20 The Newton PDA Platform A technology and feature analysis Newton Section I: The Newton 2.0 Advantage 3 Contents This section answers the question cWhy PDAs? d by discussing the trends that are shaping the business world, and how PDAs can help mobile professionals and enterprise organizations. It goes on to describe the advantages of the Newton platform for creating mobile solutions 4and ends with an overview of what 9s new and improved in Newton 2.0. Section II: Newton 2.0 and Enterprisewide Communications 17 This section focuses on Newton 2.0 9s communications capabilities.
Designed to fit into complex multivendor networks, local-area networks (LAN), and wide-area networks (WAN), Newton 2.0 offers built-in faxing, printing, e-mail, and infrared beaming capabilities. By taking advantage of third-party solutions, users can also access the Internet, share information with databases, access LAN and WAN e-mail systems, and send and receive wireless messages. Section III: Newton 2.0 and Personal Computer-PDA Integration 27 Through Desktop Integration Libraries (DILs), Newton Backup Utility (NBU), and other Apple and third-party products, Newton 2.0 offers users ways to share, back up, distribute, and synchronize information between their Newton PDA and their personal computer (whether they 9re working on a Mac OS or Windows ... more. less.
software-based computer) and the enterprise.<br><br> And with Newton Press, users can easily create electronic documents for use on the road 4or to distribute to teams. Section IV: Newton Case Studies 35 This section highlights some of the mobile solutions that customers have built on the Newton platform. Section I The Newton 2.0 Advantage A note to the reader: Throughout this paper, the term cPC d refers to personal computers 4both Windows-based computers and Mac OS computers.<br><br> The Newton platform: A generation ahead of the competition The Newton personal digital assistant (PDA) platform continues to gain momentum in the business world. With the advent of Newton 2.0 4the second-generation platform from Apple Computer, Inc. 4many companies and individuals will have reason to make Newton their platform of choice. This paper explains the advantages the Newton platform offers to enterprise organizations and mobile professionals.<br><br> With a significant number of advancements and improvements in many areas 4all the result of extensive customer, developer, and licensee feedback 4Newton 2.0 furthers its lead in the areas critical to PDA users: " Organizational capabilities. Newton 2.0 offers users an expanded capability to manage and organize information 4with an intuitive user experience that offers high user productivity, while requiring remarkably little training, or none at all. Newton 2.0 offers users a host of new capabilities.<br><br> To learn more about the expanded capabilities of Newton 2.0, turn to page 11. " Communication capabilities. Newton 2.0 gives users a way to connect to their world through a wide variety of wired and wireless means.<br><br> The Newton platform was built from the ground up to offer communications capabilities for mobile professionals, enabling them to access key information and stay in touch, no matter where their day takes them. Users can take advantage of Newton PDA devices to access data on networks, to use information services, and to send and receive communications, e-mail messages, and faxes. To learn more about the new communications capabilities of Newton 2.0, turn to page 13.<br><br> " Integration with personal computers and enterprise environments. Newton is designed to fit into today 9s complex multiplatform environments. The Newton platform offers tight integration with personal computer and enterprise environments, enabling mobile professionals to back up, restore, and share information with the system on their desk 4and with the network it 9s on.<br><br> And because the platform also offers connectivity with popular Windows and Mac OSapplications, sharing and synchronizing data is easy. To learn more about the new integration capabilities of the platform, turn to page 14. Newton: The Enterprise Solution.<br><br> Newton 2.0 brings an even higher level of connectivity and communications capabilities to Newton PDAs. Squarely aimed at the 100 million mobile professionals worldwide in horizontal and vertical markets, Newton PDAs offer users a more productive way of working 4and easy access to data on local-area networks (LANs), wide-area networks (WANs), databases, and servers 4through both wired and wireless means. Newton PDAs offer a way to record, access, and communicate information 4at the point of activity (that is, at a client site, on the factory floor, while flying at 35,000 feet, in a meeting).<br><br> All of this adds up to be one of the key reasons Newton PDAs serve as excellent companions to desktop systems. The Newton platform: A generation ahead of the competition 5 Today 9s business environment 4 and the need for PDAs The business world is more complex than ever. Before taking a more detailed look at the Newton platform, it makes sense to examine the changes in the work environment that created the need for PDAs in the first place.<br><br> The business world is more complicated than it 9s ever been. Busy schedules, increased travel, and the need to stay on top of vast amounts of information are three pressures that confront today 9s mobile professional. There are major trends shaping the work world: " Today 9s professionals are highly mobile.