NORTHEASTERN NATURALIST 2003 10(2):159 3248 AN ANNOTATED LIST OF DEEPWATER FISHES FROM OFF THE NEW ENGLAND REGION, WITH NEW AREA RECORDS J ON A. M OORE 1,2 , K ARSTEN E. H ARTEL 3 , J AMES E.
C RADDOCK 4 , AND J OHN K. G ALBRAITH 1 ABSTRACT 3 A review of literature, museum specimens, and records from four recent National Marine Fisheries Service deepwater surveys allows us to present an annotated list of 591 species in 132 families that live below 200 meters in the area between the Scotian Shelf and the southern New England Shelf south to about 38 û N. Three orders (Stomiiformes, Perciformes, and Myctophiformes) of the 24 in the area account for 41% of the species.
New area records for 111 species are included; the majority (83%) represent extensions from the south, with only 17% from the north and east. Although the deep-sea ichthyofauna off eastern North America is quite well known, it is noted that 96 new species have been described since 1950 and 34 since 1975. INTRODUCTION This paper is an annotated list of deep-sea fish species found in the northern Mid-Atlantic Bight and northwards to the Scotian continental slope.
Recent fishing activity in ... more. less.
deep waters off the northeastern United States necessitates a much better understanding of the species that live in the region and how they are distributed. We believe that this deep fauna is often overlooked but point out that it must be incorporated as part of any regional biodiversity analysis. The waters over the outer continental shelf and upper slope that are covered in this paper have been investigated numerous times during the last 130 years.<br><br> However, the last major compilation of deepwater fishes found off the New England region is Goode and Bean 9s (1896) famous work, Oceanic Ichthyology . Since then, a number of additions to the deepwater fish fauna have been noted in a dispersed array of primary scientific papers and in the cgray d literature. In addition, museum specimens also represent new information on the distribution of fishes in this area.<br><br> Many descriptions of deep marine locations are not accurate. There- fore , localities in the list are often given with latitude and longitude coordinates and with reference to topographic features of the continental shelf and slope. This method provides more accurate fixes on the loca- tions of capture, rather than referring to shore locations.<br><br> For example, the 1 National Marine Fisheries Service, Woods Hole, MA 02543. 2 Florida Atlantic Univer- sity, Honors College, Jupiter, FL 33458; firstname.lastname@example.org. 3 Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138; email@example.com.<br><br> 4 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543. Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 10, No.<br><br> 2 160 original description of Grammatostomias dentatus Goode and Bean, 1896 gave the locality of the holotype as ceast of Delaware, d but in actuality that specimen was taken at a station over the continental rise just south of Hydrographer Canyon, showing that the species is actually found as far north and east as Georges Bank. A map of the main bottom features provides reference for the localities stated in the text (Fig. 1).<br><br> Another difficulty that we have found in published ranges is the tendency by various authors to list the northernmost occurrence of a species as just the latitude. At issue is the fact many of the southern fishes, especially meso- and bathypelagics, are carried by the Gulf Stream to the north and then eastward. These fishes may then enter the area via warm core eddies that spin off into parts of the Slope Water Province; which is the large mass of water to the east and south of New England and north of the Northern Gyre (Backus et al.<br><br> 1977). Given the generally east 3west trend of the North American continental slope from Georges Bank to the Figure 1. Principal area of study showing named undersea features in this report and the 200 and 1000 meter contour lines.<br><br> J.A. Moore, K.E. Hartel, J.E.<br><br> Craddock, and J.K. Galbraith 2003 161 tail of the Grand Banks, two fishes could be at roughly the same latitude, but separated by nearly fifteen degrees of longitude. An example of this is found in the mesopelagic fish Scopelosaurus mauli Bertelsen et al.<br><br> (1976) for which Scott and Scott (1988) reported their northernmost specimen from Browns Bank (42 û 20 9N, 65 û 30 9W), but their easternmost specimen was from Slope Water south of St. Pierre Bank (40 û 15 9N, 59 û 21 9W); we have seen specimens from the tail of the Grand Banks (41 û 36 9N, 52 û 21 9W and 39 û 36 9N, 51 û 55 9W). We believe that these latter specimens better reflect the actual distribution of this species along the North American coastline and that they more explicitly describe the northeastward extent of the distribution of the species in the WNA.<br><br> Indeed, many of the mesopelagic species range far eastward with the Gulf Stream, outside our area and into the eastern Atlantic. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was originally intended to examine all of the deepwater fishes found off New England, but it is now extended both north and south of what is typically considered cNew England d to ensure that species are not missed at the edges of our region of coverage. The region of study is bounded to the south by a line at 38 û N latitude, which roughly corre- sponds to the Virginia/Maryland border on the Delmarva Peninsula, and Figure 2.<br><br> Mid-water trawls (principally to 1,000 meters) made by the WHOI from 1961 to 1993. Gulf of Maine trawls not shown. Symbols may indicate more than one trawl at each site.<br><br> Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 10, No. 2 162 to the east by a line at 63 û W longitude, which passes through Emerald Basin on the Scotian Shelf (Fig.<br><br> 1). The outer limit of the region is the Gulf Stream. We include fishes occurring in the Slope Water Province (Backus et al.<br><br> 1977) within the above stated southern and eastern area boundaries. By cdeepwater d we mean those fishes that typically reside below 200 m depth, at least by day, and include fishes of the deep outer shelf and the true deep sea beyond the shelf break. The reference material primarily comes from five sources: 1) Woods Hole Oceanographic Insti- tution (WHOI) 4specimens collected mainly by R.H.<br><br> Backus, J.E. Craddock (midwater collections, Fig. 2) and R.L.<br><br> Haedrich (deep benthic collections, Fig. 3) from the 1960s to 1990s (Backus and Craddock 1982; Haedrich and Horn 1970; Haedrich and Polloni 1974; Haedrich et al. 1975, 1980; Nafpaktitis et al.<br><br> 1977); 2) fishes collected from the vicinity of Deepwater Dumpsite 106, near Toms Canyon, just south of Hudson Canyon (Cohen and Pawson 1977; Krueger et al. 1977; Musick et al. 1975, 1992); 3) specimens collected by William C.<br><br> Schroeder aboard the F/V Cap 9n Bill II (Schroeder 1955, Fig. 3); 4) fishes caught by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) from either regular ground- fish surveys since 1963 or recent special cruises to examine the deepwater biodiversity of the continental slope from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank (in 1999 and 2001) and at Bear Seamount (in 2000 and 2002; Fig. 4, see Moore et al.<br><br> 2001); and 5) fishes brought in by commercial fishing vessels such as F/V Contender which have progressively moved their operations into deeper waters in the last decade (Fig. 3). Figure 3.<br><br> Deep bottom trawls made by F/V Cap 9t Bill III 3 W.C. Schroeder (open squares), WHOI 4R.L. Haedrich (open circles), F/V Contender (open triangles).<br><br> J.A. Moore, K.E. Hartel, J.E.<br><br> Craddock, and J.K. Galbraith 2003 163 The arrangement of orders and families largely follows that of Nelson (1994), with a few modifications, such as the arrangement of the genera of skates, which follows McEachran and Dunn (1998). For cosmopolitan or widespread species, the distribution accounts generally focus on the western North Atlantic (WNA).<br><br> Specimen lengths are given in millime- ters SL (Standard Length) unless indicated as HL (Head Length) or TL (Total Length). Common names, when given, are derived from various sources: Robins et al. 1991 (AFS); Scott and Scott 1988 (S&S); White- head et al.