The Man Who Heard His Colors Sing: How Music Aided Wassily Kandinsky in Achieving Spiritual Art Liren Jessica Truong 1 Abstract Wassily Kandinsky has always been seen as the abstract artist who cmusicalized d the world of painting, but this essay explores to what extent music influenced Kandinsky 9s artistic theories and how he employed music in his art to achieve spirituality. In the execution of this investigation, several books and other resources devoted to Kandinsky and his works were consulted. Articles found online were also used to supplement the study.
This information was then processed and analyzed in the context of the research question. In a time where materialism was celebrated, Wassily Kandinsky became attracted to Theosophy, a philosophy that focused on improving the human condition through spirituality. Kandinsky believed he could bring about these improvements through the creation of abstract art in touch with the spiritual after being inspired by a series of personal experiences and exposure to avant-garde artistic ideas.
Music provided the language he needed to do so. Because music is naturally abstract with little representation of objects in the real world, it was seen by Kandinsky to be the most spiritual of the arts. Consequently, he modeled ... more. less.
his artistic theories after composers who created atonal and dissonant music that abstracted music even further.<br><br> Kandinsky also found inspiration in the developing jazz movement. The lively rhythms and improvised sections appealed to him because they were so liberating to the soul. Although he drew much from the language of music, Kandinsky was eventually able to develop a dialect unique to art with its visual properties of form, color, and composition.<br><br> His theories on how abstract art can be employed to convey spirituality using these properties were delineated in his book, Concerning the Spiritual in Art . Thus, not only did Wassily Kandinsky employ music to express the metaphysical, but he also succeeded in developing a language unique to art that departed from its musical origins. 2 Introduction Wassily Kandinsky was a man who lived in an age of constant change with revolutions and new discoveries.<br><br> In the early parts of his life, there was great political turmoil in Russia after the eradication of serfdom in 1861 and the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881. Along with a shifting sense of social balance in Europe, startling developments in art were also occurring, such as the advancement of photography and the rise of Secessionism (Rapelli 10-11). Kandinsky was inspired by this spirit of restlessness, revolt, and innovation so he sought to reform the world through art by protesting against the materialism present in his society and emphasis on positivistic philosophy, which rejected knowledge acquired from the metaphysical (Rapelli 8).<br><br> When studying the development of Kandinsky 9s theories, it is important to examine what incited his desire to produce a more spiritual art, or works in tune with the psychological and emotional conditions of humankind. However, it is also interesting to investigate what impact music had on this art. Although Kandinsky 9s work is often seen as a cmusicalization d of painting through the borrowed use of musical properties, Kandinsky was really trying to achieve the pure expression that music possessed and the creation of an artistic language.<br><br> By using music as a starting point for the creation of such a language, he was able to liberate painting from being a banal imitation of life. Early Influences Although he had a late start in the art world at thirty years old, Kandinsky was already fascinated with the spiritual while studying law at Moscow University. The liberal Russian Peasant Law, which ruled according to the nature of the individual, prompted him to develop more abstract thoughts (Rapelli 12).<br><br> His experiences in the remote province of Vologda also aroused his spiritual interests. Commissioned by a Russian organization in 1889, Kandinsky 3 travelled to Vologda to examine the culture of the Finnish Zyrians. He was astonished to find the religion of the Zyrians had noticeable pagan and Christian influences, two faiths normally at odds.<br><br> Here, Kandinsky began to perceive life in terms of clashing and blending, which would later direct his interest for the combination of the arts (Golding 82). As Kandinsky delved deeper into the art world, he became drawn to the work of Secessionists, who desired to break away from academic painting, and the Symbolists, who sought to convey messages through the use of chighly symbolized language d ( cAustria d; cSymbolist d). He especially admired Russian symbolism because it valued the spirituality he sought by emphasizing the healing properties of art (Golding 83).