WOMEN TARGETED OR AFFECTED BY ARMED CONFLICT: WHAT ROLE FOR MILITARY PEACEKEEPERS? Conference Summary * May 27-29, 2008 Wilton Park, Sussex, UK UNIFEM, DPKO, UN ACTION AGAINST SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN CONFLICT, WILTON PARK, GOVERNMENTS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND CANADA We know from grim experience how sexual violence in conflict wreaks devastation on individuals, families, communities, and entire societies. [&] Widespread and systematic sexual violence further heightens insecurity.
There are consequences for recovery and reconciliation. When alleged perpetrators are not prosecuted and brought to justice, the rule of law is undermined and impunity reigns. 4 Message from the United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon to the Wilton Park Conference on May 27 2008.
It is more dangerous to be a woman than to be a soldier right now in Eastern DRC. 4 Major General Patrick Cammaert, former Deputy Force Commander . I PURPOSE The conference reviewed current peacekeeping practice in the prevention of widespread and systematic sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict contexts, with a view to: i.
Identifying existing efforts to prevent the targeting of women and children for sexual violence within current peacekeeping approaches to civilian protection; ii. Building a policy consensus on sexual violence as a security issue backed by mandates, ... more. less.
means, training and incentives for effective response. II PARTICIPATION Of 70 participants 27 came from military establishments (former Force Commanders, army personnel, staff of Defence Ministries).<br><br> Others included four MPs, four Permanent Representatives, seven DPKO staff, and a number of other UN personnel, peace activists and academics. III NATURE OF THE PROBLEM Sexual violence was acknowledged as a categorically prohibited method of warfare . Widespread and systematic sexual violence (which includes rape, forced prostitution, sexual slavery, forced impregnation, forced termination of pregnancy, enforced sterilization, trafficking and other offences) ranks among the grave breaches of international humanitarian law, as reflected in the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court , the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda.<br><br> It was noted that in some contemporary conflicts, sexual violence is used as a strategy of warfare for obtaining political and military ends. It is used to torture, terrorize, demoralize, injure, degrade, intimidate and punish affected populations. * By Anne-Marie Goetz and Letitia Anderson, United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM).<br><br> - 1 - Evidence suggests an increase in the scale and brutality of sexual violence, described by Dr Mukwege of Panzi Hospital, Bukavu, Eastern DRC, as cthe monstrosity of our century d. Participants acknowledged that the radically changed nature of conflict, characterised by an increased civilian-combatant interface, has made the protection of women more difficult and sexual violence more severe, and indeed a cparticularly potent weapon of war. d Even if sexual violence is not the outcome of an explicit order (as in the Bosnian rape camps of the early 1990s), command responsibility covers violations committed by armed forces where the commander has failed to prevent, suppress or punish crimes. Though recorded data was generally viewed as inadequate , available trend analysis suggests a marked increase in the scale and brutality of war-related sexual violence over the past two decades.<br><br> In North Kivu, Eastern DRC, evidence was cited that three out of four women have been raped, some with extreme violence resulting in irreparable fistulae, mutilation or death. In relation to the conflicts in Sierra Leone (1991-2002) and Liberia (1980-2003), evidence was adduced that at least 50% of women suffered some form of sexual violence, rising to over 80% in IDP and refugee camps. In contexts such as Eastern DRC, sexual violence appears to increase once fighting stops and the situation is stabilized.<br><br> While this may reflect higher reporting rates facilitated through increased humanitarian access, it may also reflect two other phenomena: first, the committing of sexual violence on a widespread scale by civilian men, including demobilised combatants; and second, the continuation of inter-group conflict by other means. It was thus affirmed that the legacy of impunity for war-time rape is cpeace-time rape d 3 a perception that women can be violated without consequence. Yet sexual violence has not, to date, been recognised as a security problem requiring a systematic security response.<br><br> It remains steeped in a myth of inevitability that the conference agreed must be challenged at every opportunity. Some speakers acknowledged that dismissing sexual violence as a ccultural d phenomenon or as culturally condoned gives perpetrators clicense to rape d. Security institutions and aid agencies have tended to see it as a domestic criminal matter, requiring a law and order response, and a medico-social problem, requiring medical care and long-term attitudinal change.