed during the digging of a channel from the Sarno. (The Italian architect, Dominico Fontana, often is credited with discovering the ruins of Pompeii sometime between 1586 and 1600; and the Prince of Elboeuf often is credited with discovering Herculaneum in 1709.) Charles of Bourbon, whose mother was a Farnese and Queen of Spain, was crowned King of the Two Sicilies in 1738.<br><br> He was bequeathed the Farnese collections which were moved from Parma and Rome to Naples and housed, after 1738, in the Palazzo Reale di Capodimonte. He encouraged the excavations at Herculaneum, which were underway in 1738, and at Pompeii, which were undertaken on a systematic scale in the spring of 1748. The excavated treasures were stored first in the King's villa at Portici (the former port of Herculaneum), but when Vesuvius erupted again in 1779 the treasures were moved to the Palazzo degli Studi (now the Museo Nazionale) in Naples.<br><br> With the attraction of both the Farnese treasures and the new discoveries which were being unearthed at the nearby excavations, Naples rivaled Rome as an important stop on the Grand Tour. Over three hundred years later Pompeii still remains a major tourist attraction. Krannert Art Museum Associates will receive mailed information regarding plans and reservations for the fall trip.<br><br> Archaeological Institute Program The Archaeological Institute of America has a group of loyal members in Central Illinois who plan and support an annual program of lectures. All of the lectures are given by specialists: some lectures appeal primarily to other specialists; some appeal to a general audience: but each lecture presents organized information that is not otherwise accessible. Members of the Central Illinois Chapter represent various fields such as history, geography, architecture, anthropology, architectural history, muscology, comparative literature, philosophy, religion, and mathematics.<br><br> The mixture of interests contributes to the rich exchange of ideas and knowledge. The Krannert Art Museum invites the Central Illinois Chapter of the Archaeological Institute of America to present its lecture series in the Krannert Art Museum auditorium. Most lectures are on Tuesday or Wednesday evenings at eight o'clock.<br><br> All Krannert Art Museum members are invited to attend the lectures, and there is no admission charge. The dates, speakers, and topics will be: October 11: Greek Vases in the Krannert Art Museum November 15: Ttie Porticello Stiipwreck Ttie Origins of Agriculture February 6: March 6: April 3: Underwater Explorations at Caesarea Marltima Israel Professor Ann Perkins, Emerita. Department of Art and Design, University of Illinois Cyntfiia Jones Elseman.<br><br> Lecturer. Yale University; Editor American Institute of Nautical Arcfiaeology Newsletter Professor Jack R, Harlan. Plant and Agronomy Department, University of Illinois Professor Robert L.<br><br> Hofilfelder, History Department, University of Colorado, Boulder Early Roman Coins Professor Ricfiard and ttie Coins of l^itctiell. History Soutti Italy Department, University of Illinois Reconstructing ttie Professor Steptien L. Countryside of Dyson, Classics and Roman Italy History Department, Wesleyan University Additions to the Collections Gifts Cream Pitcher, English, London, 1791, silver, H.<br><br> 5-3/8" x W. 4 1/2" (13.65 x 1 1.46 cm.). Gift of Mrs.<br><br> Franklin Wingard, 1978, 78-5-1. The Krannert Art Museum has received gifts from several donors during the past year. Mrs.<br><br> Franklin F. Wingard (L.A.S., '29) presented a delicate English silvercream pitcher in memory of her husband (Law, '29). The vase- shaped pitcher is mounted on a square pedestal and decorated with stippled arabesques, bright-cut foliate swags, and punched beaded border.<br><br> The scrolled initials "SB" are engraved in a medallion beneath the spout. A series of five hallmarks is stamped on the face of the pedestal base below the handle. The first of these is the signature of the silversmith, the letter "G." This stamp has been pressed over another maker's mark, nearly obliterating it.<br><br> The occurrence of such double markings is not unique. The second of the marks shows the profile of the reigning sovereign, George III. and indicates that the proper duty was paid on the silver.<br><br> The mark was in use only between the years 1784 and 1890. Following the "duty mark" is the "lion passant," an ancient symbol drawn from English heraldry. It is the guarantee of the sterling quality of the silver itself.<br><br> Next is the lowercase Roman letter "q" in a shield, the mark of the year 1790-1791. Such a letter was assigned for each year, beginning in the fifteenth century; the system continues to this day in orderly alphabetical cycles. The last of the marks on the pitcher is the "leopard's head crowned," actually the frontal head of a lion.<br><br> It is the mark of the London Guild of Silversmiths, and has been in use since 1300. Professor Frank Gunter and Mrs. Gunter gave several objects, including a Meissen condiment pot.<br><br> The "crossed swords and star" mark on its underside indicates that it was made during the Marcolini period (1774- 1814), the last great era of Meissen production. The pot is in the shape of a barrel turned on its side, raised on tour goat's feet and set atop a shell-like base. The tiny lid of the pot is also in the form of a shell and decorated with delicately modeled grape foliage and fruit.<br><br> The piece is unpainted biscuit, which was used only for such fine plastic wares after c. 1780. The porcelain, however, retains the flawless and brilliant hard-white tone characteristic of Meissen since c.<br><br> 1720. The Gunters also donated three etching- engravings by the French printnnaker, Abraham Bosse (1602-1676). Two of the works are very small, as they were created for a prayer book, Le Petit Diurnal des Chartreux of 1655.