Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Module Description and Purpose Cognitive Development in Early Childhood is designed to provide the module participant with the basic theoretical information needed to develop a sound working knowledge base of cognition as its relationship to those processes, practices, skills and dispositions needed by professionals in early care and education settings. The module will cover information related to cognitive development during the developmental period from the prenatal period thru age five years. Those engaged in the module 9s activities will experience a variety of learning experiences as they build their knowledge base of cognitive development.
Activities are designed to have the participant become actively engaged in the learning process while mastering the information. Emphasis is given to both theoretical knowledge as well as practical application of theory to real life situations. The Standards of the National Association of Educators of Young Children serve as the core knowledge base for the development of this module.
Module Theme Understanding cognitive development of young children is an essential knowledge base for all professionals involved in early care and education. While it is imperative that such professionals develop a sound knowledge base of development from conception thru the early childhood years, it ... more. less.
is equally important that they understand the nature of their role in enhancing the intellectual skills of young children. Biological, socioemotional and cognitive processes contribute significantly to children 9s development.<br><br> While biological processes reflect growth and changes in the child 9s physical development, socioemotional processes relate to changes in the child 9s relationships with other people, changes in emotional matters, and development of personality. Cognitive processes encompass the young child 9s development in thought processes, intelligence and language. Cognitive processes involve a wide range of activities from the localization of sound, the infant 9s first words, memorization of the alphabet, and pretending to be a scary monster.<br><br> All of these activities reflect the role of cognition in the young child 9s growth and development. MODULE OBJECTIVES The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will& Related NAEYC Standards Related Module Assessments understand the stages of cognitive development from conception through early childhood and the factors influencing each stage. recognize the developmental milestones of cognition from the period of birth thru early childhood.<br><br> 1a, 1b, 1c Session I Discussion Board Questions Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Major Presentation understand the key principles of Jean Piaget as they relate to early childhood. apply the basic premises of Piagetian theory when designing developmentally appropriate cognitive experiences for young children. 1a, 1b, 1c Session II Discussion Board Questions Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Major Presentation understand the key principles of Vygotsky 9s Cognitive Development Theory as it relates to early childhood.<br><br> apply the basic premises of Vygotsky Cognitive Development Theory when designing developmentally appropriate cognitive experiences for young children. 1a, 1b, 1c Session III Discussion Board Questions Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Major Presentation develop a plan for the informal assessment of a young child 9s cognitive skills. describe the various assessment strategies, both formal and informal, for evaluating a young child 9s intellectual skills.<br><br> 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d Session IV Discussion Board Questions Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Major Presentation implement strategies for conducting an informal observation of a young child. identify various informal observation instruments and their suitability for use with young children. 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d Session V Discussion Board Questions Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Major Presentation understand factors relevant to planning a sound educational lesson based upon the young child 9s cognitive and intellectual developmental level.<br><br> design and implement an educational intervention strategy based upon the young child 9s cognitive and intellectual readiness. 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d Session VI Discussion Board Questions Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Major Presentation demonstrate a sound knowledge base of psychological learning processes related to information processing, remembering and 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d Session VII Discussion Board Questions Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Major Presentation learning. prepare intervention strategies that are designed to enhance the young child 9s information processing skills, including memory and learning.<br><br> recognize the characteristics of young children with atypical cognitive development. The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will design educational intervention strategies for young children with cognitively related disabilities. 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d Session VIII Discussion Board Questions Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Major Presentation NAEYC Standards for Initial Licensure Programs Standard 1.<br><br> Promoting Child Development and Learning 1a: Knowing and understanding young children 9s characteristics and needs 1b: Knowing and understanding the multiple influences on development and learning 1c: Using developmental knowledge to create healthy, respectful, supportive, and challenging learning environments Standard 2. Building Family and Community Relationships 2a: Knowing about and understanding family and community characteristics 2b: Supporting and empowering families and communities through respectful, reciprocal Relationships 2c: Involving families and communities in their children 9s development and learning Standard 3. Observing, Documenting, and Assessing to Support Young Children and Families 3a: Understanding the goals, benefits, and uses of assessment 3b: Knowing about and using observation, documentation, and other appropriate assessment tools and approaches 3c: Understanding and practicing responsible assessment 3d: Knowing about assessment partnerships with families and other professionals Standard 4.