<br><br> For instance, of the 44 million professionals currently in the United States, 31 million spend more than 20 percent of their time away from their desks. Whether they 9re roaming a corporate campus or jetting at 35,000 feet on the way to their next business meeting, they often find themselves needing to access the resources for successfully conducting business: e-mail, corporate data, and key files and documents. Mobile professionals include not only business people, but also a range of other professionals 4health care professionals who need instant access to records while making rounds, salesforce professionals who need product and customer information on sales calls, and field-service professionals who need instructions and documentation at the point of repair.<br><br> Newton PDAs offer new mobile solutions for them all. " Staying in touch is a way of life 4mobile professionals must do that to stay competitive. The proliferation of e-mail, paging systems, portable phones, voice mail, and other electronic means of keeping in touch has created a world in which professionals can be reached regardless of where they are in relation to their home office.<br><br> These new ways of communicating are dramatically changing the way people go about conducting business. Being calways reachable d has become a way of life, and professionals need tools to help them deal with the resulting barrage of messages. PDAs 4because of their compact size 4offer new ways of keeping in touch.<br><br> And because of strong communications capabilities, they also offer a powerful solution for vertical market applications 4for example, auditors and inspectors can use PDAs to record data in the field, and then instantly transfer that data to personal computers and databases at the home office. The PDA market will continue to grow. Forrester Research, Inc., an independent research firm, recently conducted a study of the PDA market and projected strong growth through the end of the decade.<br><br> In-building traveler 49.3% 15.2 million users Metro-area traveler 23.4% 7.2 million users Wide-area traveler 7.4% 2.2 million users Bi-area traveler 19.8% 6.1 million users 994 995 996 997 998 999 460,000 (installed base) 830,000 1,120,000 1,840,000 3,850,000 8,200,000 A recent BIS Strategic Decisions study showed that the mobile professional market for PDAs is substantial. Repre- senting 26 percent of the workforce, mobile professionals account for 31 million target users for PDAs. 6 Today 9s business environment 4and the need for PDAs " Keeping on top of personal and work-related information is today 9s challenge.<br><br> For a better part of the 1980s and early 1990s, the quest was to give users full access to information on the network. With client-server models implemented in many companies, access is much more available than before 4from personal computers, professionals are able to access many resources on corporate LANs and WANs, and the Internet. Today the challenge is to keep on top of information 4sifting through it, pulling out relevant information, and using it intelligently.<br><br> Mobile professionals want to take information with them 4to a meeting, to a client site, to a job site 4and they need to be certain that information stays in synchronization with the information on their PC and the network. (Good examples are business contacts, appointment calendars, sales information, and pricing.) It 9s clear that today 9s mobile professionals need better tools for dealing with all the information in their lives. But it 9s more than that: They need tools that integrate and manage both the personal and work-related data in their lives.<br><br> More and more professionals are turning to PDAs to fulfill that need. Newton PDAs come with built-in functionality that enables mobile professionals to better manage the tasks, contacts, schedule, and information in their lives 4no matter where their work takes them. And by taking advantage of off-the-shelf software, companies can easily customize Newton PDAs 4for example, combining contact-management software, electronic- book 3creation software, and expense-reporting software to create a PDA solution for salespeople.<br><br> Vertical market solutions: PDAs offer a competitive advantage. Given the trends described above, there are two types of markets emerging for PDAs: a horizontal market of mobile professionals, and vertical markets in a host of disciplines. With only minimal programming, PDAs can be further customized for very specific tasks.<br><br> Following are some of the vertical markets in which PDAs can play a particularly important role. " Health care. In the medical and health care field, very little work is done at a desk.<br><br> Doctors, nurses, administrators, pharmaceutical representatives, and others all need to instantly recall vast amounts of information about patients, medications, treatments, and hospital resources. With their wireless communications capabilities, PDAs offer a whole new way of working. Rather than having to go to a library or back to an office to retrieve information, professionals in this field now have access to much of the data they need 4even while making rounds.<br><br> " Sales. Sales professionals face many of the same challenges as health care professionals: They need to access vast amounts of information, and they are rarely at their desk. They also have to place orders, keep the home office informed, and manage inventories 4all from remote locations.