<br><br> 1984 and 1986a,b (FNAM); and various FAO species cata- logues (FAO). Information provided for each fully cited lot is formatted as follows: museum catalog number, number of specimens in the lot, size range of specimens, locality or coordinates, and depth of capture or meters of wire out (mwo). In some situations that information is abreviated and, when more than 15 museum collections for one species are known from the study area, the number of collections is summarized.<br><br> Collections come from one trawl (= one location) but can contain from one to hundreds of specimens of the species listed. Institutional acronyms follow Leviton et al. (1985).<br><br> The majority of the studied material is housed at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University (MCZ), the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University (YPM), or the National Museum of Natural History (USNM). Specific data for many of these collections are available on- line and can be searched by catalog number or taxon. Figure 4.<br><br> National Marine Fisheries bottom trawls made below 200 meters between 1961 and 2001. Gulf of Maine trawls not shown. Northeastern Naturalist Vol.<br><br> 10, No. 2 164 RESULTS At least 591 species of deepwater fishes from 132 families live in the region stretching from Maryland to southern Nova Scotia. Almost one- half of the species are from 4 of the 24 orders represented (Table 1).<br><br> Large to moderate range extensions were found for 111 species and 49 of those range extensions are completely new distributional records to the region. The total number of species represents a 19% increase in the number of species known to occur in the area. CONCLUSIONS The majority of new distributional records (85%) represent exten- sions of species more typically found south of the area.<br><br> This highlights the strong influence of the Gulf Stream in transporting deepwater taxa to New England. Many of these probably represent expatriates from repro- ductive populations to the south, yet the infrequent but regular collec- tion of many of these species indicates that these expatriates may still be Table 1. Summary of the orders of fishes and the number of species listed in this paper.<br><br> Orders Species Stomiiformes - lightfish and dragonfishes 95 Perciformes - spiny-rayed fishes 77 Myctophiformes - lanternfishes 70 Gadiformes - cods and relatives 45 Aulopiformes - lizardfishes and relatives 44 Lophiiformes - anglerfishes 36 Osmeriformes - deepsea smelt and relatives 34 Stephanoberyciformes - bigscales and relatives 27 Scorpaeniformes - mail-cheeked fishes 26 Anguilliformes - eels 24 Ophidiiformes - cusk eels and brotulas 24 Rajiformes - skates 12 Pleuronectiformes - flatfishes 11 Albuliformes - halosaurs and spiny eels 10 Squaliformes - spiny sharks 10 Beryciformes - fangtooths and relatives 9 Zeiformes - dories and relatives 8 Lampriformes - oar and ribbon fishes 6 Carcharhiniformes - cat sharks 6 Chimaeriformes - chimaeras 5 Hexanchiformes -frill and cow sharks 3 Saccopharyngiformes - gulper eels 2 Polymixiiformes - brardfishes 2 Squatiniformes - angel sharks 1 Myxiniformes - hagfishes 1 Petromyzontiformes - lampreys 1 Ateleopodiformes - jellynose fishes 1 Gasterosteiformes - snipefishes and relatives 1 Total 591 J.A. Moore, K.E. Hartel, J.E.<br><br> Craddock, and J.K. Galbraith 2003 165 a semipermanent component of the deepwater fauna off New England. A smaller portion (15%) of the range extensions shows new occurrences of more typically boreal species in the area.<br><br> These tend to be more benthopelagic species and indicate a lesser biogeographic influence of the Deep Western Boundary Current, which brings colder water from the Labrador Sea southward along the continental slope. Further biogeo- graphic implications of the new records will be discussed in a forthcom- ing paper being prepared by the first author. When Goode and Bean (1896) published Oceanic Ichthyology , they highlighted the results of the U.S.<br><br> Fish Commission studies on the deepwater fish fauna. A number of species within that work had seem- ingly anomalous disjunct distributions. For example, the deepwater dab, Poecilopsetta beanii (Goode, 1880), was known from off New England and in the Caribbean, likewise the goby duckbill, Bembrops gobioides (Goode, 1880), was known from off New England and in the Gulf of Mexico.<br><br> This study shows that these seemingly disjunct northern records were not accidental captures, but that these and many other species occur off New England and at other intervening locations to the south. The dates of the original descriptions of the species reported in this paper (Fig. 5) show the historic progression of the knowledge of the identity of these deep-living fishes.<br><br> A high percentage (30%) of the descriptions occurred between 1850 and 1899, the period in which Oceanic Ichthyology and several other major works were published. Ninety-six new species found in the area have been described since 1950, and 20 of those were described since 1985. This indicates that knowledge, even of the basic composition of the fauna, continues to increase.<br><br> Information about their biology, reproduction, age and growth, food, migration, and population density is often lacking and will be needed as exploitation of the deep-sea continues. Figure 5. Numbers of species of fishes mentioned in this paper, shown in 25-year increments of dates of description (1750 32002).<br><br> Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 10, No. 2 166 ANNOTATED SPECIES LIST MYXINIFORMES MYXINIDAE Myxine glutinosa Linnaeus 1758 - Atlantic hagfish (AFS) - Benthic, 75 to 1006 m, known from Davis Strait to Campeche Bank in the WNA and from the western Mediterranean to the Barents Sea in the eastern North Atlantic (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953a, Fernholm and Vladykov 1984, Wisner and McMillan 1995).<br><br> We follow Martini et al. (1998) in using the name M . glutinosa instead of M .<br><br> limosa as suggested by Wisner and McMillan (1995). MCZ 53871 (15), 53872 (2:410 3430 TL), 53925 (2), 53926 (10:44 3422 TL), 137976 (2:20 3501 TL), USNM 26015 (1), 329853 (1), YPM 10432 (1:330 TL), 11550 (1). PETROMYZONTIFORMES PETROMYZONTIDAE Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus 1758 - Sea lamprey (AFS) - Mostly from the upper slope or shallower, from Florida and the northern Gulf of Mexico to Greenland in the WNA (Vladykov 1984).<br><br> Haedrich (1977) reported the occurrence of this species in 4100 m (MCZ 53927) just south of the area and we have collected specimens from very deep water over Bear Seamount (MCZ 162004 35, 2:415 3695). MCZ 37449 (1), 38290 (1), 38292 (1), USNM 24279 (1). CHIMAERIFORMES CHIMAERIDAE Hydrolagus affinis (Brito Capello 1868) - Deepwater chimaera (S&S) - Benthopelagic, 293 32452 m, in the WNA from south of Toms Canyon to Greenland (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953b, Haedrich and Horn 1970, Musick et al.<br><br> 1975, Musick et al. 1992, Okamura et al. 1995).<br><br> In the eastern Atlantic from Portugal to the Rockall Trough, west of Ireland (Stehmann and Bürkel 1984a). Three specimens, two large adult females (MCZ 158869, 1:820 TL; 162006, 1:1115 TL) and a small juvenile (MCZ 158870, 1:102 TL) were caught on Bear Seamount during NMFS cruises in 2000 and 2002. MCZ 138048 (2:85 TL), 153748 (2:120 31200 TL), YPM 11253 (2), 11274 (1).<br><br> Hydrolagus pallidus Hardy and Stehmann 1990 - Benthopelagic, 1188 32075 m, previously known from the Bay of Biscay to western Scotland and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Hardy and Stehmann 1990). One male (YPM 11268, 1:136 TL, 39 û 54 9N, 67 û 26 9W, 1188 m) was taken on Bear Seamount (shallowest depth record) and two females (YPM 11253, 2:58 3976 TL, 40 û 05 9N, 68 û 30 9W, 1462 m) were collected in Welker Canyon, where at least 2 other specimens were captured but not retained. These are the first records from the WNA.