<br><br> Teaching and Learning 4a: Knowing, understanding, and using positive relationships and supportive interactions 4b: Knowing, understanding, and using effective approaches, strategies, and tools for early education 4c: Knowing and understanding the importance, central concepts, inquiry tools, and structures of content areas or academic disciplines 4d: Using own knowledge and other resources to design, implement, and evaluate meaningful, challenging curriculum to promote positive outcomes Standard 5. Becoming a Professional 5a: Identifying and involving oneself with the early childhood field 5b: Knowing about and upholding ethical standards and other professional guidelines 5c: Engaging in continuous, collaborative learning to inform practice 5d: Integrating knowledgeable, reflective, and critical perspectives on early education 5e: Engaging in informed advocacy for children and the profession Session I Session Objective: The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will understand the stages of cognitive development from conception through early childhood and the factors influencing each stage. The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will recognize the developmental milestones of cognition from the period of birth thru early childhood.<br><br> Framework of Session Content: Experts recognize that the early years of a child's life are crucial for cognitive, social and emotional development. Consequently, it is imperative that professionals in Early Care and Education take every step necessary to ensure that children grow up in environments where their social, emotional and educational needs are met. The purpose of this module is to focus on the development of Cognition.<br><br> Cognition is the study of intellect and factors related to intelligence. There are far reaching and significant implications when children experience less than optimal development in their cognitive development. Not only is the cost to society high but their wide reaching implications for the child and his/her family.<br><br> Children who experience environmental conditions not meeting their developmental needs are at an increased risk for learning related disorders. Early Care and Education professionals play a key role in developing safe, loving, and secure environments that nurture young children 9s cognitive development. Failure to understand the importance of various influences on cognitive development during the early years places our children at great risk with long term effects on both the child 9s educational and psychological needs.<br><br> Children grow, develop, and learn throughout their lives from birth on through adulthood. A child 9s intellectual development can be studied through social, physical, and cognitive developmental milestones. Failing to develop at a normal rate as evidenced by their reaching certain identifiable cognitive milestones, is an important indicator of possible learning related difficulties.<br><br> However, Early Care and Education professionals can collaborate with parents and other professionals to work together as partners to monitor the child 9s progress as various cognitive developmental milestones are attained. Suggested Questions for Discussion Board 1. As an Early Care and Education Teacher what could you do to contribute to the normal development of a young child 9s intellect?<br><br> 2. What two things could you do as an Early Care and Education Teacher to build collaborative relationships with parents? Session II Session Objective: The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will understand the key principles of Jean Piaget as they relate to early childhood.<br><br> The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will apply the basic premises of Piagetian theory when designing developmentally appropriate cognitive experiences for young children. Framework of Session Content: Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget laid the theoretical framework for Cognitive Constructivism. There are two major components of Piagetian theory: one of the components presents a hierarchy of what children can and cannot understand at various developmental levels; the second principle describes Piaget 9s ideas of how children develop cognitive abilities.<br><br> Piaget theorized that children cannot just be given information which they will immediately use and understand. Rather, he believed, that children must first cconstruct d their own knowledge. Knowledge is cbuilt d through the young child 9s experiences.<br><br> These experiences then allow children to develop cschemas d or cmental models d in their own minds. Schemas are modified, expanded upon, and made more sophisticated through the process of assimilation and accommodation. Piaget described assimilation as the process by which the child incorporates experiences into his/her mind through the development of schemas.<br><br> More specifically, the child takes information that he gains while exploring new objects and employs existing schemas or develops new ones to make the new object fit. For example, a young child has a friendly, lovable cat at home. While visiting one of her friends, the child encounters the friend 9s cat.<br><br> Having had joyful experiences with her own cat, the young child eagerly reaches out to become friends with the new cat. Information from past experiences has been formulated into the child 9s schema and guides the child 9s thinking with her new experience. Accommodation, according to Piaget, is the change that occurs in one 9s existing schema when the new experience does not cfit d the previously developed schema.