A Land of Contrasts 49 BEFORE YOU READ In the last section you read about the climate and vegetation of the United States and Canada. In this section, you will learn about the impact humans have had on the environment in the United States and Canada. AS YOU READ Use this graphic to take notes about the human-environment interaction in the United States and Canada.
Copyright © McDougal Littell Inc. THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA Human-Environment Interaction PLACES & TERMS nomad person who moves from place to place Beringia land bridge that once connected what are now Siberia and Alaska St. Lawrence Seaway North America 9s most important deepwater ship route, connecting the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean lock section of a waterway with closed gates where water levels are raised or lowered Name Date Chapter Section 3 (pages 127 3130) Reading Study Guide 5 Settlement and Agriculture Alter the Land (page 127) Where did the first settlers come from?
The first inhabitants of North America were nomads. Nomads are people who move from place to place. These people probably came from Asia over a land bridge that once connected what are now Siberia and Alaska.
It was called Beringia . These ... more. less.
early migrants moved over the land. They hunted game and fish and gathered wild plants to eat.<br><br> Water was necessary for survival. So, these first Americans made temporary settlements along coastlines and near rivers and streams. They were able to live in the extremes of temperature and climate in North America.<br><br> They also adapted to the region 9s many environments. These included mountains, forests, plains, and deserts. About 3,000 years ago, agriculture replaced hunting and gathering as the primary method of food production.<br><br> Many early settlements became permanent. As people began to grow crops, they changed the landscape to meet their needs. In wooded areas, early farmers cut down trees for houses and fuel.<br><br> To plant crops, they plowed the rich soil of river valleys. They dug ditches for irrigation. Many of the plants that they were the first to grow are now staples throughout the world.<br><br> These included corn, beans, and vegetables. 1. What led to settlements becoming permanent?<br><br> ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Building Cities (page 128) How did Montreal adapt to cold weather? Where a city is built and how it grows depends a great deal on physical setting. Landscape, climate, are important.<br><br> So are the availability of water and natural resources. Human-Environment Interaction Montreal, Quebec, is Canada 9s second largest city and a major port. Early French explorers liked Montreal 9s location.<br><br> It is located on a large island where the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers meet. The French built a permanent settlement there in 1642.<br><br> To make the city 9s severe winters more livable, people went inside and underground. In fact, large areas of Montreal of have been developed underground. These include a network of shops and restaurants.<br><br> Los Angeles has a mild climate year-round, unlike Montreal. It also has a good location on the Pacific Coast. Hundreds of thousands of people began pouring into this once small Spanish settlement by the early 1900s.<br><br> During the 1980s, Los Angeles became the second most populous city in the United States. Rapid growth brought problems. These included air pollution, inadequate water supplies, and construction on earthquake-threatened land.<br><br> Los Angeles now covers about 469 square miles. 2. What do the locations of these two cities have in common?<br><br> ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Overcoming Distances (pages 128 3130) What connects the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean? Some of the early people who came across the land bridge cut trails to the east. Others followed the Pacific Coast south toward warmer climates.<br><br> Still others remained in the northwest, in what are now Alaska and northern Canada. Later, the Europeans came. They set up colonies along the Atlantic Coast.<br><br> Then, they moved inland. As they did, they carved overland trails, such as the National and Wilderness roads and the Oregon and Santa Fe trails. They also used inland waterways, such as the Mississippi and Ohio rivers.<br><br> To connect bodies of water, they built canals. The Erie Canal across upstate New York opened in 1825. It was the first navigable water link between the Atlantic and the Great Lakes.<br><br> North America 9s most important deepwater ship route 4the St. Lawrence Seaw a y 4was completed in the 1950s. The seaway connects the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean by way of the St.<br><br> Lawrence River. Ships are raised and lowered some 600 feet by a series of loc ks . These are sections of the waterway with closed gates where water levels are raised or lowered.<br><br> Railroad building began in North America in the early 19th century. Many of the continent 9s physical features presented natural barriers. Railroad workers had to cut down forests, build bridges, and blast tunnels through mountains to make way.<br><br> The first transcontinental railroad across the United States was completed in 1869. A trans-Canada railroad was completed in 1885. These railroads promoted economic development and national unity as they went.<br><br> Before the railroads came, there were roads that connected towns and cities. Today, both the United States and Canada have extensive roadway systems. The Trans-Canada Highway is Canada 9s primary roadway.<br><br> It stretches about 4,860 miles. In the United States, the Interstate Highway System is a 46,000-mile network of highways that crisscross the country. 3.<br><br> What spurred road building in the 20th century? ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Copyright © McDougal Littell Inc. The United States and Canada: Human-Environment Interaction continued 50 CHAPTER 5 SECTION 3<br><br>