<br><br> Impressionism In 1896, Kandinsky encountered what would become one of the most influential works on his development. While visiting the Impressionist Exhibition in Moscow, he was captivated by Claude Monet 9s Haystacks. Kandinsky was so enthralled by its deviation from substance that he stated the piece gave him cthe first doubt & about the importance of the object as a necessary element in a picture, d producing his first spark of abstractionism (qtd.<br><br> in Rapelli 16). Kandinsky later altered his brushwork to allow the force of color to be the primary focus of his works, modeling himself after the Fauves who greatly impressed him with their Neo-impressionist style and ideas of color theory during his time in Paris in 1906 (Golding 86). It was from these influences that Kandinsky took the first steps towards art that left behind the material and ventured into the spiritual, as seen in Kochel 3 Waterfall I , which Kandinsky completed in 1900.<br><br> The impressionist style clearly emerges as he uses short strokes of paint to create forms and chooses more unusual colors so the painting shifts emphasis from realism to the expressive quality of the vibrant colors. In one single section alone of Kandinsky 9s piece, streaks of orange, 4 ochel Waterfall , 1900. Oil on canvas, 32.4 x 23.5 cm.<br><br> Städtische Galerie in Lenbachhaus, Munich, Germany. http://www.russianavantgard.com/Artists/kan dinsky/kandinsky_kochel_waterfall.html green, blue, black, red, yellow, and white are set against each other 3 a technique that Kandinsky would refine throughout his career. His beginnings in abstraction can also be seen in the nebulous background and lack of strong outlines between objects.<br><br> Nevertheless, Kandinsky had only begun his journey to abstraction since he was still bound to semi-realistic forms during this time. Richard Wagner Kandinsky also much spent time in Germany throughout his life where he discovered the idea of synthetisme , the interrelationships between the arts (Golding 83-84). This was closely related to a phenomenon popularized by the French Symbolists called csynaesthesia, d which was the spontaneous association between sensations so that one stimulus, such as sight, would trigger a different sensation, such as hearing a sound.<br><br> Kandinsky experienced this sensation firsthand when he attended a performance of Lohengrin , an opera composed by Richard Wagner, at the Court Theatre in Moscow in 1896 (Dabrowski 82). It was during this great synthesis of sound and color that Kandinsky saw cwild, almost crazed lines d and discovered that cthe arts in general possessed a far greater power than [he] had ever imagined d to develop a compelling grip on their audiences and invoke images (qtd. in Röthel 22).<br><br> Kandinsky became convinced that music was superior to visual art because music 9s inherent abstract nature lent itself easily to expressing the spiritual (Röthel 22). Abstraction became 5 equivalent with spirituality for Kandinsky because worldly creations were no longer the focus with this style; instead, the emotions and thoughts evoked by the piece became central to the work. With this, he labored to cultivate his art into something that could attain spirituality as ably as music.<br><br> Stage Compositions Kandinsky also became interested in Wagner 9s idea of a cgesamtkunstwerk, d or a total work of art, that would incorporate language, music, and the visual arts as crucial elements in an opera (Dabrowski 82). Over his lifetime, Kandinsky drafted three stage compositions; however, only Der Gelbe Klang ( The Yellow Sound ) was published. This forty-five minute piece was inspired by Kandinsky 9s desire to develop ca theatre of the future&free of 8external action 9 or plot d so that true spirituality could be achieved (qtd.<br><br> in Tassel). Comprised of a prelude and six parts driven by fanciful characters, this play depicts the struggle to gain spiritual knowledge through the combination of sensual stimuli (Long 60). His ideas on stage compositions were influenced by composers he admired, such as Russian Still from a digital animation of Der Gelbe Klang ( The Yellow Sound ), 1912.<br><br> http://www.glopad.org/glopad/images/new/gid3/cmo1004283/target/yellowso und.html 6 composer Alexander Scriabin. Kandinsky was amazed at how Scriabin coordinated the lighting and music in his play Prometheus so that they would enhance each other (Long 58). Thomas von Hartmann, another Russian composer, was also greatly influential with his employment of dissonance (unpleasant chords) in music, which he thought was a more forceful means of expression than consonance (pleasant chords) and would evoke a stronger reaction in his audience.