<br><br> The first of the prints was the original frontispiece for the prayer book, and shows the Virgin and Child appearing to two saints; the second depicts the Annunciation. The third of the prints is a larger etching- engraving which was part of a series relating the parable of Lazarus. The exuberant Baroque composition shows Lazarus being visited by an apparition of angels and cherubs in a blaze of heavenly light.<br><br> A part of the Gunters' contribution is a graphite drawing by the English artist Samuel Prout (1783-1852). The drawing presents a charming riverfront view of Verona, Italy, and was executed during the artist's tour to Italy and Switzerland in 18^4. It was intended as a preparatory sketch for a later publication, and is signed on the reverse "S.<br><br> Prout." The delicately rendered scene provides a wistful impression of the graciously aged buildings and the life they represented. Two graphic works by the prominent American sculptor, Chaim Gross, were donated by the artist's wife, Mrs. Renee Gross.<br><br> Austrian-born, Chaim Gross studied art in the United States and executed several public commissions for the Federal Government in Washington, D.C., as well as others in New York and Jerusalem. Gross' work was included in the exhibition of American Painting and Sculpture shown in Moscow in 1959. His work is represented in the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Whitney Museum of American Art and The Museum of Modern Art, New York.<br><br> He received numerous important grants and prizes. In addition, Gross devoted many years to teaching, and wrote several books, articles, and television productions. Mrs.<br><br> Gross' gifts include a signed pencil drawing, "I Love My Baby" (1963), showing a reclining motherand child. The massive movements and bulbous forms of the figures create a composition which is both strong and poignant. The same massive, bulbous qualities may be seen in the signed pencil and watercolor composition of 1974, also given by Mrs.<br><br> Gross. In this case, the impression is one of buoyancy and lightness, however, as the loose washes and fleeting pencil lines describe the figure of a walking woman, caught in mid-stride. Dr.<br><br> and Mrs. Allen S. Weller provided a signed, color etching and aquatint print by the contemporary American master sculptor and printmaker, Claes Oldenburg.<br><br> The title, "Colossal Tea Bags in a City Square" (1976), belies the subtlety of the linear treatment of the tea bags and stick figures against the pavement grid, foiled by freely-applied aquatint tones of rust and gray. The Krannert Art Museum is grateful for the generosity of these donors to the collections. L.M.<br><br> Purchases Under its Museum Purchase Plan the National Endowment for the Arts provides funds for the acquisition of works by living American artists. The objectives of the plan are "to encourage museums to add to their collections of contemporary American art, to create and expand public response to living artists through display of their works, to raise new funds specifically for this purpose, and to provide direct financial assistance for artists." Through a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts the Krannert Art Museum has acquired two paintings and a print. One painting, "Conjunction 151," by Cleve Gray was among the most admired Robert Rauschenberg, American, b.<br><br> 1925, Sky Garden, 1969, colored lithograph and silkscreen print, H. 89" X W. 37-5/8" (226.1 x 95.57 cm.).<br><br> University of Illinois Purchase, 1978, 78-7-1. works by the artist in ttie spring exhibition at the Museum. The second painting, by Jules Olitski, was included in his recent New York exhibition and was painted during the summer of 1977.<br><br> Although it is entitled "The Greek Princess 13" the true subject is the rectangular paint surface itself: its color, material, and form. The painting Is a rich and deep mesh of sprayed-on browns and black paint with textural shapes and lines partially emerging from the dark field. Across the center of the painting an irregular line of rolled-on paint visually creates a folded effect; the illusionary crease is further emphasized by a broken crimson and silver line.<br><br> Along the side and bottom edges of the field of paint, narrow and irregular strips of the canvas are exposed on which Olitski 4 in no accidental way 4 has squeezed or stroked lines of yellow, blue, purple, or red paint, to reaffirm as it were the surface plane and the rectangular form of the painting. Olitski's recent work brings together his own earlier explorations of relationships between picture frame, the picture plane, and the pictorial elements of shape, line, texture, color, light, and space. Somehow Olitski's progressive experiments have carried him beyond the dynamic push-pull effects of Hans Hofmann, the textural plasticity of the French mat iere painters, the color shapes and color fields of the stain painters and the reductivists.<br><br> In the catalogue of the recent New York exhibition, Neil Marshall wrote, "I think it is Olitski's paintings more than any others' that typify our period style and the unique historical problems that the painting of this decade has faced." Robert Rauschenberg's "Sky Garden" is a color lithograph and silkscreen print on paper. Signed, dated, and numbered 19 in an edition of 35, the print was produced at the workshop of Gemini G.E.L. (Graphic Editions Limited) in Los Angeles.<br><br> Rauschenberg studied in Paris and had worked in an abstract expressionist style, so it Spring Museum Trip may have been his association with Joseph Albers and John Cage at Black Mountain College that encouraged his interest in nnixed media. His "combines" of the mid-1950's recall earlier Dada work and Kurt Schwitters' /Werz collages. Rauschenberg is regarded as one of the artists most responsible for the development of Pop Art.