<br><br> RHINOCHIMAERIDAE Harriotta raleighana Goode and Bean 1895 - Longnose chimaera (S&S) - Benthopelagic, 600 32150 m, in the WNA from off Norfolk Canyon to south of La Have Bank, Nova Scotia (MCZ 37647, 2, 42 û 41 9N, 63 û 49 9W, 851 3878 m) (Scott and Scott 1988). Two syntypes for this species came from south of Hudson Canyon (USNM 35631) and near Alvin Canyon (USNM 39415). In the eastern Atlantic from the Canaries to Iceland and in the Pacific off New Zealand, Japan, and California (Stehmann and Bürkel 1984b).<br><br> MCZ and YPM 4at least 35 collections from the area. Harriotta haeckeli Karrer 1972 - Benthopelagic, >1700 m depth, in the WNA from Davis Strait to Hudson Canyon (Karrer 1972). In the eastern Atlantic from the Canaries and off western Africa (Krefft 1990).<br><br> One syntype of H . raleighana (USNM 35520), collected near Block Canyon at 1815 m, was re-identified as this species (Karrer 1972). Another specimen (VIMS 4089) was captured near Hudson Canyon at 2382 m.<br><br> Rhinochimaera atlantica Holt and Byrne 1909 - Knifenose chimaera (S&S) - Benthopelagic, 529 31100 m, in the WNA from eastern Gulf of Mexico to south of La Have Bank, Nova Scotia (McEachran and Fechhelm 1998, Scott and Scott 1988). In the eastern Atlantic from north western Africa to Iceland and from Namibia to South Africa (Krefft 1990). MCZ 37508 (1), 37715 (1:1150 TL), 37734 (1:1270 TL), 38243 (1:1030 TL), 38244 J.A.<br><br> Moore, K.E. Hartel, J.E. Craddock, and J.K.<br><br> Galbraith 2003 167 (1:1080 TL), 38245 (1:1270 TL), 38256 (1), 132501 (1:1360 TL), 138080 (1:846 TL), 153746 (1:1275 TL), 159186 (1: 1041), YPM 10135 (1:1226 TL), 11254 (6:984 31262 TL). CARCHARHINIFORMES SCYLIORHINIDAE Note: The genus Apristurus is quite speciose, but existing keys and literature fail to confidently separate the nominal species. Apristurus sp.<br><br> - Benthopelagic, 560 31462 m, in the western Atlantic from scattered sites off Massachusetts (MCZ 38406), Delaware, Hispaniola, and the Gulf of Mexico (Compagno 1984a, McEachran and Fechhelm 1998, Springer 1979). These specimens were previously assigned to A . laurussonii (the Iceland or flathead catshark), however, Nakaya and Sato (1998) specifically excluded western Atlantic specimens from that species.<br><br> Two other specimens (MCZ 125407, 1:505 TL, 39 û 37 9N, 71 û 52 9W, 567 3827 m and 125408, 1:700 TL, 39 û 17 9N, 72 û 11 9W, 512 3662 m) from Hudson Canyon are also provisionally placed here. It may be that all these western Atlantic specimens represent an undescribed species similar in appearance to A . laurussonii (Nakaya, in litt.).<br><br> Apristurus manis (Springer 1979) - Ghost catshark (FAO) - Benthopelagic, 658 31740 m (Compagno 1984a), in the WNA from Block and Veatch canyons (Springer 1979) to possibly off Nova Scotia (Scott and Scott 1988). In the eastern North Atlantic from off Great Britain (Compagno 1984a). The holotype (MCZ 38299) was taken east of Block Canyon.<br><br> All newer records come from either F/V Contender conducting exploratory deepwater work near Block Canyon (39 û 42 9N, 71 û 27 9W, 1325 31830 m) or the NMFS cruises to Bear Seamount. MCZ 38299 (imm. female, 1:328 TL, 39 û 52 9N, 70 û 50 9W, 731 3 841 m), 37512 (imm.<br><br> male, 1, 39 û 52 9N, 70 û 50 9W, 731 3841 m), 37535 (imm. female, 1:225 TL, 39 û 52 9N, 69 û 38 9W, 658 3768 m), 37416 (imm. males, 2:240 3245 TL, 39 û 52 9N, 70 û 43 9W, 759 3804 m), 137072 (1:710 TL), 137074 (1:610 TL), 137075 (1:750 TL), 137077 (1:680 TL), 138754 (1:200 TL), 158888 (1:710), 158890 (1:660), 158891 (1:610), 158892 (1:745), 158894 (1:630), 158895 (1:650), 162008 (4:590 3650).<br><br> Apristurus microps (Gilchrist 1922) - Smalleye catshark (FAO) - Benthopelagic, 1000 3 2000 m, previously known from off Newfoundland (Compagno 1984a) and from the vicinity of Rockall Bank, west of Great Britain, and off South Africa (Nakaya and Stehmann 1998). A specimen (MCZ 58434, 1:259 TL, 39 û 48 9N, 69 û 45 9W, 1410 m), from near Veatch Canyon, is a new record from United States waters (Nakaya and Stehmann 1998). Apristurus profundorum (Goode and Bean 1896) - Deepwater catshark (FAO), Deepsea catshark (S&S).<br><br> Fig. 6 - Benthopelagic, 1100 31830 m. The holotype (USNM 35646), in very poor condition, was collected near Hudson Canyon and not coff Delaware Bay d as in Goode and Bean (1896) and Compagno (1984a).<br><br> This species is poorly known and is in need of redescription. The following specimens are provisionally attributed to this species based on morphological differences from other Apristurus species in the area. One speci- men comes from east of Block Canyon (MCZ 138754, 1:200 TL, 39 û 42 9N, 71 û 27 9W, 1325 31830 m) and five specimens (MCZ 158889, 1:590; 158893, 1:745; and 158896, 3:327 3490) are from Bear Seamount (39 û 52 9N, 67 û 20 9W, 0 31750 m).<br><br> Scyliorhinus retifer (Garman 1881) - Chain dogfish (AFS), Chain catshark (FAO) - Benthopelagic, 73 3550 m, in the WNA from Nicaragua to the Gulf of Mexico and to southern New England (Able and Flescher 1991, Compagno 1984a). F/V Contender Figure 6 . Apristurus profundorum , MCZ 158889, 590 mm TL; 158893, 39 û 52 9N, 67 û 20 9W, 0 31750 m.<br><br> Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 10, No. 2 168 caught two specimens (MCZ 125400, 1:365 TL and 125401, 1:400 TL) at 300 to 400 m between Block and Alvin canyons.<br><br> The northeasternmost records (MCZ 75446, 75449) are from the vicinity of Browns Bank (42 û 40 9N, 63 û 51 9W). MCZ 4at least 12 additional area records. PSEUDOTRIAKIDAE Pseudotriakis microdon Capello 1868 - False cat shark (AFS, FAO) - Benthic, 200 31500 m, known from off Iceland to the Cape Verde Is.<br><br> in the eastern Atlantic and from the Pacific and Indian oceans (Compagno 1984a). Reported in the WNA from Long Island, New York (USNM 32516) to New Jersey (Bigelow and Schroeder 1948, Compagno 1984a, Goode and Bean 1896). HEXANCHIFORMES CHLAMYDOSELACHIDAE Chlamydoselachus anguineus Garman 1884 - Frill shark (AFS, FAO).<br><br> Fig. 7 - Benthopelagic, 12 31280 m, in the eastern Atlantic from Norway to Mauritania and from Angola to South Africa, and in the Pacific from Chile, southern California, Japan, New South Wales, and New Zealand (Compagno 1984b). Records from off Suriname and French Guiana (Uyeno et al.<br><br> 1983) are the only previous from the western Atlantic. A specimen (MCZ 153745, 1: 1860 mm TL, female, 39 û 57 9N, 71 û 00 9W, 400 m), collected by a commercial fishing vessel on the continental slope between Block and Alvin canyons is the second capture of this species in the WNA and the first from off eastern North America. HEXANCHIDAE Heptranchias perlo (Bonnaterre 1788) - Sharpnose sevengill shark (FAO).<br><br> Fig. 8 - Benthopelagic, 27 31720 m, tropical to warm temperate waters worldwide (Bass et al. 1986, McEachran and Fechhelm 1998).<br><br> In the WNA from the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico to North Carolina (Compagno 1984b, McEachran and Fechhelm 1998). A NMFS groundfish survey caught a mature male (MCZ 160507, 1:1000 mm TL at 36 û 59 9N, 74 û 37 9W) off southern Virginia in May, 2001. This is the northernmost western Atlantic record.<br><br> Hexanchus griseus (Bonneterre 1788) - Sixgill shark (AFS), Bluntnose sixgill shark (FAO) - Benthopelagic, 0 31875 m, wide ranging in temperate and tropical waters world- wide (Compagno 1984b). In the area, two specimens (NMC 90 30032, NSM 10001) were captured in Emerald Basin, off Nova Scotia and represent the northern distributional limits in the WNA (Gilhen and Coad 1989). SQUALIFORMES ECHINORHINIDAE Echinorhinus brucus (Bonnaterre 1788) - Bramble shark (AFS, FAO) - Benthopelagic, 18 3 915 m (mostly from 400 3900 m), worldwide tropical to temperate waters except the eastern Pacific (Springer 1990, McEachran and Fechhelm 1998).<br><br> In the WNA known from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and off Virginia (USNM 22511)(McEachran and Fechhelm 1998, Musick and McEachran 1969, Schwartz 1993). Goode and Bean (1896) reported the only area record, an individual that drifted ashore at Provincetown on Cape Cod. DALATIIDAE Centroscyllium fabricii (Reinhardt 1825) - Black dogfish (AFS, FAO) - Benthopelagic, 180 31600 m, at times forming schools (most often taken deeper than 250 m, but occurring shallower in the northern part of its range), known from Cape Hatteras to Greenland and Figure 7.<br><br> Chlamydoselachus anguineus , MCZ 153745, 1860 mm TL, 39 û 57 9N, 71 û 00 9W, 400 m. J.A. Moore, K.E.