<br><br> The child tries to apply the familiar schema to the new situation, but finds that it does not fit the new situation. For example, when visiting her friend and seeing that the new cat hisses and arches its back, the child then develops a new schema to fit the new experience. Piaget postulated four stages of cognitive development: The Sensory Motor Period, The Preoperational Period, The Concrete Operations Period, and The Period of Formal Operations.<br><br> According to Piaget, there are several important underlying assumptions to consider: " Stages are sequential with each stage laying the foundation for the next " Children progress through the same stages in same sequence " Each stage is qualitatively different from the others " Children are active learners Piaget 9s stages of cognitive development may be summarized as follows: Stage Age Characteristics of Stage Sensorimotor 0 32 Children learn by doing: looking, touching, sucking. They have a primitive understanding of cause-and-effect relationships. Object permanence appears around 9 months.<br><br> Preoperational 2 37 Children use language and symbols (letters and numbers). Egocentrism is also evident. Concrete 7 3 Children demonstrate conservation, reversibility, serial ordering, Stage Age Characteristics of Stage Operations 11 and a mature understanding of cause-and-effect relationships.<br><br> Formal Operations 12+ Children demonstrate abstract thinking, including logic, deductive reasoning, comparison, and classification. Suggested Questions for Discussion Board 1. Discuss one of the basic premises of Piagetian Theory and explain how it relates to planning educational activities.<br><br> 2. What are the indications that a young child is developing and moving from the Sensorimotor Stage to the Preoperational Stage? Session III Session Objective: The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will understand the key principles of Vygotsky 9s Cognitive Development Theory as it relates to early childhood.<br><br> The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will apply the basic premises of Vygotsky Cognitive Development Theory when designing developmentally appropriate cognitive experiences for young children. Framework of Session Content: Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky 9s Social Cognition Learning Model presented the theory that culture is the prime determinant of an individual 9s cognitive development. The social cognition learning model asserts that culture is the prime determinant of individual development.<br><br> Humans are the only species to have created culture, and every human child develops in the context of a culture. Therefore, a child's learning development is affected in ways large and small by the culture--including the culture of family environment--in which he or she is enmeshed. Vygotsky believed that a child 9s cognitive development is ultimately affected by the culture in which the child is enmeshed.<br><br> It is through culture that the young child acquires much of the content of his/her thinking. This information results in the child 9s cknowledge d. The surrounding culture provides the child with the processes or means of their thinking or cintellectual adaptation d.<br><br> In essence, the Social Cognition Model states that culture teaches children both what to think as well as how to think. Through problem solving experiences shared with another person, often a parent or teacher, a dialectical process takes place resulting in the development of the young child 9s intellect. According to Vygotsky 9s model, initial learning occurs by the teacher or parent assuming responsibility for guiding problem solving.<br><br> However, this responsibility slowly shifts to the child. Vygotsky recognized that language was a primary form of interaction through which the teacher or parent transmits knowledge from the culture to the child. Later, the child 9s own language comes to serve as his/her primary tool of intellectual adaptation.<br><br> The child 9s inner language, the language that one cthinks d with, then serves as the primary tool of intellectual adaptation. The Social Cognition Model theorizes that children learn to use their inner language to direct their own behavior. It is primarily through language that the process of internalization, also referred to as the process of learning, takes place.<br><br> An interesting concept presented by Vygotsky is the principle of the Zone of Proximal Development. This czone d is better thought of as the difference between what the child can do on his/her own and what the child can do with help. It is that area of learning where the child has mastery of certain level of information as compared with the knowledge that they have not yet learned.<br><br> Another way of conceptualizing the cZone of Proximal Development is to think of that material which the child has learned as compared with what material he is developmentally ready to learn. The Zone of Proximal Development indicates the body of knowledge that the parent of adult should be prepared to next teach the child. Finally, Vygotsky emphasizes the importance of not focusing on the child in isolation.<br><br> Rather, the social implications of learning are of considerable importance. Since a considerable body of the child 9s knowledge comes from the surrounding culture of the child, it is important to focus on the child 9s interactions with his/her surrounding culture and social agents, such as parents, peers and siblings. Suggested Questions for Discussion Board 1.<br><br> Discuss the influence of the child 9s social environment and its impact upon the child 9s cognitive development. 2. Describe an activity that you would utilize with young children that reflects the basic tenants of Vygotsky 9s Social Cognition Model.