<br><br> PDAs, thanks to their light weight and communications capabilities, enable sales professionals to achieve all these things. In addition to off-the-shelf contact management programs, it 9s easy to develop custom order-management programs that function as front-ends to corporate databases, electronic books that serve as cost-efficient product catalogs, and e-mail 3based systems that enable sales professionals to stay in touch with colleagues and the home office. PDAs are proving to be useful for a wide variety of vertical markets.<br><br> Following are some of the key markets, their total number of potential PDA customers, and the advantages PDAs offer them. Health Care Professionals " Hospital automation 42.1 million (all numbers listed represent potential number of PDA users) Patient tracking via wireless communications " Private practice 4400,000 PDA database access " Home health care 4500,000 Information management, using PDAs as a front-end to a database " Individual practitioners 41.7 million Medical reference, using PDAs as a way to carry information with them Salesforce Professionals " Door-to-door sales professionals 4 1.2 million Contact management and product information " Retail detailing 4200,000 Order entry via PDA as a front-end to a corporate database " Route delivery 4200,000 Catalog of products kept on PDA " Manufacturing sales automation 4 1 million Pricing and product information distributed on PDA " Insurance agencies 4200,000 Inventory management " Pharmaceutical sales 440,000 Electronic mail from remote sites " Real estate sales 4700,000 MLS listing database access via PDA Field Service Professionals " Utility service 4200,000 Dispatch, using PDA wireless communications " Telephone company service 480,000 Testing, using PDA database " Cable television 433,000 Inventory, taking advantage of host integration " Field service 41 million Documentation " Manufacturing 41.5 million Quality control and process control Today 9s business environment 4and the need for PDAs 7 " Field service. Among the many other professionals who spend their time on the road are service professionals who work in the field repairing systems, installing systems, or maintaining systems.<br><br> For them, on-line product documentation, quality control and procedure instructions, and a means of staying in touch with dispatch are critical. PDAs are small handheld devices that make it possible for field-service professionals to take instructions and procedural information right to the place where they 9re servicing a system, whether it 9s a factory floor, computer room, or manufacturing line. " Education.<br><br> Educators spend the course of their day with their students, yet they also need to plan and organize lessons and record the progress of their students 4all of which requires time and careful thought. With a schedule of classes all day long, planning lessons and documenting student progress often happens long after the students have gone home. With PDAs and specialized software, educators can gather critical information in an inobtrusive manner while their students are actively engaged in learning.<br><br> PDAs provide educators with a high degree of flexibility as they move around a classroom, recording observations about students, thoughts about changes in a lesson plan, and notes on information to research. Information such as class attendance, student performance, curriculum design and instructional strategies can be sent to a Mac OS or Windows computer database, imported into other applications, or printed in a variety of report formats. Adminstrators can use PDAs to collect school improvement data or to do staff evaluations, and students are using PDAs to document their own progress in learning situations.<br><br> PDAs are a flexible tool for documenting the learning process 4in real time. In short, PDAs are being deployed in a wide number of environments 4from automobile showrooms to factory floors, from airline tarmacs to educational settings, from salesforce systems for some of the world 9s largest companies to custom applications for small teams. The next section of this paper explains what Newton PDAs offer for mobile professionals.<br><br> And for more information about companies and organizations that are deploying Newton technologies, see the Newton case studies on page 35 in Section IV. 8 Today 9s business environment 4and the need for PDAs The Newton PDA advantage: An advanced platform for mobile solutions Newton PDAs offer new capabilities 4in an integrated package. Newton PDAs give users the best of all worlds: They offer the advantages of many of the devices that mobile professionals depend on 4notebook computers, pagers, and portable phones 4without the limitations.<br><br> Newton PDAs offer the processing power and information access of the average PC, yet they 9re far more portable than even the smallest subnotebook computer. And since Newton PDAs turn on immediately, users can record and retrieve information without having to wait for applications to launch. Since they 9re portable and unobtrusive, Newton PDAs make ideal messaging platforms for sending information through wired or wireless means 4even, say, at a meeting or other venue where other tools prove too distracting.<br><br> And, perhaps most important, Newton PDAs are designed to coexist with personal computers 4both Mac OS and Windows 3based personal computers 4so that users can synchronize between their PDAs and computer systems. Furthermore, the Newton platform has been built from the ground up to fit into complex, multivendor environments. Here are some of the advantages that Newton PDA devices provide: " Mobile data capture.