<br><br> Hartel, J.E. Craddock, and J.K. Galbraith 2003 169 Baffin Island, and in the eastern Atlantic from Iceland to South Africa (Compagno 1984b).<br><br> MCZ and YPM 4at least 54 collections from the area. Centroscymnus coelolepis Bocage and Capello 1864 - Portuguese shark (AFS), Portu- guese dogfish (FAO) - Benthopelagic, 270 33675 m (most specimens taken deeper than 400 m), previously known from the WNA continental slope from off Delaware Bay to the Grand Banks (Compagno 1984b). In the eastern Atlantic from Iceland to South Africa (Compagno 1984b).<br><br> One specimen (MCZ 91550, 1:150 TL, 35 û 44 9N, 74 û 50 9W, 199 3340 m) was taken just north of Cape Hatteras and represents a southern record. MCZ 38294 (1:540 TL), 38295 (1:~1100 TL), 38296 (1), 38297 (1:680 TL), 38452 (1), 39621 (1:920 TL), 125402 (1:405 TL), 132510 (2:370 3390 TL), YPM 10137 (1:754 TL). Dalatias licha (Bonnaterre 1788) - Kitefin shark (AFS, FAO) - Benthopelagic, 37 31800 m (mostly greater than 200 m), known from the eastern Atlantic and the Indian and Pacific oceans (Compagno 1984b).<br><br> In the WNA from off the Gulf of Mexico, North Carolina and the northern slope of Georges Bank and (Bigelow and Schroeder 1948, Nichols and Firth 1939; F. Schwartz pers. comm.<br><br> 2002). The only area record is a single specimen from Georges Bank (Bigelow and Schroeder 1948). Etmopterus gracilispinis Krefft 1968 - Broadbanded lanternshark (AFS, FAO) - Bentho- to mesopelagic, 70 31000 m, previously known in the WNA from the Gulf of Mexico to Virginia (Compagno 1984b, McEachran and Fechhelm 1998) and in the southwestern Atlantic off Uruguay and Argentina (McEachran and Fechhelm 1998).<br><br> New material extends the range to Atlantis Canyon (MCZ 124340, 1:210 TL, 39 û 57 9N, 70 û 18 9W, 404 3 611 m). MCZ 91590 (4:210 3230 TL), 99543 (1:198 TL), 106297 (2:155 3161 TL), 106298 (2:109 3122 TL), 124339 (2:295 3310 TL), 124340 (1: 210 TL, female), 137994 (5:150 3 195 TL), 153781 (1:212 TL), 153782 (2:163 3210 TL), 161542 (1:238 TL). Etmopterus princeps Collett 1904 - Great lanternshark (FAO), Rough sagre (S&S) - Benthopelagic, 567 32213 m, from off New Jersey to East Greenland (Compagno 1984b, Okamura et al.<br><br> 1995, Scott and Scott 1988) and in the eastern Atlantic from Iceland to Mauritania (Compagno 1984b). The southernmost record is from between Toms and Hudson canyons (MCZ 38413, 1:297, 39 û 09 9N, 72 û 21 9W, 841 3951 m). MCZ, USNM and YPM 4at least 35 collections from the area.<br><br> Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch and Schneider 1801) - Greenland shark (AFS, FAO) - Benthopelagic, 0 32200 m, reported in the WNA from Georgia to Ellesmere Island (Compagno 1984b, Herdendorf and Berra 1995), but considered rare south of Cape Cod. A NMFS observer photographed an estimated 500 kg individual caught just south of Toms Canyon (38 û 40 9N, 73 û 06 9W to 38 û 47 9N, 73 û 02 9W, 246 3380 m). Another observer de- scribed a 4.5 m long female, also estimated at 500 kg, caught in nearly the same area (38 û 41 9N, 73 û 04 9W to 38 û 46 9N, 73 û 05 9W, 197 3215 m).<br><br> In both cases, the sharks were Figure 8. Heptranchias perlo , MCZ 160507, 1000 mm TL, 36 û 59 9N, 74 û 37 9W. Northeastern Naturalist Vol.<br><br> 10, No. 2 170 taken by a squid trawler in association with concentrations of northern shortfin squid Illex illecebrosus ; the stomach of the second specimen contained 75 fresh Illex and 2 red crabs Chaceon quinquedens . Both of these observer records are on file at the NMFS office in Woods Hole.<br><br> USNM 111159 (1). Squaliolus laticaudus Smith and Radcliffe 1912 - Spined pygmy shark (FAO) - Epipe- lagic, 200 m at night to 500 m during the day, typically tropical in eastern and southwest- ern Atlantic. One specimen of this rare dwarf shark (MCZ 82828, 1:115, 36 û 54 9N, 73 û 36 9W, 600 3400 m) was collected just south of the area and another was collected northeast of the area (MCZ 135325, 1:150, 43 û 50 9N, 45 û 40 9W) indicating its probable occurrence in the area.<br><br> SQUALIDAE Centrophorus sp. - Benthopelagic, to about 700 m. This genus is in need of worldwide revision.<br><br> Sporadic captures of Centrophorus specimens have been made just south of the study area by NMFS ground fish surveys and NMFS sponsored surveys. Prior to 1998, the specimens were assumed to be C. granulosus based on this species 9 known range.<br><br> Post 1998, NMFS captures of this shark prompted a review of their identification that shows the specimens are more similar to C. niaukang Teng, 1959, known from the western Pacific and eastern Atlantic oceans. Nearly 100 specimens of this shark have been captured between 1970 and 2002, with only a few deposited at MCZ.<br><br> The specimens are all large females (1450 31690 mm TL) with either pups or candled eggs. On two occasions, more than 20 females were taken in single 30-minute trawls on the continental shelf at depths of 150 3200 m. Other individuals have been taken between 240 and 660 m.<br><br> MCZ 153567 (adults and pups, 36 û 58 9N, 74 û 49 9W), 155770 (35 û 46 9N, 74 û 49 9W), 158572, 158739, 158959 (3 adults) and 157783 389 (pups and embryos) from 37 û 06 9N, 74 û 43 9W, and 160506 (37 û 05 9N, 74 û 44 9W). Squalus acanthias Linnaeus 1758 - Spiny dogfish (AFS), Piked dogfish (FAO) - Benthopelagic, 0 3900 m, worldwide in subtropical to subpolar waters. In the WNA from Florida to Greenland (Compagno 1984b, Okamura et al.<br><br> 1995). This is the most common shark on the shelf and upper slope in the area. SQUATINIFORMES SQUATINIDAE Squatina dumeril LeSueur 1818 - Atlantic angel shark (AFS), Sand devil (FAO) - Benthic, 0 31390 m, a WNA endemic, found from the Caribbean to Gulf of Maine (Compagno 1984b, Collette and Hartel 1988, McEachran and Fechhelm 1998).<br><br> MCZ 40790 (1), 40791 (1); USNM 118461 (1). RAJIFORMES TORPEDINIDAE Torpedo nobiliana Bonaparte 1835 - Atlantic torpedo (AFS) - Benthic, although also reported to be pelagic at times, 0 3530 m (Stehmann and Bürkel 1984c) and thought to seasonally migrate into deeper waters (Castro 1983). In the WNA known from the Caribbean to La Have Bank, Nova Scotia (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953b, McEachran and Fechhelm 1998, Robins et al.<br><br> 1986). RAJIDAE Amblyraja jenseni (Bigelow and Schroeder 1950) - Shorttail skate (S&S) - Benthic, 366 3 2294 m, from off Lindenkoehl Canyon (just south of Toms Canyon) to the Grand Banks (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953b, Scott and Scott 1988). The holotype (USNM 35592) and paratypes (USNM 23483 and 33457) are from our study area.<br><br> Caught at 2130 m at Deepwater Dumpsite 106 (Musick et al. 1975). MCZ 37899 (1), 38354 (1:710 TL), 55011 (1), 132506 (1:510 TL, 39 û 48 9N, 71 û 19 9W, 920 3948 m), 138020 (2:269 3369 TL, 39 û 42 9N, 71 û 27 9W, 1325 31830 m), 155628 (1), YPM 11262 (1).<br><br> Amblyraja radiata (Donovan 1808) - Thorny skate (AFS) - Benthic, 18 3996 m (most abundant below 110 m), South Carolina to Greenland and Hudson Bay (McEachran and J.A. Moore, K.E. Hartel, J.E.<br><br> Craddock, and J.K. Galbraith 2003 171 Musick 1975, Scott and Scott 1988). MCZ 37600 (1:196 TL), 37620 (1:145 TL), 37748 (1), 37901 (1:510 TL), 37903 (1:420 TL), 38237 (1), 38355 (1:870 TL), 38372 (1), 38375 (3), 38432 (1), 55315 (1), 138028 (2:1000 TL), YPM 10433 (1), 11425 (1).<br><br> Bathyraja richardsoni (Garrick 1961) - Deepwater skate (S&S) - Benthic, 1370 32745 m, reported from Hudson Canyon to southern Labrador (Musick et al. 1975, Scott and Scott 1988). Bathyraja spinicauda (Jensen 1914) - Spinytail skate (AFS) - Benthic, 140 31460 m, from Hudson Canyon (MCZ 55012) to Davis Strait (Scott and Scott 1988).<br><br> MCZ 37691 (1), 37927 (1), 37981 (egg and embryo), 55012 (1), YPM 11252 (1). Breviraja marklei McEachran and Miyake 1987 - Benthic, 443 3988 m, known only from four specimens collected from La Have Bank (ROM 50330, 567 3637 m) to the Laurentian Channel (McEachran and Miyake, 1987). This species may be a junior synonym of Rajella fyllae (J.<br><br> McEachran pers. comm. 2003).