<br><br> In the early 1960's he began selecting photographs from the media(or sometimes taking pictures himself) which he enlarged and transferred to silkscreen. His combine-paintings of the mid-sixties combined silkscreened images on canvas with abstract passages of brush work in oil paint. His subjects could be selected from anywhere, for example, the series of lithographs based on the Apollo II moon rocket which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center in 1969.<br><br> It was at this time that Rauschenberg's "Sky Garden" was produced. Joseph E. Young, in discussing the Gemini G.E.L.<br><br> workshop (Art International. December 1971, pp. 71, 72), describes Rauschenberg's method in creating his Booster series: "Rauschenberg selected photographs which were transferred onto photosensitive printing plates.<br><br> These were inked with lithographic inks and then printed onto numerous sheets of transfer paper. Then the artist further altered these numerous identical images with tusche, wash, crayon, and in at least one instance with silkscreen printing. From these transfer paper "studies" Rauschenberg selected an image which was transferred to a lithographic stone where he worked again 4 directly on the image." After the lithograph had been printed on oversized paper, it was overprinted with silkscreen ink in white, outlining the rocket and booster and identifying their sections with captions.<br><br> Robert Rauschenberg is generally regarded as one of the most influential artists of the last three decades and the Museum is fortunate to obtain this important example of his work for its print collection. A gala three-day trip is planned for Krannert Art Museum Associates during early April. The itinerary will include a day at the Henry Francis duPont Winterthur Museum, a night at the Hotel duPont in Wilmington, and side trips to the Hagley Museum, Longwood Gardens, and the Brandywine River Museum.<br><br> The next stop will be two days in Washington to visit the National Gallery's new East Building, The Phillips Collection, and Dumbarton Oaks 4 with optional visits to other Washington museums such as the Hirschhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, The Freer Gallery of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Museum of African Art, National Collection of Fine Arts, National Portrait Gallery, Renwick Gallery, The White House, and the Diplomatic Reception Rooms at the Department of State. Trip dates are Tuesday, April 3, through Friday, April 6. Chairman for the trip is Mrs.<br><br> Lewis W. Barron, Deputy Chairman is Mrs. Richard R.<br><br> Tryon. Krannert Art Museum Associates will receive information regarding costs and reservations in November. William and Mary furniture in the Flock Room of Tfie Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum 1.<br><br> Punch Bowl. French, SSvres. 1770.<br><br> soft paste porcelain with bleu celeste glaze, 13-3/8"diam (33,97 cm.), Gift of Mr Harlan E Moore, 1976,76-5-1. A Bowl for Toasting and A Toast to a Bowl by Carl C. Dauterman Through the continued generosity of Mr.<br><br> Harlan E. Moore, a constant friend and benefactor of the Museum, several porcelains of distinction have recently been added to the Museum's collection. Most outstanding is an 18th century punch bowl (Fig.<br><br> 1), a creation of Sevres, the royal porcelain factory that was the pride of Louis XV. This jatte a punch is notable for its turquoise color, size, bird decoration, and the manner in which it is marked. Each of these features, which combine to give the vessel a regal appearance, will be discussed here in some detail.<br><br> To begin: the bowl belongs to a category so scarce that a major Eastern museum exhibits an example in spite of its fragmentary condition, with pieces missing. Such objects usually were part of luxurious services of the kind owned by royalty; they were the dominant vessels among the equipment for dessert. That they were not numerous even in their day may be gathered from analyzing the catalogue of a special exhibition, Les Grands Services de Sevres, mounted by the Musee National de la Ceramique, at Sevres, in 1951.<br><br> Of the dozen great services representing the 18th century, two were shown^ to have had originally a pair each of punch bowls, eight had one apiece, and the remaining two had none at all. All in the exhibition were made for exalted personages. Among their original owners were the Empress Maria Theresa, the Elector Palatine Charles Theodore, the Duchess of Bedford, Madame Du Barry, and Louis Quinze himself.<br><br> Only three of the 18th century services in the exhibition displayed the coveted turquoise blue ground, and of these only two were decorated with birds. The earliest was ordered by Louis as a cadeau diplomatique for the king-to-be, Gustav III of Sweden, on the occasion of his visit to Paris in 1771. Consisting of 586 pieces, it included "2 jattes a punch avec mortlers," according to the factory record.^ Its depictions of birds, perhaps 2,000 in the aggregate, represent the collaboration of six painters.<br><br> It is the only one of the three that still remains intact. The second, a huge collection of 744 pieces, was ordered by Catherine the Great for her personal use. It was decorated in "cameo" fashion with scenes from ancient history and mythology, by painters whose names can be deciphered from their marks on the porcelains.<br><br> After a fire at the Tsarkoie-Selo Palace, one portion of this service was removed to England, later to be reclaimed by Paul I; other pieces found their way into private hands. The third of the turquoise blue services was made as a gift from Louis XV near the end of his reign to Prince Louis de Rohan. It is of particular interest because it was meant to be part of his official equipage while Ambassadeur Extraordinaire at the court of Maria Theresa, and this was the first instance in which porcelain was substituted for the traditional ambassadorial silver.