<br><br> Because of their portable, handheld form factors, Newton PDAs make ideal data-capturing devices 4whether for heavy-duty industrial uses such as gathering inventory data, or for taking notes in a meeting. They 9re unobtrusive, and easy to use. So whether you 9re jumping out of a cab and merely want to jot down the fare on your expense report, or you 9re a repair person filling out a form at a customer site, Newton PDAs offer a variety of mobile solutions to make the task easier.<br><br> " Information organization 4quickly and effortlessly. For mobile professionals who need to stay on top of the little bits of information in their lives 4appointments, telephone numbers, addresses, notes 4Newton PDAs offer an ideal way to take a personal information management (PIM) application with you everywhere you go. Newton PDAs enable you to recall information 4instantly.<br><br> They offer third-party applications that are specially designed for mobility and are ideally suited for the range and volume of information that people need to manage 4from appointments to expense receipts, PDAs and personal computers. PDAs aren 9t intended to replace personal computers and notebook computers; rather, PDAs offer functionality that complements what those systems can do. Nonetheless, it 9s important to point out the differences between these types of systems: Notebook computers: " Are portable " Are lightweight " Store data in discrete files " Offer strong communications capabilities " Take advantage of applications designed for mobility " Require time to launch applications Newton PDAs: " Are highly portable; people can even use them while walking, and while working standing up " Weigh even less 4on average, about one- sixth the weight of a notebook computer " Store data in a universal data csoup d that can be more quickly accessed by all applications " Let users concentrate on applications, not files; automatically save information when it 9s entered " Offer strong communications capabilities 4and an ability to easily send and receive real-time communications con the fly d " Lets users do more while mobile 4collect data while roaming, receive pages, collect and synchronize ex- pense data, and more " Give users instant access to information and applications 4 no cboot-up d time required The Newton PDA Advantage: An advanced platform for mobile solutions 9 from call logs to rental-car confirmation numbers.<br><br> And because many PDA applications also have direct links to popular Windows and Mac OS desktop applications, they can be a useful addition to the PC tools you 9re already using. " Strong communications capabilities. Newton PDAs offer a multitude of options for communicating with others: built-in fax-send and fax-receive capabilities, access to on-line messaging and information services, access to e-mail services, and call-logging and contact- management features.<br><br> They were designed from the very beginning to support a wide range of communications software and hardware; they offer users convenient access to timely information. " Smaller, lighter, less expensive. Newton PDAs offer a significant size advantage 4 they 9re lighter, less expensive, and smaller than PCs.<br><br> Though it may seem like a rather insignificant point, the fact that a PDA can be up to six pounds lighter than a portable PC starts to make a significant difference on that long trek to the final boarding gate. " All this 4and PDAs can be integrated into your world. Of course, all these capabilities are really worth having only if they merge with your work and the world of your personal computer.<br><br> Newton PDAs, such as the Apple MessagePad and the Motorola Marco, are being integrated into computer networks and used as companions to PCs and enterprise systems. Users can easily back up important information from a Newton PDA onto their PC; take PC files and data with them on the road using a Newton PDA; and keep everything synchronized. Newton PDAs offer critical connectivity, along with data-sharing and synchronization capabilities.<br><br> Momentum. The Newton platform provides the foundation for a whole new generation of off-the-shelf applications. These applications have been created by familiar names in the industry 4Intuit, Claris, Now, ON Technology, QUALCOMM, and a host of other innovative companies.<br><br> The platform supports an increasing library of applications for health care markets, salesforce automation, field service, and education, to name a few. The Newton platform is open and accessible; it offers a wide array of development tools, enabling the quick creation of applications for rapid deployment. Apple also has an extensive systems integrator and VAR program.<br><br> Strong partnerships. At the heart of the Newton platform is a widely licensed operating system. Companies that have licensed Newton technology include leading international firms such as Alcatel, Harris Corporation, Matsushita Electric Co., Ltd., Motorola Corporation, Schlumberger Ltd., Sharp Corporation, Siemens, and Digital Ocean.