<br><br> Dipturus laevis (Mitchell 1818) - Barndoor skate (AFS) - Benthic, 0 3750 m, known from Cape Hatteras to the Grand Banks (Scott and Scott 1988). Formerly common in the region (Schroeder 1955), now considered locally extinct in Canadian waters and uncommon off the United States (Casey and Myers 1998). USNM 110962 (1) Leucoraja garmani virginica McEachran 1977 - Northern rosette skate - Benthic, 37 3366 m, moderately abundant in shallow waters, but rare in deep water, known from Cape Hatteras to southern New England, (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953b, McEachran 1977).<br><br> McEachran (1977) recognized four subspecies of L . garmani and designated a paratype of L . g .<br><br> virginica (MCZ 36315) from off Montauk Point, Long Island. McEachran and Fechhelm (1998) elevated all four subspecies to species, but currently that status is in question (J. McEachran pers.<br><br> comm. 2002). If accepted, this species will be known as L .<br><br> virginica . MCZ 37932 (1, 39 û 58 9N, 70 û 36 9W, 270 3320 m). Malacoraja senta (Garman 1885) - Smooth skate (AFS) - Benthic, 46 3956 m, from North Carolina to the southern Grand Banks, with a record from 956 m off North Carolina (McEachran and Musick 1975, Scott and Scott 1988; F.<br><br> Schwartz pers. comm. 2002).<br><br> MCZ 37491 (1), 37566 (1), 37884 (2), 37900 (1:380 TL), 38185 (1), 38194 (1), 38367 (1), 38368 (1), 38369 (1), 38371 (1), 38374 (1), 55317 (1), 125541 (1:240 TL), 137079 (1:540 TL). Malacoraja spinacidermis (Barnard 1923) - Soft skate (S&S) - Benthic, 710 31568 m, in the western Atlantic from the Northeast Peak of Georges Bank (MCZ 38167, 1:198+ TL, 41 û 25 9N, 65 û 54 9W, 732 3823 m) to Baffin Island (Scott and Scott 1988). In the eastern Atlantic from the Iceland-Faeroes Ridge, off northwestern Africa, and off South Africa (Stehmann 1990).<br><br> This species was previously treated as Raja mollis (Bigelow and Schroeder 1950). MCZ 37645 (1:272 TL), 38167 (1:198+ TL), 38276 (1), USNM 33385 (1). Rajella bigelowi (Stehmann 1978) - Benthic, 650 34156 m (usually below 1500 m), in the WNA from the Gulf of Mexico to Greenland (Okamura et al.<br><br> 1995; Stehmann 1978, 1990; Stehmann and Bürkel 1984d). In the eastern Atlantic from the Azores and Rockall Trough (Stehmann and Bürkel 1984d). Stehmann (1978) noted that all specimens previously identified as Raja ( Rajella ) bathyphila (chocolate or abyssal skate) in the WNA southwest of the Grand Banks should be treated as Rajella bigelowi .<br><br> MCZ 37929 (1), 37931 (1), 55314 (1:112 TL), 55316 (3), 57327 (1), 58444 (1), 59220 (1), 138018 (7:158 3423 TL), 158963 (1:460 TL), 158964 (1:102 TL). Rajella fyllae (Lütken 1887) - Round skate (S&S) - Benthic, 170 32000 m, from east of Hydrographer Canyon to Davis Strait (Schroeder 1955, Scott and Scott 1988, Stehmann 1990). In the eastern North Atlantic from Biscay Bay to Spitsbergen and Iceland (Stehmann and Bürkel 1984d).<br><br> MCZ 4at least 26 collections from the area. ALBULIFORMES HALOSAURIDAE Aldrovandia affinis (Günther 1877) - Benthopelagic, 730 32200 m (Sulak 1990a), world- wide, from South America, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico to off New England in the WNA (McDowell 1973). MCZ 58436 and 59137 were collected between Atlantis and Veatch canyons on the southern New England slope.<br><br> MCZ 137999 (3:300 3400). Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 10, No.<br><br> 2 172 Aldrovandia oleosa Sulak 1977 - Benthopelagic, 1184 31910 m, known from off northern South America, the Bahamas, and Norfolk Canyon (Sulak 1977a), the Gulf of Guinea and possibly the northwestern Indian Ocean and Indonesia (Sulak 1990a). Sixteen additional specimens were collected between Hudson and Alvin canyons after the species was described. A 2000 NMFS cruise to Bear Seamount collected one specimen (MCZ 158747, 1:390, 39 û 52 9N, 67 û 20 9W, 1460 31750 m), which is the northernmost occurrence.<br><br> MCZ 59130 (1:305+ TL, 39 û 45 9N, 70 û 43 9W, 1885 31967 m), 59131 (5:350+ to 385 TL, 39 û 45 9N, 70 û 47 9W, 1820 31960 m), 59132 (10:202+ to 327+ TL, 39 û 17 9N, 71 û 59 9W, 1500 31960 m). Aldrovandia phalacra (Vaillant 1888) - Benthopelagic, 500 32300 m, known from all major oceans, in the WNA from the Bahamas to Greenland (McDowell 1973, Okamura et al. 1995, Sulak 1990a).<br><br> MCZ 37433 (2), 37556 (1), 51963 (1), 58437 (2), 59133 (11), 124994 (1:325), 137995 (1:392), 138016 (2:190), 147514 (1:300), 162001(6:110 3230), 162003 (2:245 3325). Halosauropsis macrochir (Günther 1878) - Benthopelagic, 1100 33300 m, antitropical in Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans (Sulak 1990a). In the WNA from off Cuba and the Bahamas to Browns Bank (MCZ 38682, 3, 41 û 58 9N, 65 û 18 9W, 1647 31738 m, but not from the Gulf of Maine as reported by McDowell 1973).<br><br> Four specimens were collected by the 2000 NMFS cruise to Bear Seamount (MCZ 158748, 4:500 3600). MCZ 59136 (3). Halosaurus guentheri Goode and Bean 1896 - Benthopelagic, 550 31600 m, in the WNA from Venezuela to Atlantis Canyon (McDowell 1973, Sulak 1990a).<br><br> Caught at Deepwater Dumpsite 106 at 951 m (Musick et al. 1975). A specimen from just east of Atlantis Canyon (MCZ 58438) may be the northernmost record.<br><br> MCZ 38433 (1), USNM 38070 (1). NOTACANTHIDAE Lipogenys gillii Goode and Bean 1896 - Backfin tapirfish (S&S) - Benthopelagic, 350 3 1154 m, known from Norfolk Canyon to the slope south of La Have Basin (MCZ 37613, 1, 42 û 45 9N, 63 û 47 9W, 604 3622 m) (McDowell 1973). MCZ 37612 (1), 37790 (2), 38322 (1), 38424 (1), 155356 (1:200).<br><br> Notacanthus chemnitzii Bloch 1788 - Snubnosed spiny eel (FNAM), Spiny eel (AFS) - Benthopelagic, 128 33285 m (usually 250 31000 m), a worldwide antitropical species, known in the WNA from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean. Occurs in shallower depths farther north (Scott and Scott 1988). Caught at 2130 m (Musick et al.<br><br> 1975) and seen at 1985 32148 m (Cohen and Pawson 1977) near Deepwater Dumpsite 106. MCZ 4at least 17 collections from the area. Polyacanthonotus challengeri (Vaillant 1888) 3 Spiny eel (FNAM) - Benthopelagic, 1143 33753 m (generally >2000 m), an antitropical species found at latitudes greater than 30 û north and south (Crabtree et al.<br><br> 1985, Sulak et al. 1984). Caught at 1143 m (Musick et al.<br><br> 1975) and seen at 1704 31988 m (Cohen and Pawson 1977) at Deepwater Dumpsite 106. One specimen, MCZ 158718 (1:495) was caught by the 2000 NMFS cruise to Bear Seamount. MCZ 55226 (1), 58610 (1).<br><br> Polyacanthonotus merretti Sulak, Crabtree and Hureau 1984 - Benthopelagic, 594 32000 m, in the WNA from the Guianas, the Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico to Hudson Canyon (Sulak et al. 1984, Crabtree et al. 1985).<br><br> Musick et al. (1992) reported a specimen from 1559 m at Deepwater Dumpsite 106. VIMS 4082 (1).<br><br> Polyacanthonotus rissoanus (de Filippi and Vérany 1859) - Smallmouth spiny eel (FNAM), Shortspine tapirfish (S&S) - Benthopelagic, 540 32875 m, known from Norfolk Canyon to the Davis Strait (Crabtree et al. 1985). MCZ 38283 (1), 57377 (1), 125543 (1:480), 125544 (1:428), 125545 (1:525), 158719 (2:498 3550), 158781 (1:379), 162002 (1:350).<br><br> ANGUILLIFORMES SYNAPHOBRANCHIDAE Diastobranchus capensis Barnard 1923. Fig. 9 - Diastobranchus capensis is known from temperate waters in the southern hemisphere, between 183 31750 m (Sulak and Shcherbachev 1997).<br><br> Recently, large specimens of Diastobranchus have been collected J.A. Moore, K.E. Hartel, J.E.<br><br> Craddock, and J.K. Galbraith 2003 173 off New England and are currently under study by K. Tighe (USNM).<br><br> Morphologically, these specimens are very similar to D. capensis , but we are awaiting the results of molecular evidence to confirm this assignment. F/V Panther and F/V Matthew Melissa caught three specimens (MCZ 153747, 1:1110, ~30 miles south of Montauk, 1460 m; YPM 11267, 2:860 31360 TL, 39 û 54 9N, 67 û 26 9W, 1188 m) on the southern New England slope between Hudson and Block Canyon and on Bear Seamount, respectively.<br><br> In addi- tion, the F/V Panther collected two other specimens somewhere on the southern slope of Georges Bank (MCZ 155019, 1:1332 and KU 28484, 1:932). The 2000 and 2002 NMFS cruises to Bear Seamount also collected specimens (MCZ 158868, 1:1270; 162184, 2:795 31339; YPM 12947, 1; 12990, 1). These specimens represent the first occurrence of this genus in the northern hemisphere.