<br><br> Sexual violence by armed groups, however, requires a response commensurate with its scale and magnitude. Peacekeeping missions are increasingly mandated to protect civilian populations under imminent threat of physical violence. Participants acknowledged this may not consistently be interpreted to encompass sexual violence due to the unconventional spaces and times at which it occurs; the fact that sexual violence is shrouded in silence and shame; and is often invisible, concealed as a cwar within a war. d Moreover, the protection of civilians mandate of peacekeeping operations has yet to be matched with political resolve and resources, doctrine and guidance.<br><br> Troop contributing countries likewise have not internalised this issue to the national defence policies that inform their peacekeeping doctrines. Ad hoc tactical responses need to be codified as doctrine and included in pre-deployment as well as in-theatre training. In some contexts in which the security environment is particularly grave for women, UN/AU/EU/NATO Force Commanders have innovated response tactics to intercept/deter attacks by belligerents on women and children.<br><br> These tactics are assembled in a background paper presented to the conference (Letitia Anderson, 2008, Analytical Inventory of Responses by Peacekeeping Personnel to War-Related Violence Against Women, UNIFEM). This paper shows that for peacekeepers on the ground, not to act in the face of mass rape is unthinkable, yet how to act remains unclear. It thus highlights the need for an institutionalized response within doctrine, concept of operations (CONOPS), rules of engagement (ROE) and - 2 - scenario-based training, which provides guidance without curtailing operational flexibility or risking an escalation of the conflict.<br><br> There was broad convergence that the human, economic and opportunity costs of responding to sexual violence far exceed those of effective prevention. Participants noted that responses must be congruent with international humanitarian and human rights law and mindful of the need to preserve neutral, independent c humanitarian space d for unarmed actors, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Nonetheless, where the military component of missions has the material and logistical assets to help strengthen civilian infrastructure 3 building schools or digging drains 3 they will be used to assist communities through limited, appropriate CIMIC (civil-military cooperation) projects.<br><br> IV FINDINGS There are currently 8 United Nations peacekeeping missions authorized by the Security Council to protect civilians under imminent threat of physical violence (MINURCAT, MINUSTAH, MONUC, UNAMID, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMIS and UNOCI). A number of ex-Force Commanders agreed that not enough is being done to protect women and children from widespread and systematic sexual violence in these contexts. The conference agreed that the credibility of peacekeeping operations largely depends on how successful they are in this respect.<br><br> In response to the need to address sexual violence holistically , it was recognised as a sub-set of the broader protection of civilians challenge, but one that requires a tailored response. This is primarily because survivors tend not to report sexual violence for fear of social stigma, re- victimisation, or due to cbuilt-in bias d in the legal system. There is hence a paucity of intelligence on attack patterns and the profile of perpetrators.<br><br> It is also because sexual violence takes place in contexts and at time periods that lack a regular security presence: homes, water points at pre- dawn hours, forests where women forage for fuel, fields where they cultivate crops. A paradigm shift is needed because cbusiness as usual d has not equipped peacekeepers to detect, predict, prevent and respond effectively to attacks. Participants stressed that while the identification of good practice is useful, responses are highly contingent on context (for instance, strategies employed in Darfur, where the centre of gravity is IDP camps, do not translate to a setting like DRC).<br><br> Differences in levels of organisation and brutality, intent and scale, require tailored response tactics. It is useful to distinguish between three sexual violence environments: Widespread and systematic Widespread and opportunistic Isolated and random Deployed as method of warfare by armed groups (a sexual manifestation of aggression, rather than an aggressive manifestation of sexuality). Armed groups and ordinary civilians exploit conflict and chaos to attack women.<br><br> Domestic criminal matter, unrelated to political strategy or to international peace and security. - 3 - Peacekeeping efforts to prevent, deter and respond to attacks attuned to chidden d violence in non-conventional physical space and time. Integrated mission response.<br><br> Encourage domestic judicial system to prioritize efforts to prevent, protect and prosecute. National law and order response; public information campaigns. Focusing on the first two categories, a range of operational challenges were identified: " The precise contours of the military-police relationship in peace operations are still being negotiated.