<br><br> Thus Sevres porcelain was invested with a special cachet: it had been chosen as an instrument of royal propaganda, to proclaim the pride of the French monarch in the artistic dominance of his porcelain overall its European rivals. Rohan is perhaps best known in history for two inglorious episodes in his career. During his ambassadorship, which continued into the reign of Louis XVI, he gained the disfavor of Marie Antoinette by his unseemly behavior at the court of Vienna.<br><br> After his return to Paris he became the Cardinal Prince who figured in the well-known story of the Queen's Necklace, as described by de Maupassant, winning for himself the nickname of Le Cardinal Collier. His ambassadorial porcelain became widely dispersed with time. Almost half of its 368 pieces found their way to the United States during World War II.<br><br> Several American museums have representative holdings (Krannert has a plate, also the gift of Mr. Moore); other examples are scattered among numerous private holders. Abroad, sizeable portions are to be found in the Louvre, the Sevres Museum, and Windsor Castle.<br><br> The turquoise color that makes these services (and this bowl) so distinctive is recorded with some ambiguity in the archives of Sevres. A statement by Jean Hellot, the chemist credited as its inventor, refers to "le bleu de Roy, ou bleu turquoise" discovered by himself in 1753.^ As synonyms, these terms are confusing, because bleu de Roi has been applied by more recent writers to a dark purplish blue. In the delivery records of the factory there seems to be an equivalency among bleu turquoise, bleu Hellot, bleu celeste, and the abbreviation B.C.<br><br> Part of the problem may be that the color evades description, being a peculiar blending of blue and green. Hellot himself defined it as resembling old turquoise by day and emerald or malachite by candlelight. Happily, English and American authorities agree with the French on the preponderance of blue over green.<br><br> We call it turquoise blue, a term less ethereal than the French favorite, bleu celeste. There is no doubt that turquoise blue was one of the most expensive colors known to the manufactory. A very special technique was required to process it, involving two firings instead of the usual one for a ground-color.<br><br> This factor alone not only increased the cost, but introduced the extra risk of accident while in the kiln 4 accident that could reduce a precious creation to a mere waster. In the perspective of ceramic history, the turquoise color existed long before Hellot achieved it. It had been well known to potters of the Islamic world at least since the 12th century.<br><br> During the Mongol hegemony of China in the 13th and 14th centuries the blue pigment, cobalt, was introduced there from the Near East, possibly Persia. Although this was evidenced in the deep rich blue of Ming times (14th to 17th centuries), a brilliant turquoise came into its own in China among the series of monochrome glazes produced during the reign of K'ang Hsi (1662-1722). It was doubtless in emulation of this last source 4 for K'ang Hsi porcelains were popular in Europe 4 that the French strove to capture it for their own.<br><br> The ambitious size of the bowl can best be appreciated in terms of certain technical considerations, beginning with the nature of the porcelain itself. Here it should be said that while Sevres produced an unsurpassed white porcelain, the material is known technically as a glassy-frit, soft-paste, or artificial porcelain. Therefore we should examine the factors that distinguish the old-fashioned type from the true or hard-paste porcelains.<br><br> Our justification for calling it "old-fashioned" is that it had existed in France since late in the 17th century, as compared to the true porcelain of Meissen type, which was not made in Europe until 1709. By 1770, the date of our bowl, Sevres was also making true porcelain, at least experimentally. The basic distinction between the two was that the older type contained no kaolin or feldspar, the essential ingredients of true porcelain.<br><br> The term soft paste is misleading to the layman, as there is no perceptible softness about the product, which is as firm as true porcelain. "Soft" and "hard" refer to the relative kiln temperatures required to consolidate the clay mixture and "fix" the shape during the first firing. In potters' jargon, a hard firing indicates a high temperature, on the order of 1400 degrees Centigrade, while a soft firing is one at a lower level, in the case of Sevres about 1300 degrees.<br><br> Unlike the vases and most of the large objects made at Sevres, the bowl was given its form on a potter's wheel. The process of "throwing," as it is called, is greatly concerned with the strength and plasticity of the clay. The early clay of Sevres was decidely "short," that is, lacking in plasticity.<br><br> Therefore it was necessary to add soap and glue to the mixture to make it more manageable. In addition, the lower cohesiveness of the paste, especially in larger objects, required that the walls be made somewhat thicker than would be necessary for hard paste. Another limiting factor was the greater sensitivity to over-firing, causing warpage of the shape or alteration of the colors used in decorating.<br><br> 2. One of three medallions on the punch bowl of Fig. 1 .<br><br> Animated poses and brilliant colors typify the bird vignettes of XVIII Century Sevres. Here, the perched parrot was apparently adapted from the Chinese Parrot in Volume V of George Edwards' Uncommon Birds. 3.<br><br> In this second medallion on the bowl, the parakeet may also derive from Edwards' Uncommon 6/rds (volume 1, plate 6, 1734). 