<br><br> Histiobranchus bathybius Günther 1877 - Benthic, 731 34700 m (usually between 2000 3 3500 m), widely distributed in deep waters (Sulak and Shcherbachev 1997). In the WNA, from the Bahamas to Davis Strait. MCZ 55363 (1), 57329 (2), 91366 (1:192).<br><br> Ilyophis brunneus Gilbert 1891 - Benthopelagic, 650 33120 m, known from southern Brazil to Nova Scotia in the western Atlantic (Sulak and Shcherbachev 1997). MCZ 53874 (1), 53875 (1), 53876 (2), 53877 (8), 57693 (4), 158657 (1:781), 158658 (1:386). Leptocephalus proboscideus Lea 1913 - This species is based on ilyophine leptocephali that are probably close to Dysommina .<br><br> The adult stage is not known. Ranges from the central Caribbean to Bermuda to the Azores and Canary Islands (Smith 1989b). A speci- men (MCZ 73368, 40 û 04N, 67 û 13W, 200 3210 m) extends its range to the area.<br><br> Simenchelys parasitica Gill 1879 - Snubnose eel (S&S, FNAM) - Benthic, 500 31800 m, found in temperate zones of the northern and southern hemispheres, usually on the middle to lower slope (Sulak and Shcherbachev 1997). In the WNA from the Bahamas to south of Newfoundland. MCZ and YPM 4at least 21 collections from the area.<br><br> Figure 9. Diastobranchus capensis , MCZ 158868, 1270 mm SL, 39 û 52 9N, 67 û 20 9W. Northeastern Naturalist Vol.<br><br> 10, No. 2 174 Synaphobranchus affinis Günther 1877 - Benthic, 500 31500 m, broadly distributed in tropical and temperate waters, primarily on the middle to lower slope (Sulak and Shcherbachev 1997). In the WNA from the Caribbean to Nova Scotia.<br><br> MCZ 37567 (1), 37690 (1), 37764 (1), 100328 (1), 124867 (1:235). Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson 1862 - Northern cutthroat eel (AFS), Slatjaw cutthroat eel (S&S) - Benthic, 131 32346 m, broadly distributed in tropical and temperate waters worldwide, primarily on the middle slope to upper rise (Robins and Robins 1989, Sulak and Shcherbachev 1997). In the WNA from the Caribbean to Davis Strait.<br><br> Caught at 951 3 2130 m (Musick et al. 1975) and also seen at 1704 32346 m at Deepwater Dumpsite 106 (Cohen and Pawson 1977). This is the most abundant synaphobranchid in deep trawl catches in the region.<br><br> MCZ and YPM 4at least 60 collections from the area. OPHICHTHIDAE Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode and Bean 1896) - Margined snake eel (AFS) - Burrows into sandy or muddy bottoms, 36 31350 m (most abundant at 250 3350 m), known from northern South America to the Laurentian Channel (McCosker et al. 1989).<br><br> Putatively a facultative parasite of larger fishes. Scott and Scott (1988) reported one in a swordfish from the Laurentian Channel. A leptocephalus of O.<br><br> gomesii (MCZ 72845, 40 û 04 9N, 67 û 13 9W) has been taken in the area and the adults of the two species can be confused (Smith 1986b). MCZ 53928 (3), 53929 (1), 75972 (1), 94337 (1:73), YPM 11294 (1). DERICHTHYIDAE Derichthys serpentinus Gill 1884 3 Narrownecked oceanic eel (FNAM) - Meso- to bathype- lagic, to 2000 m, worldwide.<br><br> In the WNA from Argentina to Flemish Cap (Karmovskaya 1985, Scott and Scott 1988). Musick (1973) reported specimens from the Northeast Channel in the Gulf of Maine. MCZ and YPM 4at least 66 collections from the area.<br><br> Nessorhamphus ingolfianus (Schmidt 1912) - Duckbill oceanic eel (FNAM) - Meso- to bathypelagic to 1800 m, worldwide. In the WNA from Argentina to the Grand Banks (Karmovskaya 1985). Reported from the Northeast Channel in the Gulf of Maine (Musick 1973) and from Deepwater Dumpsite 106 (Krueger et al.<br><br> 1977, Musick et al. 1975). MCZ and YPM 4at least 19 collections from the area.<br><br> NEMICHTHYIDAE Avocettina infans (Günther 1878) - Bathypelagic, generally 1200 32000 m, found in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, from Brazil to southern New England in the WNA (Smith and Nielsen 1989). A specimen (MCZ 161967, 1:527) was collected from Bear Seamount in 2002. MCZ 65663 (1), 138004 (1:480), 147403 (1).<br><br> Labichthys carinatus Gill and Ryder 1883 - Bathypelagic, generally 1200 32000 m, world- wide. In the WNA from southern Brazil to off Georges Bank (Smith and Nielsen 1989). The holotype (USNM 33369) was captured off Georges Bank.<br><br> Nemichthys scolopaceus Richardson 1848 - Slender snipe eel (AFS) - Meso- to bathype- lagic, 457 33656 m, worldwide, from northern Brazil to south of La Have Bank, Nova Scotia in the WNA (Smith and Nielsen 1989). MCZ and YPM 4at least 170 collections from the area. CONGRIDAE Acromycter perturbator (Parr 1932) - Benthic, 787 31318 m, from Jamaica to southern New England (Smith 1989a).<br><br> Caught at 823 3933 m just north of Hudson Canyon (Markle and Musick 1974). A specimen (MCZ 158703, 1:245) from Bear Seamount extends the range slightly eastward. USNM 206213 (1:269 TL, 39 û 37 9N, 71 û 54 9W, 915 m).<br><br> Bathyuroconger vicinus (Vaillant 1888). Fig. 10 - Benthic, 229 31318 m, known from the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans.<br><br> Reported in WNA from the Guianas and the Carib- bean to the Gulf of Mexico (Smith 1989a). A specimen (MCZ 152942, 1:426 TL, 39 û 59 9N, 70 û 57 9W, 324 3378 m) caught by F/V Patty Jo near Block Canyon and identified by D. G.<br><br> Smith is the first record north of the Straits of Florida. Conger oceanicus (Mitchell 1818) - Conger eel (AFS) - Benthic, to 577 m (generally 75 3 J.A. Moore, K.E.<br><br> Hartel, J.E. Craddock, and J.K. Galbraith 2003 175 150 m), from the Gulf of Mexico and Campeche Bank to Georges Bank (Smith 1989a).<br><br> MCZ 152877 (1), 152878 (1), YPM 10431 (1:690 TL). Rhynchoconger gracilior (Ginsburg 1951) - Benthic, 82 3458 m, from Suriname to Georgia. Three specimens (MCZ 74268, 1:320, 40 û 06 9N, 69 û 53 9W; 160735, 2:385 3390) extend the range to the southern New England Slope but are from only 115 3121 m.<br><br> Interestingly, a number of leptocephali of R. flavus (MCZ 72452 355 and 150264, see Smith 1989b) are from slope water, but the adults are unknown north of the Gulf of Mexico. Xenomystax congroides Smith and Kanazawa 1989 3 Bristletooth conger (AFS) - Benthic, 140 3825 m, known in the WNA from Brazil to Florida (Smith 1989a).<br><br> There are several larval specimens in the MCZ collection from along the U.S. coast north of Florida. Four larvae (161864:160, 161865:180, 161866:193, MCZ 161896, 1:231) were captured from midwaters over Oceanographer Canyon, Bear Seamount, Munson Canyon, and from midwaters of a thermal front southeast of Powell Canyon, respectively, during a NMFS cruise in 2002.<br><br> NETTASTOMATIDAE Facciolella sp. - Smith (1989b) reported this genus from as far north as Bermuda at depths of 75 33109 m (usually 329 3732 m), but was unable to identify the specimens found in the WNA to species. A specimen (MCZ 153557, 1:409) caught near Block Canyon (39 û 17 9N, 71 û 59 9W, 309 3333 m) extends the range northward.<br><br> Hoplunnis tenuis Ginsburg 1951 - Spotted pike-conger (AFS) - Benthic, 110 3468 m, previously reported from southern Brazil to off New Jersey (VIMS 05941, 1:188 TL) by Smith (1989b). Two specimens (MCZ 63116, 1:370+ TL and 63085, 1:260 TL) from between Block and Alvin canyons extend the range slightly northeast. We have seen an additional 12 MCZ lots of larvae from the area.<br><br> In addition, MCZ material indicates that larvae of H . diomediana (MCZ 65306, 65382, 65384) and H . macrura (MCZ 65413 315, 65417, 65420, 65424) occur in the area and suggests that adults may be present.<br><br> Nettastoma melanurum Rafinesque 1810 - Benthic, 37 31647 m (mostly 329 3860 m), previously known from the Guianas to north Florida (Smith 1989b), however, Musick et al. (1992) reported a specimen at 1559 m near Hudson Canyon. Venefica procera (Goode and Bean 1883) - Benthic, 350 32304 m, previously known from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean to North Carolina (Smith 1989b).<br><br> Reported from Figure 10. Bathyuroconger vicinus , MCZ 152942, 426 mm TL, 39 û 59 9N, 70 û 57 9W, 324 3 378 m. Northeastern Naturalist Vol.<br><br> 10, No. 2 176 Deepwater Dumpsite 106 at 1143 32286 m (Musick et al. 1975) and in Hudson Canyon at 1500 31960 m (Haedrich and Polloni 1974).