<br><br> Motorola, Harris Corporation, and Digital Ocean already have Newton-based products, and other products based on the Newton platform are expected as the market expands and applications of PDAs become more prevalent. Apple is currently working with more than 200 systems integrators and value- added resellers (VARs) to create custom solutions for markets in fields as varied as health care, education, real estate, data collection, and salesforce automation. In addition, even before the launch of Newton 2.0, Apple has been working with more than 900 software developers, including Intuit, Lotus, Now, ON, Claris, and other 10 The Newton PDA Advantage: An advanced platform for mobile solutions established companies 4all of which are developing Newton 2.0 software products.<br><br> Newton 2.0: What 9s new, what 9s improved Newton 2.0: Apple continues to innovate. With the help of PDA users, Apple Computer has invested many hours in testing the Newton operating system 4improving functionality, performance, the graphical user interface, and virtually all other aspects of the system. With two years of market momentum and testing behind it, Newton 2.0 represents a major advancement in PDA development.<br><br> The Newton platform has been designed to offer a complete solution that keeps business professionals organized, in communication with their colleagues even while on the go, and connected and integrated with PCs, LANs, WANs, and other networks. Organizational capabilities. Newton 2.0 offers a strong set of organizational functions 4built in.<br><br> These capabilities include: " The capturing of ideas and information. 4 New and improved recognizer for printed words. Enables Newton devices to read unconnected, printed text.<br><br> It recognizes each character, letter-by-letter, which greatly improves accuracy of recognition. With Newton 2.0, Apple has made improvements in cursive recognition as well. 4 Ink text.<br><br> Enables the user to use digital ink to take notes or to jot a quick appointment; notes get neatened up, but they remain in handwritten form and can be transformed to printed text later. For many types of information 4appointments, directions, quickly taken notes 4users have found it 9s more helpful to keep the notes in their ink form, and translate them to printed text later. 4 External keyboard.<br><br> The Newton Keyboard from Apple connects to Newton PDAs, so users can type quickly on their PDA. It 9s especially helpful when composing long memos or e-mail messages, or taking extensive meeting notes. Newton 2.0: What 9s new, what 9s improved 11 4 Smart lists.<br><br> People are creatures of habit; they work with the same companies, fax to the same people, take calls from the same vendors. Newton is intelligent enough to keep track 4and to offer the user lists of most commonly entered information or actions to take. This feature eliminates repetitive actions and makes entering important information simple and quick.<br><br> " Personal information management. 4 Names. Enables users to easily record and recall names, addresses, telephone numbers, and important contact and personal information.<br><br> Users can store information about hundreds of people, and they have the ability to customize the type of information stored on a person-by-person basis. For instance, users can specify that an entry has two e-mail addresses, while another has, say, six phone numbers. Newton 2.0 also allows users to group people, so correspondence can be addressed to an entire group without the need to choose each person individually.<br><br> 4 Dates. Enables users to keep a calendar, to-do lists, and reminders. Dates comes complete with an alarm to keep users on schedule, and also a repeating-task feature so users can schedule recurring events, such as weekly meetings.<br><br> With a variety of agenda views, users can view a day, week, or month of appointments at a time. Dates comes with an integrated to-do list that automatically rolls over to the next day 9s list. 4 Notes.<br><br> Enables users to take notes that include free-form notes in ink text, and even graphics. As a user writes, those notes can be converted to typed text; users can also opt to have notes converted later, rather than translate notes while they 9re being taken. As part of Newton 2.0, Notes offers stationery.<br><br> Users can pull up different stationery, depending on what they want to do. Newton comes with new checklist stationery to help users keep track of lists; it also offers new stationery for creating outlines or multitopic meeting notes. PelicanWare 4a third-party company 4has developed a spreadsheet stationery called QuickFigure Pro.<br><br> You can start to imagine the other types of stationery that will be developed: mileage calculation stationery, graph paper, job-cost stationery, and so forth. 4 Calls. A new application that 9s part of Newton 2.0, Calls keeps track of a user 9s incoming and outgoing phone calls.<br><br> Calls helps dial the phone, keeps track of the time of each call, and automatically files completed calls for future reference. Calls is fully integrated with Names and the Newton autodialer. " Third-party applications.<br><br> 4 A range of capabilities. Here, too, in addition to the built-in applications that come with Newton, are a number of compelling solutions from third parties. They include applications such as Pocket Quicken from Intuit for managing money and financial information; this version even makes it easy to keep your financial records synchronized with Quicken on your Windows or Mac OS personal computer, via the Quicken Connect Utility.<br><br> Or you can manage your travel itinerary, with software such as Gulliver from True North, Inc. Of course, Newton 2.0 has been built for easy applications development, so you can expect the same level of enthusiasm that the previous version of the platform enjoyed 4literally more than a thousand applications. 