<br><br> Session IV Session Objective: The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will develop a plan for the informal assessment of a young child 9s cognitive skills. The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will describe the various assessment strategies, both formal and informal, for evaluating a young child 9s intellectual skills. Framework of Session Content: This module will focus on the purposes and types of assessments of student learning used in early childhood settings.<br><br> Bloom 9s Taxonomy will be used as a conceptual framework to discuss traditional, alternative, and authentic assessment. The basic context/format of the module is learning through cooperation and collaboration. As Early Care and Education candidates, participants will actively engage in the manufacture of knowledge through a series of cooperative learning exercises, large and small group discussion, student lead-discussions, peer teaching and problem-based learning activities The National Association for the Education of Young Children recognizes the importance of assessment as an integral part of all early childhood education.<br><br> Designing and selecting ethical, appropriate, valid and reliable measures are crucial elements of the assessment process. NAEYC (http://www.nasponline.org/about_nasp/pospaper_eca.aspx) presents the corollary that cIn order to assess the young child 9s strengths, progress and needs, Early Care and Education Teachers must be prepared to utilize assessment procedures that are developmentally appropriate, culturally and linguistically responsive, appropriate, culturally and linguistically responsive, tied to children 9s daily activities, supported by professional development, inclusive of families, and connected to specific, beneficial purposes: (1) making sound decisions about teaching and learning, (2) identifying significant concerns that may require focused intervention for individual children, and (3) helping programs improve their educational and developmental interventions. d Suggested Questions for Discussion Board 1. Why would it be helpful to read a psychological report of an assessment conducted on a young child?<br><br> 2. What components would comprise a comprehensive informal assessment of a young child? Session V Session Objective: The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will implement strategies for conducting an informal observation of a young child.<br><br> The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will identify various informal observation instruments and their suitability for use with young children. Framework of Session Content: Observational techniques are an integral component of conducting a comprehensive assessment of young children. The purpose of assessment is to collect information relevant to decision making regarding the developmental and educational needs of young children.<br><br> The enhancement of opportunities for optimal cognitive development, growth, and learning can be significantly improved through appropriate observation techniques. The determination of a young child 9s cognitive developmental and corresponding educational needs provides the Early Care and Education Teacher with crucial information for planning individual and program goals. The observation of young children and their environment provides the Early Care and Education Teacher with answers to such questions as: Is the child developing cognitively in ways that are appropriate for his/her age?<br><br> Does the young child utilize age-appropriate problem solving skills? Is the young child 9s cognitive development on pace with other children his/her age? What types of environmental stimuli appear to appeal to the young child?<br><br> Does the young child 9s educational environment provide the child with enrichment opportunities for cognitive growth? Does the child 9s home environment nurture intellectual development? Accurate observation involves a planned, comprehensive, systematic evaluation technique for collecting information through the process of watching children as they interact within their environment.<br><br> It is an especially valuable technique for effectively teaching young children. The observer may develop his/her own instrument or, perhaps, choose from an array of professionally prepared observation instruments. Typical child observation involves analysis of the young child 9s interactions in the cognitive, affective, and motoric domains.<br><br> Thru the recording of observations in areas such as language, student behaviors, responses to the teacher and peers, intellectually related activities, and social interactions, the observer is able to gather highly relevant information pertinent to the needs of the young child. Observation also plays a key role in the identification and assessment of children being considered for receiving special education services. The earliest stage of the eligibility process begins with the Early Care and Education Teacher participating in a screening assessment of the young child to determine whether the child should be referred for Special Education assessment.<br><br> Observation also plays an important role in determining a young child 9s eligibility for special education services by answering such questions as: Does the child have a specific disability? Does the child meet the Georgia State Department of Education 9s eligibility criteria? What are the young child 9s strengths?<br><br> How does the child 9s disability impact his/her learning? Programmatic decisions also rely on accurate observational assessment. What are the child 9s deficits?<br><br> How may we use the child 9s strengths to meet his/her needs? What academic goals and short term objectives should be established? What should be taught next to the child?<br><br> What assistive technology might be employed? Once educational intervention has been undertaken, programmatic monitoring may begin. Again, observation of the child plays a key role in monitoring the child 9s progress.<br><br> Is the pace of instruction appropriate for the child 9s needs? What did the child know prior to and after the instruction? What cognitive strategies and concepts does the child employ while learning?