<br><br> Distinctions between military and police functions can be difficult to maintain as complex conflicts draw peacekeepers into overlapping spheres of operation. " There is considerable variation in the ways that Special Representatives of the Secretary- General (SRSGs) and Force Commanders interpret mandates and ROE, and responding to sexual violence is yet to be viewed and acted upon by mission leadership as an institutional priority. " Commanders face interruptions in the chain of command when national contingents refer back to capital, placing them in a role described as cForce Coordinators, d rather than cForce Commanders. d This can hamper swift, effective civilian protection and create an cinteroperability d problem of divergent attitudes among troop/police contributing countries (TCCs/PCCs) to violence against women in security settings.<br><br> " These problems are exacerbated by immense logistical and infrastructure challenges, varied terrain, and splintered armed factions, which require commensurate human and materiel resources . One participant with experience of firewood patrols in Darfur stated: cIf you want me to fly, first give me wings; then you can say whether I flew well. d In other words, there is no cost-neutral solution: it is redundant to issue mandates not matched with appropriate resources.<br><br> " There is considerable variation in the training of troops and their capacity to internalise the paradigm shift in civilian protection required to address sexual violence as integral, not extraneous, to the achievement of mission objectives. It is a mistake to assume that gender analysis/women 9s protection will come cinstinctively d to soldiers trained in war- fighting. When peacekeepers confront a highly-sensitive security problem they have never encountered in training, they are likely to make errors.<br><br> " Specific strategies of persuasion and dissuasion 4explained in relation to the culture/belief systems of the group 4need to be adapted to armed opposition groups/non-State actors , for whom sexual violence may be a particularly taboo subject, as a license to loot and rape at gun-point often serves as incentive for irregularly-paid rebels to continue the fight. An instrument increasingly used is unilateral Codes of Conduct / Deeds of Commitment , whereby armed groups undertake to comply with international humanitarian law. " Incomplete Demobilization, Disarmament and Reintegration (DDR) results in spoilers/ex-combatants being reinserted into communities awash with small arms and light weapons, where these individuals continue to prey upon women and children.<br><br> As one Liberian militia member was quoted as saying during DDR: cSince we lost the battle, we should at least win the beautiful women. d It was further acknowledged that receiving $30 per month does not transform a rebel into a civilian. Absent psychological debriefs and follow-up, it can rather transform a rebel into a more proximate threat to vulnerable civilians. - 4 - Effective responses to sexual violence were deemed to require: " Political will and leadership, demanding a security response to sexual violence in conflict, is needed from the Field Commander to the SRSG, and from the Secretary- General to the Security Council.<br><br> This must be manifest in strong and specific mandates (e.g. para 18, 2007 MONUC Mandate extension, SC Res 1794); timely delivery and deployment of resources; and positive incentives to recognise and reward effective strategies. As one speaker put it, political guidance must be deeper than the directive: cDo something, General! d " Gender-sensitive conflict assessments are required to identify threats of sexual violence and inform deployment planning and resourcing.<br><br> Assessments should include how risks differ for women and men, boys and girls and how they change over the course of a conflict (e.g. through social take-up of abusive practices). This also requires a gender/age-disaggregated assessment of the root causes of violence against different demographic groups (poverty; dependence; the resurgence of harmful traditional practices; drug/alcohol use, etc).<br><br> " Prepare for missions using scenario-based planning to guide appropriate force generation, equipment procurement, resource allocation (including women personnel), and training. " Clear guidance to peacekeeping missions is needed on how to operationalize the protection of civilians mandate, including the protection of women and girls from sexual violence. The 28 January 2008 MONUC Force Commander 9s Directive on Protection of Civilians in the Democratic Republic of Congo (059/MONUC/C/FC) stands out as an operational directive mentioning sexual violence and guiding a decisive response.<br><br> " Force Commanders should innovate with military and police tactics to patrol unconventional space at unconventional times (e.g. firewood patrols, pre-dawn patrols, cnight flashes, d etc). For sustainability, and as a cforce multiplier d, these can be coordinated with cvillage vigiliance/defense committees d that assist in early-warning.<br><br> " The deterrent effect of prosecution is diminished by judicial weakness or collapse in war-affected countries. In a prevailing climate of impunity arms-bearers view rape cnot only as a tool of war, but a toy of war, d as consequences are negligible to non-existent, making a mockery of efforts to resurrect the rule of law. Indeed, sexual violence was recognised as the only crime for which a community 9s response is more often to stigmatise the victim, rather than the perpetrator.<br><br> Integrated peace operations need to be a catalyst for reconstruction of rule of law institutions. " Local women 9s groups and women leaders must be empowered by peacekeepers from the start of missions to represent women 9s views and engage in public decision-making. Peacekeepers exert a profound impact on social practices; if they treat women with respect, the community and even combatants may follow suit.