<br><br> In fact, Kandinsky collaborated with von Hartmann to compose the music for The Yellow Sound and purposely created unusual sound combinations to shock listeners (Long 63). By employing discord, Kandinsky defied antiquated nineteenth century ideas and focused on the conflict and disharmony of his current era which he felt compelled to reflect along with the attainment of spirituality (Long 54). Kandinsky believed this amalgamation of multiple arts in their pure, abstract form in a cgesamtkunstwerk d to be the most effective means of involving his audience and the most direct way to communicate spirituality.<br><br> He believed that the synthesis of multiple arts would create a stronger cspiritual vibration d within people which would develop and refine the human soul (Long 52-53). Arnold Schoenberg Even though Wagner was his initial musical inspiration, the Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg revived Kandinsky 9s interest in music with his performance of Second String Quartet in 1911. The atonality (lack of a musical center around a key) of Schoenberg 9s work left such a lasting impact that Kandinsky painted Impression III (Concert) after attending the performance.<br><br> In his initial sketch of this piece a piano, a chandelier, and a small audience can be seen as well as a sense of linear perspective, but the final product is completely abstracted and the viewer gains a clear sense of what Kandinsky was trying to achieve. As the source of the music, the black form, which is meant to be the piano, is large and stable. Meanwhile, the yellow 7 csound d flows out from the piano.<br><br> It seems to float through the air and fluidly surrounds the audience members in the lower left. The yellow culminates in a fiery orb caught in between the red-orange of the orchestra and the cool blue of the area behind the piano. Although the form and movement of the yellow is soft, the loud color conveys the excitement and spirituality that Kandinsky felt at Schoenberg 9s concert.<br><br> It is easy to see how color is used to imitate the sensation of music in this piece, but Impression III (Concert) still does not demonstrate the full spiritual language that Kandinsky believed art was able to possess. At this point, he was still bound to mimicking music and relying on images of objects to convey his message; however, Kandinsky would refine his ideas as his relationship with Schoenberg progressed. In a time where artists and musicians embraced radical ideas and new modes of expression, Kandinsky found a companion in Arnold Schoenberg because he saw how similar their goals were.<br><br> Kandinsky was struggling against academic art and the Realism of the nineteenth century by creating abstract works, while Schoenberg worked to break free from his Classical and Romantic roots to develop a modern style of music that was vehemently rejected by many critics (Schoenberg). The two men soon began close friends and colleagues, even though much of their contact was through missives. (Dabrowski 80).<br><br> Aside from Schoenberg 9s Impression III (Concert) , 1911. Oil on canvas, 77.5 x 100 cm. Städtische Galerie in Lenbachhaus, Munich, Germany.<br><br> http://www.abcgallery.com/K/kandinsky/kandinsky70.html 8 use of atonality, Kandinsky was attracted to his utilization of chromaticism, which was the use of all twelve notes on the chromatic scale. Kandinsky felt that this idea paralleled his own color theory since he emphasized the importance of each chromatic value of color. Schoenberg also believed in the principle that there was no real difference between consonances and dissonances because dissonances were simply consonances that were further apart.<br><br> This theory of the cemancipation of dissonance d enabled Schoenberg to create more complex rhythms, patterns, and structures to his work. Kandinsky translated this idea into his paintings by juxtaposing various colors and shapes to create cacophonous works. Kandinsky also rejected traditional systems of composition by eliminating hierarchical systems, giving equal emphasis to all parts of the work (Dabrowski 82, 87).<br><br> Composition VII best demonstrates this influence from Schoenberg 9s music. From the explosion of various shapes and the multitude of colors emanating from the white area on the right, the forms seem to have no distinct beginning or end but successively mold into each other. This suggests Schoenberg 9s use of a continuous flow of notes with no clear developmental direction, which is characteristic of atonal music.