<br><br> Is the intervention program successfully meeting the child 9s needs? Observation strategies require methods that are both reliable and valid in nature. At the same time, the Early Care and Education Teacher must take into consideration factors related to the child 9s diversity.<br><br> Appropriate observational strategies of both the child and his/her environment play a crucial role in the overall assessment paradigm. Suggested Questions for Discussion Board 1. What factors should be included in a comprehensive plan for the observation of a young child 9s cognitive development?<br><br> 2. Why is it important to observe a young child in a variety of settings? Session VI Session Objective: The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will understand factors relevant to planning a sound educational lesson based upon the young child 9s cognitive and intellectual developmental level.<br><br> The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will design and implement an educational intervention strategy based upon the young child 9s cognitive and intellectual readiness. Framework of Session Content: cWhat children learn does not follow as an automatic result from what is taught. Rather, it is in large part due to the children 9s own doing as a consequence of their activities and our resources. d ~ Loris Malaguzzi, Reggio Emilia, Italy Among the many factors influencing a child 9s cognitive development are those related to his/her overall wellness.<br><br> Dimensions of wellness include: Social Wellness, Spiritual Wellness, Emotional Wellness, Intellectual Wellness, Physical Wellness, and Psychosocial Wellness. Each of these areas of wellness impacts upon the young child 9s cognitive and intellectual development. Of primary concern is that Early Care and Education Teachers recognize the impact of successful educational intervention and planning when designing programs for young children.<br><br> Teaching young children begins with an understanding of empirically based pedagogical research. Additionally, sound lesson planning is based on a number of factors, including what research tells us, the application of developmental theories, professional expertise, plus the art of teaching. Sound lesson planning also includes designing instruction that is developmentally appropriate and constructivist in nature.<br><br> At the same time, there may be educational opportunities that are best presented through direct instruction. Lessons that are most effective are ones that lead to positive learning outcomes while providing a balance of learner-initiated, teacher guided play as well as cooperative small group and large group activities. Research indicates that teacher supported learning is especially effective within the realm of children 9s play.<br><br> When planning the play environment, the Early Care and Education Teacher provides choices and alternative play activities. It is especially important that activities be planned that stimulate the young children by developing and building upon their interests. One of the keys to successful planning is for the teacher to be knowledgeable of what things stimulate young children 9s interests.<br><br> Lessons planned around children 9s interests are more likely to maintain their attention and interest level. It is also important that lessons be planned that will allow young children to experience success. Success breeds learning.<br><br> Being aware of the young child 9s frustration tolerance level is also an important ingredient of successful lesson planning. Fostering cognitive growth and development is the result of systematic, well-planned instruction based upon sound empirical theories proven by research. Effective programming is based upon the belief that children be viewed as resourceful, competent, creative, intelligent, imaginative, and curious about the world around them.<br><br> An important prerequisite to learning is that a supportive learning environment be established. All children should feel both physically and emotionally safe in school. As professionals, it is the role of the Early Care and Education Teacher to develop and maintain such an atmosphere.<br><br> The creation of a supportive learning community is of vital importance for nurturing the cognitive and intellectual growth of young children. An educational environment that offers beauty, a sense of well-being, comfort and complexity should be developed in parallel with emotional qualities of reflectiveness, openness, light, and harmony. The Reggio philosophy also conveys to children and parents that their presence is valued and respected.<br><br> Suggested Activities and Module Assignments: 1. What factors must be considered when planning a developmentally appropriate instructional lesson? 2.<br><br> How do the various dimensions of wellness influence a young child 9s cognitive development? Session VII Session Objective: The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will demonstrate a sound knowledge base of psychological learning processes related to information processing, remembering and learning. The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will prepare intervention strategies that are designed to enhance the young child 9s information processing skills, including memory and learning.<br><br> Framework of Content Session: Cognitive theorists view the young child as a purposeful and deliberate participant who actively engages in the learning process. The Information Processing Model emphasizes the importance of how the young child 9s central nervous system perceives information. Both auditory and visual perception are important processes that the brain engages in at an automatic level of functioning.<br><br> Visual discrimination involves learning processes such as discrimination, figure-ground, closure, proximity, similarity and memory. Auditory perceptual processing includes similar functions to visual perception. Of considerable importance to cognitive development are those processes related to memory.