4. The third medallion, of particular Importance.<br><br> Exotic birds disporting amid flowers and shrubs of the French landscape constituted a standard formula for the artists of Sfevres. In the light of such considerations the Krannert bowl emerges as an object of very special interest. For, although Sevres had very recently achieved the ability to manufacture hard paste, this bowl was made of the earlier and more difficult soft paste, as already mentioned.<br><br> Indeed, the factory clung to the older formula, turning out more of this than the new type during the remainder of the century. The Krannert bowl, then, is an illustration of high aesthetic achievement in the face of pronounced technical limitations. There are still other hazards involved in bringing to completion such an ambitious project; the act of firing is fraught with them.<br><br> A minimum of three of four firings can be assumed for the average piece of soft-paste Sevres: one for converting the clay into firm "biscuit" state, a second for the coating of glaze, and at least two more for the painted decoration and the gilding. Considering that the turquoise blue ground had to be applied in two stages, each requiring its own firing, it is quite probable that this bowl was in and out of the kiln five or six times before it was completed. And at virtually every firing there was the risk of undoing an earlier gain.<br><br> The happy vogue for decorating porcelain with colorful birds had a precedent in Chinese porcelain of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. However, the artists of Sevres employed birds in a completely different manner. Instead of interspersing them in a purely decorative, overall pattern of foliage and flowers, they chose to depict them in landscape settings, disposing them in groups of two or three amid low shrubbery, against a background of broad meadows or rolling countryside occasionally punctuated with a distant building.<br><br> The range of their palette was also much broader than that of the Chinese: it encompassed the full variety of avian coloration. The three pictorial ovals on the Krannert bowl give it a distinction beyond that of its brilliant ground color. Each vignette is executed within a reserve, or area of white porcelain purposely left uncoated by the turquoise ground color in order to take the fullest advantage of the natural whiteness of the porcelain as a foil for the pigments to be brushed upon it.<br><br> Aside from their intense fascination as miniature paintings, these views of birds in landscapes are symbolic of a significant trend in the intellectual world of the 18th century. The very selection of birds as subjects is an expression of the burgeoning curiosity about nature which culminated in the highly schematic formulations of Linnaeus, who analyzed and classified thousands of species within the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms. Before his death in 1778 some thirty texts illustrating birds had been published by other Europeans.<br><br> They served as basic sources for the scientifically minded, like Linneaus, and also for the artistic, like the painters of Sevres. England led in the production of ornithological texts, with France foremost on the continent. Among the most outstanding titles were Albert Seba's Locupletissimi Rerum Naturalium Thesauri' in four volumes, and Eleazar Albin's Natural History of Birds'' in three volumes.<br><br> Together these illustrated more than two hundred common and exotic species, though in a dry, standardized way, the subjects usually posed in stiff profile, with little or no suggestion of their natural environment. Credit for depicting birds in a more spirited, lifelike manner must go to Mark Catesby who in 1731 displayed the first part of his Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands to the Fellows of the Royal Society. Catesby also pioneered in conscientiously recording details of the environment in which each species made its home.<br><br> This keen appreciation for ecological relationships was taken over by his fellow countryman, friend and pupil, George Edwards, who surpassed his master as a draftsman. '' The seven volumes published by Edwards between 1734 and 1764 did more to influence English and French ceramics than any other publication of the 18th century. His vigorous depictions of birds preening, flying, pouncing upon their prey or perched alertly in appropriate surroundings were repeatedly copied or adapted among the porcelains of Chelsea, Bow, and Sevres.<br><br> It is therefore rather surprising that the birds on the Krannert bowl show no very close correspondence to those in Edwards' colored plates, although certain aspects of resemblance do exist. For instance, the perched parrot with blue head and pink breast in Fig. 2 is close to the Green and Red Parrot from China in volume V, plate 23, although the pose has been reversed and the colors have been altered.<br><br> Similarly, the bird perched on a bent branch in Fig. 3 resembles in form and pose the "Smallest Green and Red Indian Parakeet" of volume I, plate 6, but again the colors do not match. As for the pheasant-like bird with outspread wings and his companion, the blue-faced yellow parrot of Fig.<br><br> 4, there is no counterpart in the seven volumes of this most likely source. Among French texts, the illustrations in Brisson's Ornithologie' are largely lacking in animation, and only two of Button's nine volumes on birds had appeared by 1770. "* The plates in the latter dealt chiefly with birds of prey and flightless species, and they agreed only with the Sevres vignettes in strongly emphasizing the foreground details against generally pale, sketchy and distant backgrounds.