<br><br> Equal distribution of interest throughout the piece and lack of any emphasis on any one area shows Kandinsky 9s rejection of a hierarchical system and speaks to the polyphonic voices of Schoenberg 9s compositions. With the sheer size of this piece (200 x 300 cm) and startling use of color, Composition VII , 1913. Oil on canvas, 200 x 300 cm.<br><br> Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/kandinsky/kandinsky.co mp-7.jpg 9 Kandinsky attempts to bombard the viewer with an immense amount of expressive information which mirrors Schoenberg 9s style of cemancipated dissonances d and lack of a tonal center. This piece is evidence that Kandinsky was finally able to synthesize the insight he gained from music with his own work to create a new language for his art that was unique to painting and no longer a mere imitation of nature or music.<br><br> Nonetheless, Kandinsky continued on his journey to develop work that could speak to the human soul by studying the spiritual properties of art. Theosophy In response to the materialism, atheism, and positivism of his time, Kandinsky turned to Theosophy and focused on spirituality which he believed represented all that was cconscious, aware, purposeful, meaningful d (Algeo). Theosophy is a religious philosophy originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky.<br><br> The three basic ideas of Theosophy are that all pairs of opposites are interrelated and fundamental to creating absolute Oneness, the events of the universe are cyclical, and that consciousness develops through cycles of life to reach a realization of unity. This philosophy also supports the idea that all religions are valid because they all hold some portion of the truth in an attempt to reach cSpiritual Hierarchy d and that individuals should base their beliefs on personal study and experience rather than an acceptance of traditional ideas ( Theosophical Society ). Kandinsky sought to find an art form that expressed these sentiments to replace the naturalistic art of his time that merely presented a superficial interpretation of the world.<br><br> He believed that abstraction inspired by music was the only way to do so because music spoke to the soul most directly without reference to the surrounding world (Dabrowski 80).But instead of a concentration on the aesthetic values of form, color, and technique that many critics argued were the only things that comprised abstract art, Kandinsky held to the idea that abstract art should concentrate on the metaphysical. For example, Kandinsky believed that every line, 10 shape, and color held its own meaning, which corresponds to the Theosophical idea that everything in the universe has meaning and purpose in it. Kandinsky 9s paintings also happen to fall into four stages which are consistent with the four planes of human existence recognized in Theosophy: physical, which were the objective, impressionist paintings done before 1910; emotional, which were the abstract improvisations and compositions done in the 1910s; mental, which were the geometric paintings done from the Bauhaus period in the 1920s; and intuitional, which were the biomorphic paintings from 1930 on.<br><br> The most important Theosophical tenet that Kandinsky held to was the idea of progressivism. He believed art could be an agent for transformation through the utilization of its spiritual qualities (Algeo). To achieve this, Kandinsky drew from the properties of music and developed an artistic language that would be expounded in his book Concerning the Spiritual in Art.<br><br> Concerning the Spiritual in Art As a culmination of his artistic theories, Kandinsky published Concerning the Spiritual in Art in late 1911 (Stratton viii). Many of the principles and ideas laid down in his ground- breaking book explore how the methods of painting parallel many of the elements of music. Kandinsky connects color with the timbre (which is interestingly also known as ctone color d) of a note.<br><br> He states that in music, ca light blue is like a flute, a darker blue a cello; a still darker a thunderous double bass; and the darkest blue of all 3 an organ d (Kandinsky 38). Kandinsky 9s theories may have seemed outlandish to his peers during his time, but in retrospect, the connection seems logical, even natural. To a viewer, a light color would suggest something airy and dainty like the delicate tonality of a flute.