<br><br> The Multistore Model of information processing is also referred to as the three-port processing system. The first stage of the Multistore Model is that of the sensory register. The sensory register filters the many, many stimuli that our central nervous system is bombarded with on a regular basis.<br><br> The function of this first stage of information processing is to delimit what our brain processes in an attempt to sort out relevant stimuli from those that are irrelevant. The sensory register 9s receptors gather only that information which is to enter through our senses. Only that information that we can see, smell, hear, or touch is allowed in.<br><br> Thus, when learning to read, young children must be able to recognize those words that are comprised of discrete phonemes which are combined into words. A child 9s attention to sound units begins in the sensory register. After briefly being held in the sensory register, information is then passed along to the second stage of the Multistore Model, short term memory.<br><br> Short term memory is also referred to as cworking memory d. It is here that information is held only long enough to be used. Short term memory allows us to use information without it becoming a part of our permanent memory storage.<br><br> Research has demonstrated that short term memory 9s storage capacity limited and developmental in nature; being relatively brief in very young children. The third port of the Multistore Model is long term memory which is a permanent storage facility. Long term memory appears to be unlimited in capacity with memories lasting indefinitely.<br><br> The processes of rehearsal and elaboration are used by the brain to move information from short term to long term memory. Suggested Questions for Discussion Board 1. Describe an activity that you would use to foster the development of a young child 9s short term and long term memory.<br><br> 2. How does a young child 9s auditory and visual perceptual skills effect his/her cognitive development? Session VIII Session Objective: The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate recognize the characteristics of young children with atypical cognitive development.<br><br> The Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate will design educational intervention strategies for young children with cognitively related disabilities. Framework of Content Session: A variety of cognitive based disabilities have been identified. It is especially important that the Early Care and Education Teacher Candidate develops a thorough understanding of the possible problems that may encounter the cognitive development of young children.<br><br> According to the American Association of Mental Retardation (1992): Mental retardation refers to substantial limitations in present functioning. It is characterized by significantly subaverage intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more areas of the following applicable adaptive skills areas: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self- direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work. Mental retardation manifests before age 18.<br><br> (AAMR Ad Hoc Committee on Terminology and Classification, 1992, p.5). The Georgia State Department of Education refers to mental retardation as Intellectual Disabilities with the following classification system: Category IQ Range Mild Intellectual Disability 55-70 Moderate Intellectual Disability 40-55 Severe Intellectual Disability 25-40 Profound Intellectual Disability Below 25 Specific Learning Disabilities is defined by the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act as: A disorder in 1 or more of the basic psychological learning processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. Such term includes such conditions as perceptual disorders, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.<br><br> Such term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. (IDEA Improvement Act of 2004, H>R> 1350, Sec. 60230).<br><br> A third major category of disabilities effecting young children is that of Significant Developmental Delays (SDD). The Georgia Department of Education website states: The term significant developmental delay refers to a delay in a child's development in adaptive behavior, cognition, communication, motor development or social development to the extent that, if not provided with special intervention, it may adversely affect his/her educational performance in age-appropriate activities. The term does not apply to children who are experiencing a slight or temporary lag in one or more areas of development, or a delay which is primarily due to environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage or lack of experience in age appropriate activities.<br><br> The SDD eligibility may be used for children from ages three through seven, and in no instance later than the end of the school year in which the child turns eight. (refer to 34 CFR 300.7(b)(1) and (2)) Suggested Questions for Discussion Board 1. How does Mental Retardation differ from Specific Learning Disabilities?<br><br> 2. Why is it difficult to make an accurate psychological diagnosis in young children? Module Assignments 1.<br><br> Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Presentation Each student will design a PowerPoint presentation focusing upon an area of cognitive development. Your presentation should focus on one particular stage of cognitive development with two developmentally appropriate educational activities. The educational activities must be your own ideas and not ones that you have copied from another source.<br><br> Each presentation will be 20-30 minutes in length and will include handouts for the class members. The following rubric will be used when scoring the Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Presentations: (See Attached Rubric) Suggested Textbook: Santrock, J.W., (2008). Children.<br><br> Boston: McGraw Hill. Suggested Supplementary Textbook: Ormrod, J.E., (2008). Educational Psychology, Developing Learners 6 th Edition.<br><br> NewYork: Pearson/Prentice Hall.