<br><br> Women themselves must be closely involved in all measures taken on their behalf. In this regard, peacekeepers can serve as ctrend-setters d for how the community views and values women. Moreover, a greater level of liaison with local women 9s groups can help peacekeepers ascertain protection gaps and provide a vital source of operational intelligence.<br><br> " The protection of women must be linked to all elements of public decision-making so that women can articulate their needs for justice and recovery. Specific efforts must be made to engage women in peace processes, restoration of the rule of law and post- conflict recovery of economic and governance systems. In contemporary, intra-State conflicts, those least politically empowered are inevitably most affected.<br><br> Prevention of sexual violence is thus inseparable from the empowerment of women. The threat of sexual violence was acknowledged to preclude women 9s participation in public life, - 5 - keeping women out of the institutions that perpetuate gender-based violence simply by ignoring it. " Coordination with all substantive sections of a mission, UN system partners, agencies, donors, and NGOs is imperative to maximise the efforts of the military component and produce a visible, tangible impact on the ground.<br><br> V STRUCTURED FOLLOW-UP Immediate and longer-term follow-up actions include practical support to peacekeepers, coupled with sustained political engagement, and efforts to develop policy frameworks conducive to an effective response. i. Guidance and Coordination: The requirement to protect civilians and prevent sexual violence must be considered early in mission planning , reflected in Terms of Reference for Technical Assessment Missions (TAMS), and included in military guidance.<br><br> Gender analysis must be integrated into mission planning, particularly with respect to engaging civil society and women 9s groups. Operational practices currently being undertaken to protect women from sexual violence must be identified, systematized and disseminated. The Analytical Inventory prepared by UNIFEM will be validated and amended through consultations with peacekeeping operations.<br><br> This will enable DPKO to identify by the end of 2008 a series of practices across peace operations that have been shown to work. The forthcoming DPKO/OCHA research on implementation of mission protection of civilian mandates will also provide a stronger evidence-base for the development of doctrine on the protection of civilians. UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict will continue to provide strategic and technical support to UN Country Teams to ensure that the UN 9s efforts to prevent and respond to sexual violence are better coordinated and more comprehensive .<br><br> ii. Resources: TCCs/PCCs must continue to increase the numbers of uniformed female personnel they deploy. Women were recognised to have a comparative advantage in intelligence-gathering as military observers (UNMOs), and in community liaison/cordon and search operations as members of Formed Police Units (FPUs)/UNPOL or CIMIC Officers.<br><br> This will require increased recruitment of women in national security sectors, coupled with DPKO/DFS strategies to attract and retain women in peacekeeping careers. DPKO will request Member States to ensure deployments also routinely include personnel with expertise and experience in addressing sexual violence. Funding and expertise should also be provided to facilitate CIMIC projects/QIPs (Quick Impact Projects), which directly respond to the needs of local women, with due attention paid to the concerns of humanitarian actors.<br><br> Increased recruitment of women in the mission area as language assistants can facilitate interactions with local women as a confidence-building measure. iii. Training and Incentives: DPKO modules for pre-deployment training will include key messages and guidance on preventing and responding to sexual violence.<br><br> Training should further incorporate context- specific protection scenarios. DPKO will explore the possibility of including in the existing MOU with TCCs/PCCs an obligation by Member States to ensure pre-deployment training for their - 6 - military and police personnel. This should be complemented with mission-specific training and community orientation, including on local gender dynamics.<br><br> Pre-deployment briefings to national Command and Staff Colleges at the highest-planning level could be conducted by a travelling cpresentation team d composed of DPKO, UNIFEM/UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict and an ex-Force Commander. Support at the highest levels should be given to effective, path-breaking responses to women 9s protection needs. Medals regimes could be adapted to this effect as a non-material incentive .<br><br> iv. Political Leadership: SRSGs must provide exemplary leadership and guidance on actions to be taken at the strategic level; prioritize resources required to carry out these actions; and politically support the Force Commander. The role of military peacekeepers in preventing and responding to sexual violence, and in particular the leadership role of Force Commanders , will be discussed at the annual meeting of the Heads of Military Components in August 2008, with a view to identifying additional strategies.