<br><br> As a color becomes darker, its presence becomes stronger and deeper holding a more substantial weight than a paler shade. However, colors cannot stand alone without some sort of form or limits (Kandinsky 29). This form parallels the 11 articulation of a sound, whether it is a series of short staccato notes or a string of smooth legato notes slurred together.<br><br> More curved forms, like circles, will naturally suggest rounder and fuller sounds while angular shapes, like triangles, may suggest abrupt and incisive notes. Kandinsky believed that bright colors were more suited to sharp forms (like a yellow triangle) and deep colors with round forms (like a blue circle). Nevertheless, more cunsuitable combinations d of a brightly colored rounded shape or a dark angular shape do not necessarily suggest discord (Kandinsky 29).<br><br> Since there are infinite numbers of color and form pairings, these matches may actually be paths to explore fresh possibilities of harmony 3 just as Schoenberg believed in the idea of dissonances actually being cremoter consonances d (qtd. in Wasserman 18). The composition of a piece is also crucial in its musicality.<br><br> Kandinsky groups compositions into two categories which echo musical styles. The first is the simple composition, which is designed according to a straightforward form. He compared this to a melodic piece of music which is characterized by a focus on one melody.<br><br> The second category is the complex composition, which consists of various forms but abide by a principal structure. Kandinsky believed that since this principal structure would commonly be difficult to grasp outwardly, the composition would intrinsically possess a stronger spiritual value. He considered this a symphonic composition, since a symphonic work of music emphasizes the confluence of many different voices rather than a focus on one line (Kandinsky 56).<br><br> Just as a composer strategically combines each instrument in the orchestra at appropriate intervals, the artist must also coordinate the relationship of one form to another. In developing a composition, an artist considers the overall structure and shape of the piece as well as how each color affects its neighboring colors. This is where Kandinsky 9s color theory becomes increasingly significant.<br><br> By examining Swinging, a piece done by Kandinsky in 1925, the viewer can understand the correlation between color and form that the artist 12 Swinging , 1925. Oil on board, 70.5 x 50.2 cm, Tate Gallery, London, England. http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ViewWork?workid=78 16&tabview=image emphasizes.<br><br> Although the yellow is a bit muddled, it is still a piercing force within this piece since it is held within a triangular form and the blue curves near the bottom right seem to bellow out to the viewer with a deep, yearning sound. Furthermore, the influence of dark and light shades plays an important role in all of Kandinsky 9s pieces. He believed that white was the color of eternal discord but contained possibilities for the future, similar to how a composer would include pauses or rests to temporarily break the flow of music.<br><br> The silence is not dead, but instead filled with possibilities. In contrast, black represents absolute discord and is devoid of any possibilities for the future. This idea is analogous to the profound and final pauses in music, like those between movements or at the end of a piece (Kandinsky 37).<br><br> These principles of black and white can also be seen in Swinging . The black areas, especially when arranged against areas of yellow, seem especially engulfing and lifeless. Every white area of Swinging demonstrates the potential to become something more with tints of blues, greens, and reds embedded in it.<br><br> It is clear that these areas are not as lifeless as the black areas but still do not provide as strong a presence when placed next to the colored forms. In fact, the black and white areas serve to emphasize these hues. This corresponds to Kandinsky 9s idea that the placements of 13 colors play a key role in how they are perceived.<br><br> Just as silence in music can amplify even the softest note, colors and shades can feed off each other to augment their spiritual value. The ideas Kandinsky set forth in Concerning the Spiritual in Art , along with those that he later presents in Point and Line to Plane , were all driven by his desire to formulate a method that could allow art to connect effectively to the spiritual. Kandinsky did not desire to reinterpret music through art, so he also investigated the special qualities of art that music lacked.