12 Newton 2.0: What 9s new, what 9s improved Communications capabilities.<br><br> Newton 2.0 offers a multitude of communications options. Many communications functions are integrated, and others can be added later 4depending on what a user needs. The Newton platform makes it easy for users to do the following, via wired and wireless networks: " Send and receive faxes using a Newton PDA (built-in fax receiving is a new capability enabled by Newton 2.0 software).<br><br> Not only can users send faxes from their Newton PDA, but with Newton 2.0 a mobile professional can receive faxes as well. Received faxes can be annotated 4and then resent. While it was not designed as a replacement for the office fax machine, the fax capability of Newton 2.0 enables users to do some rather remarkable things.<br><br> Say, for instance, a manager is between meetings and someone wants to send her a fax with directions to a meeting that 9s been moved 4she can simply connect her Newton PDA to a cellular phone or GSM digital phone and receive them. " Send and receive e-mail via the Internet. Newton 2.0 has been designed to connect with a variety of public e-mail services (such as America Online, CompuServe, and eWorld), LAN e-mail networks (such as CE QuickMail, Lotus cc:Mail, and Microsoft Mail), wireless mail services (such as RadioMail and WyndMail), and Internet mail (such as Eudora SMTP/POP mail).<br><br> Client applications for these services are available from third parties for the Newton platform. The e-mail client comes built in. " Access the Internet.<br><br> One of the fastest-growing segments of the computing industry is the Internet. In the first half of 1996, Apple will deliver a TCP/IP software package as part of the Newton 2.0 platform. That package, in conjunction with other third-party software products, will allow customers to directly access the Internet for Internet mail, as well as to access information on the World Wide Web, using a modem connection to an Internet services provider.<br><br> " Print documents created on a Newton PDA. Newton enables you to print to a variety of office printers 4whether they 9re connected to computers running the Mac OS or Windows. Anything that can be created on the screen of a Newton can be printed 4schedules, notes, contacts, call logs, and so forth.<br><br> " Send and receive paging messages. With third-party PC Card paging cards and software, users can send and receive paging messages with their Newton PDA. " Share information by cbeaming d it to other users.<br><br> By taking advantage of the infrared technology built into Newton products, users can send information to other Newton users who are in close proximity. Some third parties supply software that lets users beam information to PCs and printers, as well. " Take advantage of the Newton Universal In and Out Box.<br><br> Newton makes communications easier and simpler by giving users a Universal In and Out Box. These boxes serve as the central location for all incoming and outgoing communications. Newton 2.0 enables you to quickly scan items in your In Box and filter the ones you want to read.<br><br> For more information about the Newton communications solution, see page 17. Newton 2.0: What 9s new, what 9s improved 13 Personal computer and enterprise integration. The Newton platform is designed to serve as an ideal companion to Windows and Mac OS personal computers.<br><br> Newton 2.0 offers a number of options to connect: " Direct synchronization. One of the biggest challenges when using a PDA is that when users are on the road, they 9re constantly adding data to their PDA 4and changes are also being made to that same data back in the office. A group calendar and a shared database are good examples.<br><br> Newton 2.0, combined with third-party software, provides a way to keep all that information synchronized. The Newton platform lets users synchronize PC files with data on a Newton PDA 4so, for example, a user 9s list of contact names and phone numbers on a PC can be synchronized with those on a PDA. Customers need direct synchronization between their PDA and specific applications on their personal computer.<br><br> To help make this possible, Apple has developed the Desktop Integration Libraries (DILs). DILs now make it possible for developers to make their PC applications talk directly to applications running on a Newton PDA. Customers who use the following PCsoftware can seamlessly synchronize the information residing in the application with information on their Newton PDA: Microsoft Schedule +, Now Up " to " Date and Now Contact from Now Software, Claris Filemaker Pro, and MeetingMaker from ON Technology.<br><br> Other utilities currently in development are expected to provide users with the ability to import and export text files and information between a PC and PDAs 4for example, word processing documents. (For more about these solutions, see Section III beginning on page 27.) " Critical reference information. Apple 9s new Newton Press application provides a convenient drag-and-drop method of publishing electronic documents.<br><br> Using a Windows or Mac OS personal computer, all that users have to do is drag and drop text files, word processing files (including Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, and MacWrite II), graphics, e-mail, and reference information onto the Newton Press icon 4and an electronic document is automatically created for their Newton PDA. It can be formatted and imported into a Newton PDA to be viewed, faxed, annotated, and even printed. It can even be distributed to other Newton PDA users.