<br><br> Political leadership of host authorities is critical to ensuring that the interventions of peacekeepers to prevent sexual violence are sustained in the long-term. Host countries bear primary responsibility for the protection of their citizenry. Though tasked to work with host authorities, peace operations should not shy away from helping to vet the security sector of past perpetrators and building capacity for domestic military prosecutions/disciplinary actions.<br><br> Acknowledging that practical gaps have policy roots, the conference stressed the need for the Security Council to explicitly recognise that in some situations the widespread use of targeted, systematic sexual violence may constitute a threat to international peace and security. Participants welcomed the US Government 9s decision to bring a resolution to the Security Council on 19 June condemning sexual violence in situations of armed conflict. This will further empower security actors to consolidate existing best practice and develop doctrine to address and prevent sexual violence.<br><br> The Council is currently being outpaced by peacekeepers themselves who, as the Analytical Inventory attests, already treat sexual violence as warranting a security response. The Council should strengthen its capacity to monitor sexual violence, the profile of perpetrators and action taken to eliminate it, including through regular and systematic reporting by missions. Mandate ambiguity , coupled with fear of censure when mistakes are made, can create a disincentive to innovative action to protect civilians.<br><br> Strong and specific mandates, backed by adequate resources, may stimulate strong and specific responses. The military, after all, ccannot operate in an environment of ambiguity d. Policy efforts 4be they preventive diplomacy, sanctions, arms embargoes, or a harsh media spotlight 4can increase the political, economic, social and military cost of sexual violence for the perpetrators and put at risk what they value.<br><br> International commitment to engaging women in peace talks should be renewed decisively. UNIFEM will prepare guidance on options for enabling women 9s representation as part of negotiating delegations and in expert/observer roles. Member States can champion this effort through their engagement in peace mediation and talks facilitation, and by raising publicly whether negotiating groups are/are not engaging women in the peace process as required by SC Res 1325.<br><br> - 7 - v. Ending Impunity: Impunity serves as incentive for continued violence, whereas justice shows would-be perpetrators that women 9s lives matter. The ICC and other war crimes courts can be encouraged to include sexual violence in indictments, investigations and prosecutions, and to provide full protection for witnesses and victims.<br><br> The absolute prohibition on amnesty for perpetrators of sexual violence should be universally respected and promoted through consistent, highly-visible trials. VI ANNEXES 1. Programme 2.<br><br> Participant list 3. Analytical Inventory - 8 - ANNEX I Programme WOMEN TARGETED OR AFFECTED BY ARMED CONFLICT: WHAT ROLE FOR MILITARY PEACEKEEPERS? Tuesday 27 3 Thursday 29 May 2008 By invitation only: WP914th WILTON PARK CONFERENCE in co-operation with the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), New York on behalf of the United Nations Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict and with support from the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, and The Global Conflict Prevention Pool 3 International capacity-building strategy, a joint UK Government approach to reducing conflict Contemporary armed conflicts raise new challenges for the effective protection of civilians.<br><br> Not only are civilians often the primary targets of armed conflict, but in some cases, large-scale abuses of international humanitarian and human rights law persist even after the formal cessation of hostilities. This is particularly the case with the use of sexual violence and othe r forms of violent intimidation against women, employed as a means of prosecuting warfare and perpetuating profound insecurity beyond the formal end of conflict. How can the political and tactical response be strengthened?<br><br> How can the security sector, including international peacekeepers, best address these challenges? How can international commitment to protecting women and children from systematic and widespread violence in contemporary conflicts be built among policy makers from all UN Member States? Peacekeeping personnel are currently making courageous, though often ad hoc , attempts to limit sexual and other forms of violence against women, as part of the overall stabilization process.<br><br> However, these operations have been inadequately analyzed to understand their impact on women 9s lives. More attention needs to be paid to the constraints in which peacekeepers operate, such as a paucity of women amongst their ranks to liaise with women civilians to understand their needs; insufficiently robust mandates; and human/materiel resources dwarfed by the scale and magnitude of violence. The aim of this workshop is to identify obstacles impeding the protection of women; to analyze effective strategies that could be replicated; and to consider ways of integrating these strategies into training, mandates, concept of operations and rules of engagement.