<br><br> From the foregoing remarks it seems reasonable to surmise that the factory's bird painters, of whom there were at least five or six at the time, were quite capable of modifying the sketches or engravings that formed part of the stock-in-trade of their atelier. In the three-dimensional sphere, the painters at Meissen had set a precedent in the 1730s when they applied a variety of fanciful colors and plumage patterns to identical casts of a single species of parrot, for example.^ Therefore it does not seem improbable that the Sevres painters improvised by devising color schemes for their birds that departed from nature but produced a greater harmony of coloristic effects. They further altered the prevailing book illustrations by installing the most exotic birds, like the parrots on the Krannert bowl, among the familiar shrubs and wildflowers of the French terrain.<br><br> The problem of who painted the vignettes on the Museum's bowl presents another intriguing challenge. Occasionally an entire service will be found to carry, among the marks on the underside, painted symbols or initials from which the names of the decorators can be identified. Sometimes too, though more exceptionally, the names of the subjects also are inscribed.<br><br> At times it is even possible to discern a correspondence between the handwriting of these captions and the alphabetical marks of the painters. The Krannert bowl, however, is lacking in these features. All it shows in the way of a mark is an extremely large, blue cipher, the crossed L's of King Louis, patron and proprietor of the factory, and at the center the date-letter R, for 1770 (Fig.<br><br> 5). The absence of other marks may in itself be a clue, however, to the identity of the capable painter who was entrusted with the responsibility of decorating this bowl. The Metropolitan Museums owns a comparable turquoise blue punch bowl from the celebrated Rohan service (Fig.<br><br> 6). It is decorated with three vignettes of tropical birds, and marked only with large crossed L's centering aT, thedatemark for 1772. The bold scale of the birds, their vivacious poses and general tonality, even the details of foliage and landscape, suggest that they were painted by the same hand as those on the Krannert bowl.<br><br> Although the marking system employed at Sevres is only imperfectly understood, it is generally accepted that the marks of painters and gilders were normally required as a means of keeping a tally of the work performed by the respective members of the decorators' studio to whom they were assigned. The work was View of the underside of the bowl, with the factory mark in the form of crossed L's, and the date-letter R for 1770. painted in blue.<br><br> 6. Punch Bowl, French. SSvres.<br><br> 1772. soft paste porcelain with bleu celeste glaze. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Mr.<br><br> and Mrs. Charles Wrightsman. 1976.<br><br> The bowl displays the gilt monogram of Prince Louis de Rohan. under constant review, and periodical reports were written by the chief on the aptitudes and progress of each nnan under his jurisdiction. In his catalogue of the porcelains in the collection of Sevres at Waddesdon Manor.'o Svend Eriksen makes the very plausible suggestion that unsigned pieces of special importance could have been painted by the chief of the studio, who would seem to have had no need to keep tally on himself.<br><br> The proposal is reinforced by a regulation of the factory, dated May 10, 1747, to the effect that the head of the painters' studio should himself paint the most outstanding pieces. It happens that in 1770 the person who occupied that elevated position was Jean- Baptiste-Etienne Genest, whose record at the factory had been truly exceptional. The payroll records show that in 1753, the year after he entered, he was promoted to the post of Chef des Peintres for his ability as a painter of figures.<br><br> His special talents were reflected in his salary, which in the space of a year shot from 30 to 125 livres per month. In December of 1770 he was earning 167 livres, as compared with his sixty-three subordinates, whose wages ranged from 12 to 1 12 livres. It is to be hoped that the foregoing discussion has shed some helpful light on the significance of the bowl, its decoration, and its marks.<br><br> The question of Its original ownership, however, still remains to be explored. Two clues, both vague and sketchy, are offered in the account books of the manufactory. One, not identified as to the name of the purchaser, calls for "7 Jatte a punch Et Mortier" under the date of February 10, 1770." As it sold for a mere 168 livres, it may be discounted.<br><br> The other is a compilation of items delivered during the last six months of that year to the Paris merchant, Simon- Philippe Poirier, whose purchases at the factory approached those of the King in magnitude. In this instance the listings fill about four and a half pages, with about fifty entries to each page.'- The relevant one calls for "T jatte a punch," at 528 livres. Poirier, who ran the exclusive shop A la Couronned'Or, was the leading agent for purchasers of Sevres porcelain.<br><br> His clients included important nobles, and royalty as well. It is vastly to be regretted that his own account books seem not to have survived, as they would illuminate so many of the bare-bones of the Sevres sales records. As things stand, we can only be certain that Poirier in 1770 took delivery of an undescribed punch bowl, perhaps as a single item, or possibly as a key piece for an important service.<br><br> Forwhom did he purchase that bowl? On these points the records of the period are either mute or missing. Modern photography, however, has crossed the bridge of time to provide a plausible provenance for the Krannert bowl.<br><br> Reproduced in Conno/sseur for August, 1906" is the photograph of a bowl (Fig. 7) that features a bird medallion corresponding exactly to that of Fig. 3, just as the pattern of the gilding which frames and joins the medallions corresponds precisely to that of Fig.