<br><br> Other specimens extend the range to the vicinity of Georges Bank as follows: MCZ 138019 (3:812 31115+, 39 û 42 9N, 71 û 27 9W, 1325 31830 m) from near Block Canyon, MCZ 37686 (1:890, 40 û 00 9N, 68 û 52 9W, 350 3500 m) from near Hydrographer Canyon, and MCZ 158714 (2:555+ 3560+) taken by the 2000 NMFS cruise to Bear Seamount. SERRIVOMERIDAE Serrivomer beanii Gill and Ryder 1883 - Stout sawpalate (S&S) - Meso- to bathypelagic, typically between 550 31000 m. Widely distributed in the WNA from north of Brazil to the Flemish Cap (Tighe 1989).<br><br> MCZ 4at least 118 collections from the area. Serrivomer lanceolatoides (Schmidt 1916) - Meso- to bathypelagic, typically caught between 500 31000 m (McEachran and Fechhelm 1998). Widely distributed across the North Atlantic from the equator to at least 42 û N (Tighe 1989).<br><br> It is less frequently caught in the area than S . beanii . MCZ 147612 (1), 147613 (2), 147614 (1), 161783 (1:617), 161852 358 (6:154 3475).<br><br> SACCOPHARYNGIFORMES EURYPHARYNGIDAE Eurypharynx pelecanoides Vaillant 1882 - Pelican gulper eel (S&S) - Bathypelagic, most likely to depths of 3000 m, widely distributed in tropical to temperate regions of all oceans. In the WNA from Argentina to Greenland (Bertelsen et al. 1989, Okamura et al.<br><br> 1995). Frequently, one or a few individuals are caught in tows at depths below 1000 m in the area. MCZ and YPM 4at least 76 collections from the area.<br><br> SACCOPHARYNIGIDAE Saccopharynx ampullaceus (Harwood 1827) - Bathy- to abyssopelagic, at depths of about 2000 33000 m, known from the North Atlantic based on rare scattered records. In the WNA from Cape Hatteras to Greenland (Bertelsen et al. 1989, Okamura et al.<br><br> 1995). Two small specimens (MCZ 59195, 1:247, 800 3600 m and 59799, 1:105, 0 31020 m) were taken in the same haul but at different depths at 39 û 04 9N, 68 û 00 9W. Three specimens (MCZ 161543 345, 3:330 3810) were collected on the 2002 NMFS cruise to Bear Seamount.<br><br> A large (ca. 600 mm TL) but badly damaged Saccopharynx (MCZ 9826) was collected in 1862 south of the Grand Banks, Newfoundland and one larvae (MCZ 62279) from the area may also represent this species. OSMERIFORMES ARGENTINIDAE Argentina silus Ascanius 1775 - Atlantic argentine (AFS), Greater argentine (FNAM) - Pelagic, 140 3915 m (usually from 137 3220 m), in the WNA from Georges Bank to Greenland (Cohen 1964a, 1984a, Okamura et al.<br><br> 1995, Scott and Scott 1988). Two specimens (MCZ 124873, 1:205, 39 û 59 9N, 70 û 52 9W, 350 3392 m and YPM 10429, 1:243, 39 û 58 9N, 71 û 07 9W, 330 3402 m) extend the range slightly westward and southward to the vicinity of Block Canyon. MCZ has an additional 21 collections from the area; all north of Georges Bank.<br><br> Argentina striata Goode and Bean 1896 - Striated argentine (AFS) - Epi- to mesopelagic, 146 3476 m, known from northern Brazil to Browns Bank, Nova Scotia and the Gulf of Maine (Cohen and Atsaides 1969). MCZ 4at least 22 collections from the area; all from south of Georges Bank. MICROSTOMATIDAE Nansenia groenlandica (Reinhardt 1839) - Large-eyed argentine (S&S), Greenland Ar- gentine (FNAM) - Mesopelagic, 300 31000 m, known from waters north of 40 û N in the Atlantic (Kawaguchi and Butler 1984).<br><br> Scott and Scott (1988) listed specimens from Browns Bank and Flemish Cap. We note three larvae (MCZ 66052 (1:14), 89890 (2:10 3 20) from Slope Water south of Georges Bank. Krueger et al.<br><br> (1977) identified specimens from midwaters near Deepwater Dumpsite 106. J.A. Moore, K.E.<br><br> Hartel, J.E. Craddock, and J.K. Galbraith 2003 177 Nansenia longicauda Kawaguchi and Butler 1984 - Mesopelagic, known from subtropical and temperate North Atlantic and North Pacific (Kawaguchi and Butler 1984).<br><br> Kawaguchi and Butler (1984) described two USNM specimens from Slope Water southeast of Georges Bank. In addition, we note one larva (MCZ 66024, 1: 24, 36 û 36 9N, 66 û 37 9W) from south of Georges Bank and two specimens (MCZ 66198, 1:20 and MCZ 66051, 1:25) found off Florida, which have similar distinctive caudal pigmentation. They are generally pale, but with an intense black posteriorly directed triangle at the base of the caudal rays.<br><br> These are definitely not larvae of the tropical N . pelagica or boreal N . groenlandica , but may belong to N .<br><br> longicauda . USNM 246799 (1:41.5), 246800 (1:39.1). BATHYLAGIDAE The genera of bathylagids follow the recommendations of Kobyliansky (1986).<br><br> Bathylagichthys greyae (Cohen 1958) - Meso- to bathypelagic, 0 31646 m, in tropical to temperate Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans (Cohen 1984b, Kobyliansky 1985). In the WNA from the Caribbean Sea (MCZ specimens) and Bermuda. We have examined speci- mens (ARC 8908933; 1:80) from off Browns Bank (Scott and Scott 1988) and one (MCZ 162109, 1:77, 39 û 55' 67 û 25 9W) collected on a 2002 NMFS cruise near Bear Seamount.<br><br> Bathylagus euryops Goode and Bean 1896 3 Goiter blacksmelt (S&S) - Meso- and bathypelagic, 548 31352 m, in temperate and subarctic waters from Bermuda to Davis Strait (Cohen 1964b, Scott and Scott 1988). Common in Slope Water off New England. MCZ 42319 (2), 45432 (2), 66264 (1), 124993 (1:130), 137979 (5:100 3148), 138002 (5:180 3210), 158720 (5:46 3133), 158735 (1), 158778 (1), 158933 (1), 162014 316 (4).<br><br> Dolicholagus longirostris (Maul 1948) - Meso- to bathypelagic, 914 31828 m, in tropical to subtropical waters worldwide (Cohen 1964b, 1984b; Kobyliansky 1985). In the WNA from the Caribbean to Browns Bank (Cohen 1964b, Scott and Scott 1988). Common in Slope Water and ranging to 49 û N east of Newfoundland with the Gulf Stream.<br><br> MCZ 63999 (1), 66145 (1), 88980 (3:69 3146), 88984 (1:35), 88985 (1:22), 138067 (1:80), 158934 (1:82), 161534 (1), 162009 313 (9:137 3165). Melanolagus bericoides (Borodin 1929) - Meso- to bathypelagic, 250 31700 m, in the Atlantic from at least 32 û S to Greenland (Cohen 1964b, Okamura et al. 1995, MCZ specimens).<br><br> Collected from the Northeast Channel in the Gulf of Maine (Musick 1973) and at Deepwater Dumpsite 106 (Musick et al. 1975). Numerous in Slope Water off New England.<br><br> MCZ 88961 (1:35), 88965 (1:29), 88966 (1:56), 89864 (1:170), 126713 (2:77 3 95), 158935 (1:96), 159294 (1:160), 159316 (1:195), 162017 319 (4:95 3121). OPISTHOPROCTIDAE Dolichopteryx binocularis Beebe 1932 - Meso- to bathypelagic, to 1200 m, rare, known from a few scattered sites in the Atlantic (Cohen 1964c, Trunov 1997). Reported previously in the WNA based on the holotype collected off Bermuda at 730 m (Cohen 1964c) and from the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico (McEachran and Fechhelm 1998).<br><br> One specimen (MCZ 60716, 1:107, 39 û 13 9N, 71 û 17 9W, 0 31027 m) was taken from Slope Water near Hudson Canyon by WHOI. A damaged Dolichopteryx , probably this species, (MCZ 158905, 1:128, 39 û 59 9N, 67 û 20 9W) from off Powell Canyon is the northernmost known record. Opisthoproctus grimaldii Zugmayer 1911 - Meso- to bathypelagic, 300 32000+ m (mostly 300 3400 m), previously known from the northern Gulf of Mexico and the Bahamas in the WNA (Cohen 1964c, McEachran and Fechhelm 1998).<br><br> MCZ specimens show a wide distribution in the Caribbean and occasionally off Florida and Georgia. One specimen (MCZ 60717, 1:14, 39 û 28 9N, 64 û 36 9W, 400 3599 m), from Slope Water southeast of Georges Bank by WHOI, is a northward range extension. Opisthoproctus soleatus Vaillant 1888 - Mesopelagic, 300 3800 m (mainly 500 3700 m), in tropical to temperate waters worldwide (Cohen 1990).<br><br> In the WNA, known from the Caribbean to southern New England, but rare in the area (MCZ 40510, 1:22, 39 û 45 9N, 71 û 08 9W) (Cohen 1964c, Quéro 1990). ALEPOCEPHALIDAE Note: The genus Alepocephalus needs critical review. Identification of some WNA mate- rial is questionable (Markle 1986).<br><br> Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 10, No. 2 178 Alepocephalus agassizii Goode and Bean 1883 - Agassiz 9 smoothhead (FNAM, S&S) - Benthopelagic, 600 32400 m, in the subtropical to temperate Atlantic, from the Gulf of Mexico to Davis Strait in the WNA (Markle and Quéro 1984, McEachran and Fechhelm 1998).<br><br> This is the most commonly caught smoothhead in the area and it apparently forms dense schools at times. MCZ and YPM 4at least 50 collections from the area. Alepocephalus cf.