<br><br> Although, in some locations, effective protection can make the difference between life and death and serve as a deterrent to rape, abductions and torture, the role of the military will always be limited. An effective response requires a well-planned, coordinated effort from an array of organizations and sectors, hence this conference will be complemented by discussions on better implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325; the role of police in security sector reform/resurrecting the rule of law; the work of the humanitarian community; as well as with policy-makers, particularly in troop-contributing countries and countries where these violations occur. Against this backdrop, the workshop will provide a unique and focused opportunity for military Force Commanders and others engaged in peacekeeping operations to explore how the political and tactical response could be strengthened to meet this pressing challenge to international peace and security.<br><br> Key conference document: draft inventory of good practice - 9 - TUESDAY 27 MAY 2008 1330-1415 INTRODUCTION TO THE CONFERENCE Isobelle JAQUES Programme Director, Wilton Park Anne-Marie GOETZ Chief Adviser, Governance, Peace and Security, United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), New York EXTRACT FROM THE DOCUMENTARY cTHE GREATEST SILENCE: RAPE IN THE CONGO d 1415-1630 1 MEETING THE PROTECTION CHALLENGE IN CONTEMPORARY ARMED CONFLICT: WOMEN AFFECTED BY WAR Major-General Patrick CAMMAERT Former Commander, Eastern Division, United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo Leymah GBOWEE Executive Director, Women Peace and Security Network Africa, Accra Stephen LEWIS Co-Director, AIDS-Free World, Boston Kathleen CRAVERO Director, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, United Nations Development Programme; Chair, UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict, New York 1700-1830 2 PERSPECTIVES ON PROTECTING WOMEN AGAINST VIOLENCE IN CONTEMPORARY CONFLICTS: MILITARY RESPONSES Lieutenant General Jasbir Singh LIDDER Former Force Commander, United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS), Khartoum Victoria K. HOLT Senior Associate, The Henry L. Stimson Center, Washington DC WEDNESDAY 28 MAY 2008 0900-1030 3 PROTECTION OF WOMEN CIVILIANS IN PRACTICE: OPERATIONAL CASE STUDY I: LIBERIA General Festus Okechukwu OKONKWO Former force commander, African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) and Mission of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in Liberia (ECOMIL), Abuja Leymah GBOWEE Executive Director, Women Peace and Security Network Africa, Accra Lieutenant Colonel Comfort ANKOMAH-DANSO Military Observer, United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), Monrovia - 10 - 1100-1230 4 PROTECTION OF WOMEN CIVILIANS IN PRACTICE: OPERATIONAL CASE STUDY II: EASTERN PROVINCES OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO Ross MOUNTAIN Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General for the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kinshasa Julienne LUSENGE Coordinator, Solidarité feminine pour la paix et le développement integral (SOFEPADI), Kinshasa 1400-1530 5 MILITARY-POLICE COOPERATION IN THEATRE: WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF POLICE DEPLOYMENT FOR ENHANCING THE PROTECTION OF WOMEN?<br><br> Michael FRYER Police Commissioner, AU-UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) Rakhi SAHI Commander, Formed Police Unit, United National Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), Monrovia Colin FARQUHAR Former Deputy Police Commissioner for Operations and Monitoring, United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH); Police Adviser, International Peace Operations Branch, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa 1600-1630 6 INTRODUCING THE INVENTORY OF GOOD PRACTICE Letitia ANDERSON Programme Associate, Governance, Peace and Security, UNIFEM, New York Background document: Draft Inventory of good practice 1630-1800 7 WORKING GROUP DISCUSSIONS ON POLITICAL AND TACTICAL RESPONSES (discussion in four parallel working groups) : " STRATEGIES AND TACTICS TO PROTECT WOMEN: WHERE DO THEY ORIGINATE? WHAT WORKS AND WHY? (eg DPKO, SRSG, the force leadership or specific troop contributing countries) Major-General Patrick CAMMAERT Former Commander, Eastern Division, United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo " WHAT DO MILITARY COMMANDERS NEED FROM POLICY MAKERS (RESOURCES, STRONGER MANDATES, ETC) TO ENABLE THEM TO PROTECT WOMEN?<br><br> Lieutenant General Jasbir Singh LIDDER Former Force Commander, United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS), Khartoum " WHAT PREPARATION AND TRAINING IS NEEDED FOR PEACEKEEPERS TO UNDERSTAND AND RESPOND TO THE SITUATION OF WAR-AFFECTED WOMEN? Major General John ATTIPOE - 11 - Commandant, Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre, Accra " HOW CAN THE INCREASED ENGAGEMENT OF WOMEN AND PRESENCE OF GENDER ADVISERS MAKE PROTECTION STRATEGIES MORE EFFECTIVE? Charlotte ISAKSSON Senior Gender Adviser, Directorate of Operations, Swedish Armed Forces, Stockholm 1815-1915 8 REPORT BACK TO PLENARY OF WORKING GROUPS THURSDAY 29 MAY 2008 0900-1000 9 ENGAGING NON-STATE ARMED ACTORS AND GROUPS FOR WOMEN 9S PROTECTION: WHAT IS THE EXPERIENCE TO DATE?