<br><br> 1. These factors are significant, first because Sevres took pride in not repeating the composition of its bird vignettes, and second because this gilding, which should match other pieces in a service, does not correspond to that in any of the turquoise blue services mentioned above in the opening paragraphs. Therefore the Museum's bowl was either unique or part of another service.<br><br> The Conno/sseurarticle provides the answer: it belonged to a distinguished Russian family, and was offered for sale in 1906 at a Bond Street gallery as part of a collection of 525 pieces. Considering the variations in design among the examples illustrated, "collection" is a more appropriate term than "service." In any event, the ownership of the bowl is associated with a powerful figure who assembled a state service of Sevres in eight consignments between 1767 and 1791.'^ He was Count Nicolas Petrovich Cheremeteff, Grand Marshal at the Court of Catherine the Great. 7.<br><br> Sevres punch bowl from the ChdrSmeteff family as reproduced in Connoisseur magazine, 1906 Footnotes ' Serge Grandjean and Ivlarcelle Brunei, Les Grands Services de Sevres, Paris, 1951. This catalogue itemizes the services as listed in the account books of the archives of the Manufacture Nationals, at Sevres. ^Sevres Archives, Vy 4, folio 158.<br><br> ^/6/d., Y8, folio44. * Seba, Albertus. Locupletissimi Rerum Naturalum Thesauri.<br><br> Amsterdam, (J. Wetstenius), 1734-65. ^ Albin, Eleazar.<br><br> A Natural History of Birds. London, 1738. ^ Edwards, George.<br><br> A Natural History at Uncommon Birds. London, 1 743-64. The last three volumes appeared under the title Gleanings of Natural History.<br><br> ' Brisson, t^athurin Jacques. Ornithologie. ou Methode Contenant la Division des Oiseaux en Ordres, Sections.<br><br> Genres. Especes et leur VarietSs. Paris (Bauch), 1760.<br><br> * Buffon. (Compte) Georges-Louis-Leclerc. Histoire Naturelle.<br><br> Generate et Particuliere. (The section on birds appeared in nine volumes.) Paris (Imprimerie Royale), 1770-86. ^ Compare nos.<br><br> 21 A, B, 22A,B, 23A,B and 24-28 in Dauterman, Carl C, The Wrightsman Collection, vot. IV, Porcefain. New York (The l^/letropolitan l\fluseum of Art), 1970.<br><br> '" Eriksen, Svend. The James A. de Rothschild Collection at Waddesdon f^anor: Sevres Porcefain.<br><br> Fribourg (Office du Livre), 1968. It should be stated here that Eriksen (ibid., p. 326) was unaware of any evidence for attributing a mark to Genest.<br><br> The writer, however, has found in the Sevres archives a document captioned "d'apres un registre matricule ouvert a Vincennes en 1755...," being a list of painters, many of whom have marks indicated opposite their names. Heading the list is "Genesf. chef," with "G." shown as his mark.<br><br> This mark is so infrequently seen that if indeed it were assigned to him before his promotion as chief, he apparently regarded it as unnecessary to use later, for the reason stated above. " S§vres Archives. Vy 1770, -10110 206.<br><br> '2;b/d. Vy 1770, folio 225 verso. " "The Cheremeteff Sevres Porcelain," an unsigned article in Connoisseur, Vol.<br><br> 15, 1906, p. 244. '" Khudozhestvennyya Sokrovischcha floss// (Art Treasures in Russia), Vol IV, 1904, p.<br><br> 158. Winter Lecture Series The Krannert Art Museum Associates will benefit from the knowledge of two eminent scholars during a double series of lectures in January and February. Mr.<br><br> Victor Smith will lecture at the Museum as part of a North American "progress" on behalf of The Buildings of England Group, of which he is founder and director. The Group is a unique amalgam of representatives of the various arts who have devoted their efforts to "Supporting the cause of international understanding and friendship and encouraging its development through the medium of the Arts." Patrons and advisors to The Group include Henry Moore, Sir Alec Guinness, and Yehudi Menuhin, each in his own respective field. Educated as an architect at The Architectural Association, London, Mr.<br><br> Smith has joined his international professional practice with architectural journalism, criticism and education in architectural history and design. These interests naturally victor Smith, Founder and Director of The Buildings of England Group lead to an appreciation of the heritage of England and its place in world cultures. The Buildings of England Group endeavors to disseminate information about aspects of life and the arts in England.<br><br> Mr. Smith will present a total of four lectures on the subject of "The English Interior; 1500-1900," on Tuesday afternoon, January 23, and Thursday afternoon, January 25, 1979. His first presentation will cover "The Continental Influence, 1500-1625," and "The Florescence of Design, 1625-1710." The second will cover "The Age of Splendor, 1710-1820," and "The Decay of Taste, 1820-1900." In a series of six lectures, Christa Thurman- Mayer, Curator of Textiles at The Art Institute of Chicago, will discuss and illustrate the history of woven fabrics, embroideries, laces, and printed fabrics.<br><br> The lectures will be given on Tuesday and Thursday afternoons at 2:30 and 3:45. On Tuesday, February 13, the two lectures will deal with the history of woven fabrics; on Thursday, February 15, the two lectures will discuss the history of embroidered fabrics; and on Tuesday, February 20, Mrs. Thurman-Mayer will review the history of printed fabrics and the history of lace.<br><br> Mrs. Thurman-Mayer is a widely recognized scholar in the field of textile arts. She has studied Textile Conservation in Switzerland and has a B.A.<br><br> degree from Finch College and a M.A. degree from the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University. Before joining the staff at The Art Institute of Chicago, Mrs.