<br><br> This is a great solution for mobile professionals and corporate customers who need to keep track of flights, itineraries, confirmation numbers, price lists, product information, maps, catalogs, and user manuals. " Safety net. Apple 9s Newton Backup Utility (NBU) 4another Newton 2.0 platform product 4gives users backup capability for archiving Newton data.<br><br> It keeps data safe by making it easy to back up Newton PDA information onto a PC 4and restore that information when users need to use it again. NBU also allows users to download packages from a PC to a Newton PDA to install software and other files. For more information about Newton 2.0 9s integration capabilities with personal computers and the enterprise, see page 29.<br><br> 14 Newton 2.0: What 9s new, what 9s improved Section I1 Newton 2.0 and Enterprisewide Communications A note to the reader: Throughout this paper, the term cPC d refers to personal computers 4both Windows-based computers and Mac OS computers. Newton 2.0 and enterprisewide communications The definition of cwork environment d is rapidly changing. During the day, people are roaming farther and farther from their base of operation, whether it 9s a corporate desk, sales headquarters, or home office.<br><br> Information needed to do a job well no longer resides just on a local hard drive, but also on servers maintained by in-house MIS staff 4 or by remote information service providers. It 9s easier than ever for people to work where they want to; what 9s complicated is that there are now multiple ways for keeping in touch and getting to the information users need 4all of which require different protocols, interfaces, and software. Newton 2.0 and the new work environment The workplace is evolving from the traditional business office to virtually any place a professional can carry a personal digital assistant (PDA).<br><br> PDAs are becoming indispensable as integrated productivity tools for working anytime, anywhere. Newton PDA technology is entering its second generation, leading the industry as the most advanced PDA platform. The Newton 2.0 communications architecture is the foundation for powerful features and tools for organizing information and integrating a PDA with a PC.<br><br> And beyond that, it gives users important communications tools. " Newton 2.0 provides a multitude of communications solutions. Whether users require messaging, fax, Internet access, database access, information access, or PC connectivity capabilities, they 9ll find it in Newton 2.0, which has been designed from the ground up to support a range of solutions in all these areas.<br><br> This capability accom- modates the emerging reality of the decentralized workplace and the global marketplace 4and lets users work anytime, anywhere, without being limited to any one particular method of communication. Using Newton PDAs for communications in enterprise computing environments. As corporations and institutions rely more and more on networks for sharing and accessing information, Newton 2.0 technology is right in step, with built-in technologies that allow users to use a PDA for communicating within almost any information infrastructure.<br><br> For example, PDAsrunning Newton 2.0 software support software that allows users to do the following: " Access corporate LAN-based e-mail from a remote location " Access a document that resides on a World Wide Web server " Receive faxes while waiting in the airport, in a hotel room, or in a taxicab " Send and receive wireless messages 4 pages 4over paging networks " Integrate inventory data collected in the warehouse, with a database on a PC in the office " Send clinical notes on a medical patient to a colleague at a teaching hospital by modem " Connect to a standard phone, a cellular phone, or a GSM digital phone to dial-in to e-mail while on the road " Use a Newton PDA as a VT100 terminal emulator, to access data in a database on a server " Print an expense report on the department printer " Download the most recent price list from a server at headquarters while at a client site " Fill out a service report on a broken utility pole and faxing it to the dispatch center Newton 2.0 and enterprisewide communications 19 " Newton 2.0 supports a broad set of communications technologies. To the benefit of mobile users, whether they require wired or wireless means to exchange information, Newton 2.0 products support their needs with a wide range of communications protocols and standards, including the following: 4 Facsimile, send and receive (built in) 4 E-mail (built in) 4 Paging 4 Internet protocols (TCP/IP, UDP, PPP) 4 Standard phone line with modem 4 Cellular (AMPS, digital GSM) 4 Packet radio networks (ARDIS, CDPD, RAM) 4 PCS* (CDMA, PCS-1900, TDMA) 4 Short message services (SMS) Newton PDAs can be easily integrated into existing company networks. Functioning as a client front end, Newton PDAs can serve as a user 9s central view of his or her world.<br><br> Information can be sent and received using wide-area and local-area links 4via public- switched networks, circuit or packet, or radio. Data can be shared with PCs, servers, and databases, as well as legacy systems. Desktop connectivity " Macintosh " Windows " Remote access " Data applications exchange Server/database services " Navigation tools " Security " Directory services " Communications " Translation " Network management Client communications " Client applications " Communications software Mobile PDAclient Wide-area, metro, and local-area links Transmission Host access " Enterprise host services " On-line services " Information services Enterprise backend services and/or public backend services Newton PDA as a mobile client in an enterprise integration solution *Future capability, as PCSsystems become available.