<br><br> Dyan MAZURANA Senior Research Scholar, Feinstein International Center, Tufts University, Boston Robert ZIMMERMAN Deputy Head, Central Tracing Agency and Protection Division, International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva 1000-1130 10 POLICY FRAMEWORKS FOR EFFECTIVE RESPONSES Chair: Henri-Paul Normandin Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Permanent Mission of Canada, New York Karen PIERCE Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Permanent Mission of the UK, New York Sylvie BERMANN Director, United Nations and International Organisations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Paris Zalmay KHALILZAD Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Permanent Mission of the United States of America, New York Leslie Kojo CHRISTIAN Permanent Representative, Permanent Mission of Ghana to the United Nations, New York Speakers from the African Union to be announced 1200-1315 11 ELEMENTS FOR STRUCTURED FOLLOW-UP Chair: Joanne SANDLER Deputy Executive Director, United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), New York Edmond MULET Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Department of Peacekeeping Affairs, United Nations, New York 1315-1330 12 CLOSING REMARKS Inés ALBERDI Executive Director, United Nations Development Fund for Women, New York - 12 - ANNEX II WILTON PARK CONFERENCE 914 Tuesday 27 to Thursday 29 May 2008 Women Targeted or Affected by Armed Conflict : What Role For Military Peacekeepers? AICHROTH, Anne UNITED KINGDOM Desk Officer Great Lakes, Africa Department (Southern), Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London ALBERDI, Inés (Speaker) UNIFEM Executive Director, United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), New York ALQARALEH, Mohammad JORDAN Brigadier General, Defence Attaché, Jordanian Embassy, London ANDERSON, Letitia (Speaker) UNIFEM Programme Associate, Governance, Peace and Security, United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), New York ANKOMAH-DANSO, Comfort (Speaker) UNITED NATIONS Lieutenant Colonel, Military Observer, United Nations Mission in Liberia, Monrovia ATAYERO, Patrick UNITED NATIONS Deputy Chief, Strategic, Policy and Development Section, Police Division, Office of the Rule of Law and Security Operations (OROLSI), Department of Peacekeeping Operations, United Nations, New York ATTIPOE, John (Speaker) GHANA Major General; Commandant, Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre, Accra BENARD, Cheryl UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Senior Political Scientist; Director, The RAND Corporation, Center for Middle East Public Policy, Arlington BENEDETTI, Fanny FRANCE Human Rights Section, United Nations and International Organisations Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Paris BERMANN, Sylvie (Speaker) FRANCE Director, United Nations and International Organisations, Ministry of External and European Affairs, Paris BRIGHT, Nancee UNITED NATIONS Chief of Staff, United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT), N'Djamena - 13 - CAMMAERT, Patrick (Speaker) NETHERLANDS Major General (Ret), The Hague CHRISTIAN, Leslie Kojo (Speaker) GHANA Ambassador and Permanent Representative, Permanent Mission of Ghana to the United Nations, New York CRAVERO, Kathleen (Speaker) UNITED NATIONS Assistant Administrator and Director, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, United Nations Development Programme, New York DAHRENDORF, Nicola UNITED NATIONS Senior Adviser/Coordinator, Sexual Violence, United Nations Mission in Democratic Republic of Congo, Kinshasa DRAMMEH, Yakuba GAMBIA Lieutenant Colonel; Chief of Army Staff, Gambian National Army, Banjul EBNÖTHER, Anja SWITZERLAND Assistant Director; Head, Special Programmes, The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), Geneva EFEKELE-OTOKA, Marie Louise DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO Social and Women's Condition Adviser, Parliament of Kinshasa, Kinshasa FAKIR, Ansuyah SOUTH AFRICA Brigadier General; Director of Planning, Department of Defence, Pretoria FARQUHAR, Colin (Speaker) CANADA Former Deputy Police Commissioner for Operations and Monitoring at MINUSTAH; Police Adviser, International Peace Operations Branch, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa FRYER, Michael (Speaker) UNITED NATIONS Police Commissioner, United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID), El Fasher GBOWEE, Leymah (Speaker) LIBERIA Executive Director, Women Peace and Security Network Africa, Accra GOETZ, Anne-Marie (Speaker) UNIFEM Chief Adviser, Governance, Peace & Security, United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), New York HOLMES, Gillian UNIFEM Coordinator, United Nations Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict, United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), New York - 14 - HOLT, Victoria (Speaker) UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Senior Associate, The Henry L. Stimson Center, Washington DC IGOTI, Daniel UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA Brigadier General; Brigade Commander 401 Division in Darfur, Tanzania People's Defence Forces, Dar es Salaam ILEKA, Atoki DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO Ambassador, Permanent Representative, Permanent Mission of Democratic Republic of the Congo