<br><br> Thurman- Mayer was Assistant Curator in the Department of Textiles at Cooper Union Museum in New York. She is the author of catalogues and of articles on textiles and laces in Grolier Encyclopedia International, The Antiques Magazine, The Art Bulletin, and Art and Archaeology. The lectures will be given in the Krannert Art Museum auditorium.<br><br> Krannert Art Museum Associates will receive a reminder of the lectures in early January. Admission will be by membership card. Spring Exhibition Trip In early March a visit may be scheduled to the exhibition "Vanity Fair" at The Saint Louis Art Museum.<br><br> This exhibition has been assembled by The Metropolitan Museum of Art where it recently has been on display. It possibly will be shown in Saint Louis and, when this is definite and the dates of the exhibition have been announced, Krannert Art Museum Associates will receive mailed information about the visit. Textile fragment, The Netherland, XVII Century.<br><br> silk and linen, satin damask weave, H. 18-1/2" X W. 17-1/2 "(46,99x44.45cm.), The Art Institute of Chicago, 07,684.<br><br> Spring Lecture-Luncheon Council Projects The Spring lecture-luncheon is scheduled for Friday, April 20. The distinguished speaker will be Phillips Talbot who is the director of The Asia Society in New York. Mr.<br><br> Talbot holds a Bachelor of Arts degree and a Bachelor of Science in Journalism degree from the University of Illinois, a Ph.D. degree from the University of Chicago and an L.L.D. degree from Mills College.<br><br> He taught at the Institute for Current World Affairs from 1938 to 1950, and at Columbia University in 1951 and 1952. He served as a reporter and foreign correspondent for the Chicago Daily News, as Executive Director of the American University Field Staff from 1959 to 1961, as Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs from 1961 to 1965, as Ambassador to Greece from 1965 to 1969, and he has been director of The Asia Society since 1970. He is co-author of India and America and editor of South Asia and the World Today.<br><br> Mr. Talbot will speak on features of geography, life, and philosophy which underlie the cultures of Asia. His knowledge of the people in the small and large nations of Asia will contribute to ourapreciation and understanding of the Asian arts in the collections of the Krannert Art Museum.<br><br> It will be an honor to welcome Mr. Talbot on April 20. Krannert Art Museum Associates will receive advance reservation information.<br><br> The Council will undertake two new projects this year: advance planning fora Museum Store and the inauguration of Life-Long- Learning programs. Members of the Museum Store committee are Mrs. Ray Dickerson, Mrs.<br><br> Robert Garrard, Mrs. William Johnson, Mrs. L.<br><br> Scott Kelley, and Mrs. Richard Noel. The Museum Store committee will be engaged in marketing studies, inventory research, financial and management planning.<br><br> Committee members also will visit some of the large museum stores including those at The Detroit Institute of Arts, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, and The Museum of Modern Art. The project objective will be to provide museum visitors with material appropriate to the educational purposes of the Museum. Two years' planning time will precede the opening of the store.<br><br> The Life-Long-Learning project will involve the inauguration of new adult participatory programs. Committee members are Mrs. William Johnson, Mrs.<br><br> Stanley Robinson, and Mrs. Charles B. Younger III.<br><br> These committee members have served in the Docent program for many years, they know the Museum's collections well, all have taught in educational institutions, and all have had experience in working with community groups. It is estimated that during the first five years of this decade the number of adults in educational activities increased by three times their growth in population. Of this large group of learners, only one-third were enrolled in formal educational institutions.<br><br> Museums have an opportunity to respond to the growing desire of adults for continuing education. Interpretive, interdisciplinary, gallery workshops will be offered during the season ahead, the dates and hours to be announced. Experimental programs of this nature have been conducted at the University of Kansas and at The Philadelphia Museum of Art where they have met with favorable results in the form of many requests for continuation of such programs.<br><br> Both Council projects represent services which would be impossible for the Museum alone to manage, due to limitations in the size of the Museum staff. We are grateful to the Council members for undertaking these valuable new endeavors. Print Exhibition A small but Important selection of prints by the eighteentti century master, Giovanni Battlsta Piranesi, will be on view in the Krannert Art Museum Conference Room through the early autumn.<br><br> The prints are from his most inventive series of etchings, the Career! d'Invenzione, which show imaginery scenes of decaying prisons in various states of danl< ruin and menacing darkness. These prints demonstrate a most intriguing aspect of Piranesi's fascination with ruins and musings of what might have been.<br><br> The Piranesi prints were the gift of Mr. Max Abramovitz. Piranesi, Giovanni Battista.<br><br> Italian, 1720-1778, Prison Scene from the Careen Series, Plate III, second state, etching, H. 21-5/8" x W. 16-3/8" (54.93 x 41.61 cm.).<br><br> Gift of Mr. Max Abramovitz, 1973, 73-M.3C. Contributors to the Collections and Endowments* Founders: Class of 1908 Mr.<br><br> Federick A. Jorgenson Mr. and Mrs.<br><br> Herman C. Krannert Mrs. Katherlne Trees Livezey Mr.<br><br> and Mrs. Harlan E. Moore Mr.<br><br> and Mrs. Fred Olsen Mr. Georges.<br><br> Trees Mr. and Mrs. Merle J.<br><br> Trees Donors: Mr. Max Abramovitz Mr. Samuel M.<br><br> Adier Mr. George P. Bickfor<br><br>