<br><br> He explored this idea by developing a modified version of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 9s positive and negative polarity system. Kandinsky classified red, orange, and yellow as positive and stimulating, while green, blue, and violet were seen as negative and calming (Poling 49). Although it may seem strange to be able to affect the body through color, there has been scientific evidence that supports this idea.<br><br> In Concerning the Spiritual in Art, Kandinsky discusses the practice of chromotherapy, the use of colored light to alter bodily status, which has been used to treat mental illness. In these treatments, red light has proved to be enlivening and have a stimulating effect on the heart so it is used for depressed patients. In contrast, blue may cause temporary paralysis and is used for those in a manic condition (Kandinsky 25).<br><br> With this discovery, Kandinsky concluded that art could be superior to music because it held the exclusive spiritual property of color that music could not access. Jazz Music Although Kandinsky is often associated with classical music and the atonal compositions of Schoenberg, Swing and jazz music were also a source of great inspiration to him. Originating from America, the Swing movement developed into a popular interest in Europe during the pre- World War II era.<br><br> The movement soon spread to youths across Europe and was even used as a symbol for the defiance of socialism. Although Kandinsky never truly involved himself in 14 politics, he viewed spirituality as a remedy to the world 9s problems and art was his means of communication, just like dance and Swing music was for these youths. A typical Swing song featured a strong rhythm section with looser accompaniments in brass or with vocals and often had soloists doing improvisations.<br><br> The music itself was energetic and lively, and this same electrifying spirit can be seen in Kandinsky 9s Composition X ( cHistory of Swing d). In this piece, beats are formed on the surface of what seems to be a drum on the right hand side. This corresponds to the importance of rhythm in swing music.<br><br> From there, the music is realized in the air in the form of colorful confetti suggesting tidbits of sounds. Fingers are at the ready on various instruments that morph into melodious curving streaks, culminating into an explosion of colors and noise. The black background of the piece even suggests a dark club where one was likely to hear jazz music.<br><br> Kandinsky 9s technique is comparable to Swing 9s idea of improvising during a performance in order to keep a piece alive, fresh, and in motion. The idea of having this time set aside for improvisation in music appealed greatly to Kandinsky since he produced many improvisations himself where he could liberate the unconscious, spontaneous expression of his inner character. Composition X , 1939.<br><br> Oil on canvas, 130 x 195 cm. Kunstsammlung Nordrhein- Westfalen, Dusseldorf, Germany. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/kandinsky/kandinsky.comp-10.jpg 15 Through the exploration of impromptu art, he was able to experience an immediate release and connect with his inner emotions, similar to how musicians could freely express how they felt through improvisations without needing to adhere to a rigid structure.<br><br> Thus, this type of art served as a spiritual experience for both the artist and the viewer. It is also interesting to compare the types of music that Kandinsky drew from. Both Swing and the music of Arnold Schoenberg exhibited a departure from the traditional 3 Schoenberg with his cemancipation of dissonance d and deluge of atonality, and Swing with its spontaneous improvisation.<br><br> However, it is important to note that although Schoenberg worked to create music that seemed random and abstract, he developed systematic ways to do so, like his twelve-tone method, to satisfy his ccraving for logical consequence d (Hailey 101). In contrast, time for improvisation in jazz was set aside in the piece, but the actual music was played ad lib so there was a more direct transfer from the soul of the musician to the instrument. Furthermore, Kandinsky 9s ability to mold his composition to lead the viewer 9s eye around the picture with lines and scattering of colors allowed him to imitate music 9s property of time.<br><br> Music is developed as the listener takes in the notes over a certain period of time, while art is often taken in at one instant. Kandinsky is able to draw out and enhance the viewer 9s experience by slowly leading them through the painting. Conclusion There is no doubt that music was a great influence for Wassily Kandinsky.