<br><br> australis Barnard 1923 - Benthopelagic, 100 32600 m, known from northern South America to 39 û N in the WNA and from the eastern North Atlantic (Markle and Sazonov 1990). The North Atlantic specimens may not be conspecific with the true A . australis of the temperate southern hemisphere (Markle 1986).<br><br> The following specimens were collected during the 2000 and 2002 NMFS cruises to Bear Seamount. MCZ 138081 (1:570), 151950 (1:442), 158849 (1:430), 158850 (1:340), 158851 (1:380), 158852 (1:385), 158853 (1:420), 158855 (1:480), 158857 (2:470 3590), 158860 (1:362), 158861 (1:370), 158862 (2:310 3330), 158863 (1:470), 158997 (1:455), 162237 (3:440 3575). Alepocephalus bairdii Goode and Bean 1879 - Baird 9s smoothhead (FNAM, S&S).<br><br> Fig. 11 - Benthopelagic, 650 31700 m, known in the WNA from off Georgia, the Grand Banks, and Greenland based on scattered records, but much more common in the eastern North Atlantic (Markle and Quéro 1984, Markle and Sazonov 1990). Haedrich and Merrett (1988) reported A .<br><br> bairdii occurring on the lower slope off New England. The only specimen that we were able to examine from the study area (MCZ 158854, 1:575) was collected by the 2000 NMFS cruise to Bear Seamount. Alepocephalus productus Gill 1883 - Smalleye smoothhead (FNAM) - Benthopelagic, 1464 3 2500 m; the distribution of this species is presently unknown because of confusion with A .<br><br> blanfordii Alcock, 1892 from the Indian Ocean (Markle and Sazonov 1990). McEachran and Fechhelm (1998) reported it from the Caribbean and northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The holotype of A .<br><br> productus (USNM 33341) was caught off southern New England (Goode and Bean 1896) and Haedrich and Polloni (1974) reported it at 1500 31960 m in Hudson Canyon. Specimens come from 1464 m in Welker Canyon on Georges Bank (YPM 11291). Also seen at 1930 31988 m near Deepwater Dumpsite 106 (Cohen and Pawson 1977).<br><br> Bajacalifornia megalops (Lütken 1898) - Bigeye smoothhead (FNAM, S&S) - Bentho- to bathypelagic, 250 33182 m, in the tropical to temperate waters worldwide (Markle and Quéro 1984, Markle and Sazonov 1990). In the WNA from the equator to Greenland (Okamura et al. 1995).<br><br> The holotype of Bathytroctes drakei Beebe, 1929 (USNM 170958), a junior synonym of B . megalops , was taken from Hudson Canyon (Beebe 1929). MCZ 40654 (1), 59782 (1), 59785 (1), 59787 (1), 59788 (1), 59789 (1), 59796 (1), 59798 (1), 137978 (1:240), 161549 (1:110).<br><br> Bathylaco nigricans Goode and Bean 1896 - Black warrior (FNAM) - Meso- to bathype- lagic, 450 34376 m (usually from 1750 32200 m), circumglobal in tropical regions (Markle and Quéro 1984). However, Okamura et al. (1995) reported a specimen taken off Greenland.<br><br> We note a specimen (MCZ 95627, 1:235) taken from the stomach of a swordfish caught off southern New England. The undigested nature of the specimen indicates that it most likely was eaten somewhere in the area. Bathyprion danae Marshall 1966 - Fangtooth smoothhead (FNAM).<br><br> Fig. 12 - Meso- to bathypelagic, 100 35046 m, previously known from the Atlantic and the western Pacific (Markle and Quéro 1984), in the WNA from the Caribbean (Anderson et al. 1985).<br><br> Two specimens (MCZ 57613, 1:135, 39 û 50 9N, 69 û 54 9W, 2970 32980 m; and MCZ 128292, Figure 11. Alepocephalus bairdii , MCZ 158854, 575 mm SL, 39 û 55 9N, 67 û 23 9W, 0 31200m. J.A.<br><br> Moore, K.E. Hartel, J.E. Craddock, and J.K.<br><br> Galbraith 2003 179 1:12, 39 û 47 9N, 68 û 56 9W, 0 3775 m), taken by WHOI south of Nantucket and from Slope Water south of Hydrographer Canyon, represent the first records records from off the east coast of the United States. Bathytroctes microlepis Günther 1878 - Smallscale smoothhead (FNAM) - Bentho- to bathypelagic, 1100 33200 m (usually below 1800 m), known from the North Atlantic, South China Sea, eastern South Pacific, and eastern Indian Ocean (Markle and Quéro 1984, Markle and Sazonov 1990). In the WNA, previously known from the Gulf of Mexico (McEachran and Fechhelm 1998).<br><br> A specimen caught at 2130 m near Deepwater Dumpsite 106 (identified as Grimatroctes bullisi by Musick et al. 1975) is probably this species. Another specimen (MCZ 122119, 1:270, 39 û 45 9N, 70 û 43 9W, 1885 31967 m) is probably the northernmost record.<br><br> Bathytroctes squamosus Alcock 1890 - Benthopelagic, 1000 32619 m, known from the North Atlantic and Indian oceans (Markle and Sazonov 1990). In the WNA, this species has been taken from the Gulf of Mexico (McEachran and Fechhelm 1998) and at 2619 m near Deepwater Dumpsite 106 (Musick et al. 1992).<br><br> Conocara murrayi (Koefoed 1927) - Benthopelagic, 1200 32600 m, in the northern and eastern Atlantic, Indian, and western South Pacific oceans (Markle and Quéro 1984). In the WNA, known from the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Markle and Sazonov 1990, McEachran and Fechhelm 1998) and from two specimens from near Deepwater Dumpsite 106 at 2368 32619 m (Musick et al. 1992).<br><br> In addition, we note a small specimen of Conocara sp. (MCZ 57619) from 2903 m between Atlantis and Veatch canyons. Mirognathus normani Parr 1951.<br><br> Fig. 13 - Bathypelagic, 2000 33000 m, previously known from single specimens collected off Portugal, Argentina, and south of Iceland (Markle and Quéro 1984). The 2000 NMFS cruise to Bear Seamount collected one specimen (MCZ 158702, 1:127).<br><br> This is the fourth known specimen and the first record for the WNA. Narcetes stomias (Gilbert 1890) - Blackhead salmon (FNAM) - Benthopelagic, 1500 32500 m, in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans (Markle and Sazonov 1990). In the WNA from the Caribbean to off New England (Markle and Quéro 1984).<br><br> A specimen (USNM 215513) is from off Delaware and others have been caught at Deepwater Dumpsite 106 in 2130 32376 m (Musick et al. 1975, Musick et al. 1992).<br><br> Two specimens (MCZ 58433 and 61016) come from near Alvin and Atlantis canyons at 2080 to 2503 m. The 2000 NMFS cruise to Bear Seamount collected the northeasternmost specimen (MCZ 158859, 1:440). Photostylus pycnopterus Beebe 1933 - Starry smoothhead (FNAM) - Meso- to bathype- lagic, 840 32868 m, circumglobal (Markle and Quéro 1984, Markle and Sazonov 1990).<br><br> In the WNA, found at scattered sites from the equator to Davis Strait (Okamura et al. 1995). Figure 12.<br><br> Bathyprion danae , MCZ 57613, 135 mm SL, 39 û 50 9N, 69 û 54 9W, 2970 32980 m. Figure 13. Mirognathus normani , MCZ 158702, 127 mm SL, 39 û 57 9N, 67 û 30 9W, 0 32100 m.<br><br> Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 10, No. 2 180 Two specimens (MCZ 60740, 60742) were taken from Slope Water off Toms and Veatch canyons and another from the vicinity of Bear Seamount (MCZ 161561, 1:113).<br><br> Rouleina attrita (Vaillant 1888) - Softskin smoothhead (FNAM) - Benthopelagic, mainly 800 32300 m, from widely scattered sites in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans (Markle 1977, Markle and Quéro 1984, Markle and Sazonov 1990). In the WNA, from the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico (McEachran and Fechhelm 1998) and Hudson Canyon (MCZ 55508, 2:208 3370; Haedrich and Horn 1970, Haedrich and Polloni 1974). In addition, specimens were caught at Block Canyon (MCZ 137989, 5:165 3248), from near Hydrographer Canyon (MCZ 40609, 1:129), and at Bear Seamount (MCZ 158726, 1:226).<br><br> Xenodermichthys copei (Gill 1884) - Bluntsnout smoothhead (FNAM, S&S) - Meso- to bathypelagic near continental slopes, 100 32650 m, in the Atlantic, Indian and eastern Pacific oceans (Markle and Quéro 1984). In the WNA, from Brazil to Greenland (Okamura et al. 1995, Scott and Scott 1988).<br><br> A number of specimens are from the area (MCZ 124797, 2:112 3118; 124798, 2:135 3168; 124799, 1:150; 128276, 1:105; 35318, 1:114; 38029, 1:123; 161558, 155; YPM 11304, 1; 11444, 1) and one (MCZ 58737, 1:35) is from south of La Have Bank (40 û 49 9N, 64 û 00 9W). PLATYTROCTIDAE Barbantus curvifrons (Roule and Angel 1931) - Palebelly searsid (FNAM). Fig.<br><br> 14 - Bathypelagic, greater than 800 m (Quéro et al. 1984), previously known from the eastern Atlantic (Matsui and Rosenblatt 1987) and the Gulf of Mexico (McEachran and Fechhelm 1998). However,<br><br>