to the United Nations, New York ISAKSSON, Charlotte (Speaker) SWEDEN Senior Gender Adviser, Swedish Armed Forces, Stockholm JAQUES, Isobelle (WP-Chair) UNITED KINGDOM Programme Director, Wilton Park, Steyning JONSATER, Staffan SWEDEN Desk Officer, United Nations Policy, Ministry of Defence, London KAMBA, Saleh UGANDA Member of Parliament, Defence Committee, Uganda Parliament, Kampala KAPUR, Bela UNITED NATIONS Political Affairs Officer, Office of the Under-Secretary-General, United Nations, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, New York KENNY, Erin UNITED NATIONS Gender-Based Violence Specialist, Humanitarian Response, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), New York KHALILZAD, Zalmay (Speaker) UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Ambassador, Permanent Representative, United States Mission to the United Nations, New York KLOT, Jennifer UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Senior Adviser, HIV/AIDS and Gender and Security, Social Science Research Council, New York LAMPTEY, Comfort UNITED NATIONS Gender Adviser, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, United Nations, New York LEWIS, Stephen (Visiting Speaker) CANADA Former United Nations Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa; Co- Director, AIDS-Free World, Boston LIDDER, Jasbir Singh (Speaker) UNITED NATIONS Former Force Commander, United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS), Indian Army, New Delhi - 15 - MARTÍN, Víctor SPAIN Head of Unit and Member of the Observatory for Women in the Spanish Armed Forces, Ministry of Defence, Madrid MASIMBE, Folone MALAWI Senior Deputy Secretary, Ministry of Defence, Lilongwe MATSHOKO MATSHI APEWALI, Emilie Mathilde DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO Member of Parliament, Provincial Assembly, Kinshasa MAZURANA, Dyan (Speaker) UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Research Director and Associate Professor, Feinstein International Center, Tufts University, Medford MCDONAGH, Joe IRELAND Lieutenant Colonel, Defence Forces Ireland, Dublin MODEY, Carl GHANA Brigadier General; Deputy Commandant, Ghana Armed Forces Command and Staff College (GAFCSC), Accra MONUNU-MBO, Marie Bernadette DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO Member of Parliament, Parliament of Kinshasa, Kinshasa MOUNTAIN, Ross (Speaker) UNITED NATIONS Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Resident Coordinator, United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC), Kinshasa MULET, Edmond (Speaker) UNITED NATIONS Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, United Nations, New York NEGRESH, Zaid JORDAN Colonel, Jordanian Embassy, London NORMANDIN, Henri-Paul CANADA Ambassador, Deputy Permanent Representative, Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations, New York OKONKWO, Festus (Speaker) NIGERIA Major General (rtd); Former Force Commander, African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) and Economic Community of West African States Mission in Liberia (ECOMIL), Jos OPOKU, Paul Kwabena GHANA Brigadier General; Commander, Support Services Brigade, Ghana Armed Forces, Accra OREA, Jose-Maria SPAIN Colonel; Chief Operational Logistics J-4, Spanish Joint Operations Command, Joint Defence Staff, Madrid - 16 - PERERA, Udaya SRI LANKA Brigadier; Director of Operations, Sri Lanka Army, Colombo PIERCE, Karen (Visiting Speaker) UNITED KINGDOM Ambassador; Deputy Permanent Representative, Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom to the United Nations, New York REES, Madeleine (Speaker) UNITED NATIONS Head, Women's Rights and Gender Unit, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), United Nations, Geneva RIEDERER, Elisabeth AUSTRIA Minister, Department of Human Rights, Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs, Vienna SAHI, Rakhi (Speaker) UNITED NATIONS Formed Police Unit, United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), Monrovia SALTONSTALL, Philip UNITED KINGDOM Adviser, Conflict Prevention and Peace Building, Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom to the United Nations, New York SEDKY, Jehane UNITED NATIONS Senior External Relations Advisor, United Nations Development Programme, New York SHARF UDDIN, Abu Musa BANGLADESH Brigadier General, Bangladesh Army, Ghatail SHARMA, BA Kumar NEPAL Brigadier General; Judge Advocate General, Nepal Army, Kathmandu STEWART, Nell CANADA First Secretary (Human Rights and Social Affairs), Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations, New York STICKINGS, Jeremy UNITED KINGDOM Social Development Adviser, Department for International Development (DFID), London TAN, Jun CHINA Chief, Peacekeeping Police Office, International Cooperation Department, Ministry of Public Security, Beijing THEOBALD, Mark UNITED KINGDOM Director of Studies, Ghanaian Armed Forces Command and Staff College, British Military Advisory and Training Team (BMATT), Accra TREIBER, Anne-Kristin (Rapporteur) UNIFEM Programme Analyst, Governance, Peace and Security, UNIFEM, New York - 17 - - 18 - WANG, Yang CHINA Deputy Defence Attaché, Embassy of the People's Republic of China, London YUSUF, Luka Nyeh NIGERIA Lieutenant General; Chief, Army Staff, Nigerian Army, Abuja ZIMMERMAN, Robert (Speaker) ICRC Deputy Head, Central Tracing Agency and Protection Division, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Geneva<br><br>