<br><br> The culmination of the influences from the avant-garde movements in the arts, his Theosophical beliefs, and his discontent with society drove Kandinsky to seek spirituality, and he found this spirituality in music. Kandinsky believed that since music was so abstract, it was the best medium to access the metaphysical. Ranging from the atonal compositions of Arnold Schoenberg to the improvisation of jazz, all types of music provided inspiration for this 16 revolutionary artist.<br><br> Nevertheless, this was just a springboard for Kandinsky 9s ideas. He also experimented with combining multiple types of art in his stage compositions, but most importantly, he gave visual art its own spiritual voice. Kandinsky initially developed a style that mimicked the effect of music and was successful in releasing art from a simple imitation of life.<br><br> However, he was able to further his vision through the refinement of his ideas by utilizing the unique properties of the visual arts to develop a language that was equally as compelling as the language of music. This realization fulfilled Kandinsky 9s goal and even moved visual art to a higher level than music. He developed his own theories about how each different form, color, and composition held its own meaning in art and translated to an even higher spiritual meaning.<br><br> With his innovative ideas, Wassily Kandinsky paved the way for many abstract artists to come; but just as importantly, he established himself in history as the man who heard his colors sing. 17 Works Cited Algeo, John. cArt, Kandinsky, and Self-transformation. d The Theosophist .<br><br> Sep. 2008. 14 Aug.<br><br> 2008 < http://www.theosophical-society.org.uk/html/theosophy%20art/ kandinsky%20theosophist.html>. "Austria." Encyclopædia Britannica Online . 2008.<br><br> Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 20 Aug. 2008 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/44183/Austria>.<br><br> Dabrowski, Magdalena. cKandinsky & Schoenberg: Abstraction as a Visual Metaphor of emancipated Dissonance. d Schoenberg, Kandinsky, and the Blue Rider . Ed.<br><br> Esther da Costa Meyer and Fred Wasserman. New York: Scala Publishers, 2003. 79-93.<br><br> Golding, John. Paths to the Absolute: Mondrian, Malevich, Kandinsky, Pollock, Newman, Rothko, and Still . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.<br><br> Hailey, Christopher. cFirst Loyalties: Schoenberg and Vienna 9s Classical Tradition. d Schoenberg, Kandinsky, and the Blue Rider . Ed.<br><br> Esther da Costa Meyer and Fred Wasserman. New York: Scala Publishers, 2003. 95-107.<br><br> cThe History of Swing Music. d 2007. 10 Aug. 2008 <http://www.vintagepeople.com/article/The-History-of-Swing-Music/>.<br><br> Kandinsky, Wassily. Concerning the Spiritual in Art . Trans.<br><br> M.T.H. Sadler. New York: Dover Publications Inc., 1977.<br><br> Long, Rose-Carol Washton. Kandinsky: The Development of an Abstract Style . Oxford: Carendon Press, 1980.<br><br> Poling, Clark V. Kandinsky's Teaching at the Bauhaus: Color Theory and Analytical Drawing . New York: Rizzoli, 1987.<br><br> Rapelli, Paola. ArtBook: Kandinsky . Trans.<br><br> Fiona Wild. Ed. Anna Kruger.<br><br> New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1999. Röthel, H.K. cKandinsky in Germany. d Vasily Kandinsky 1866-1944: A Retrospective Exhibition .<br><br> New York: The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 1962. 21-23.<br><br> Schoenberg, Arnold. cMy Evolution. d 1949. 20 Aug.<br><br> 2008 <http://www.schoenberg.at/1_as/bio/ evolution_e.htm>. Stein, Susan Alyson. cKandinsky and Abstract Stage Composition: Practice and Theory, 1909- 12. d Art Journal .<br><br> 43.1 (Spring 1983): 61-66. Rpt. in JSTOR .<br><br> 2000. 15 Aug. 2008 < http://www.jstor.org/stable/776634>.<br><br> 18 Stratton, Richard. Preface. Concerning the Spiritual in Art .<br><br> By Wassily Kandinsky. New York: Dover Publications Inc., 1977.v-x. cSymbolist Movement. d Encyclopædia Britannica Online .<br><br> 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 20 Aug.<br><br> 2008 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/577796/Symbolist- movement>. Tassel, Janet. cStaging a Kandinsky Dream. d The New York Times .<br><br> 7 Feb. 1982. 17 Aug.<br><br> 2008 <http://theater2.nytimes.com/mem/theater/treview.html?res=9C0DE4DB1038F934A35 51C0A964948260>. The Theosophical Society in America . 2008.<br><br> The Theosophical Society in America. 14 Aug. 2008 <http://theosophical.org/>.<br><br> Wasserman, Fred. cSchoenberg & Kandinsky in Concert. d Schoenberg, Kandinsky, and the Blue Rider . Ed.<br><br> Esther da Costa Meyer and Fred Wasserman. New York: Scala Publishers, 2003. 17-35.<br><br>