<br><br> 20 Newton 2.0 and enterprisewide communications The Newton 2.0 communications architecture Newton 2.0 was designed to handle current and future communications needs. This is possible because the Newton 2.0 communications architecture was developed to offer several key advantages to in-house development teams and independent software developers 4advantages that make Newton 2.0 the most robust and flexible platform for PDA development. For example, Newton 2.0 is a completely modern, modular, object-oriented interface with a variety of built-in communications tools, networking support, and protocol support, so developers can spend their time building flexible solutions rather than working on underlying communications-enabling technologies.<br><br> Thanks to this flexibility and power, Newton 2.0 is an open PDAplatform for communications 4one that is suited for the range of communications methods used by people in enterprise-computing environments. To read more about the Newton 2.0 communications architecture, please refer to the paper titled Developing for Newton 2.0. The Newton communications architecture enables users to take advantage of cellular devices to connect to e-mail systems, dial-in services, and fax machines.<br><br> The Newton 2.0 communications architecture 21 Using Newton PDAs and Internet Technology to Access Corporate Databases. There is a new trend in businesses and homes worldwide: every day, millions of people are browsing the Internet, to perform research, keep current, and communicate with one another. To capitalize on this huge audience, organizations are taking advantage of the HTML (HyperText Markup Language) and World Wide Web technology as a front end to their corporate databases.<br><br> And this is becoming easier for companies to do, thanks in part to the growing availability of off-the- shelf tools like those that automatically translate SQL (the language of most large relational databases) to HTML. Mobile professionals depend more and more on the information they obtain from the World Wide Web 4and tools and solutions for mobile platforms are also more readily available to accommodate this demand. This makes using Internet technology as a cgateway d to corporate data a logical, economical move.<br><br> There are two key reasons for this: " No change is required to the actual corporate database. The cgateway d to the data is the only part that requires additional MIS developement. " Developers don 9t need to write special applications for mobile clients, as long as those clients support TCP/IP and an HTML browser.<br><br> Communications solutions supported by Newton 2.0 The critical advantage of the Newton 2.0 PDA is that the architecture has been designed to accommodate a wide range of communications solutions. As enterprises diversify and information is communicated through a variety of methods, the Newton 2.0 communications architecture enables a Newton PDA to function as a powerful, efficient portable client to multiple information sources in an enterprise 4PCs, wired and wireless networks, and printers 4giving users a number of communications options. Information access and the Internet Connecting to the Internet by using a PDA promises a wealth of opportunities for corporate users and mobile professionals.<br><br> They can use a Newton PDA as a VT100 terminal emulator to access UNIX text-based Internet servers. Or through a PPP dial- up connection, they can gain direct access to the Internet using the TCP/IP stack. The Newton 2.0 communications architecture allows the following services for users who wish to access the resources of the Internet: " E-mail access.<br><br> Using a dial-up connection with a modem or wireless LAN, Newton PDA users can read and respond to their Internet (SMTP/POP) e-mail. " Database access. Users can dial into a corporate World Wide Web server on the Internet, or a private corporate network, to fill out HTML forms, read text files, and perform data-access tasks to get at information such as price lists, product information, and other proprietary data.<br><br> This allows corporate users to access their corporate databases from their Newton PDA. These corporate databases might be SQL-based ORACLE or Sybase databases, for example. " Information access.<br><br> Mobile professionals can access most private and public information sources (free, subscription-based sources) using the Newton TCP/IP and World Wide Web technology (available in early 1996) or VT100 terminal emulation. " Information services via World Wide Web. General information services 4such as corporate product information, special-interest groups, and research material 4can be accessed by a Newton PDA through third-party Internet applications.<br><br> " Corporate data. A number of third-party applications have been developed to seamlessly tie the Newton PDA into corporate databases. These solutions include Newton client applications tailored to a corporation 9s needs, and a network server for transferring information between the corporate database and the Newton PDA.<br><br> 22 Communications solutions supported by Newton 2.0 Communications solutions supported by Newton 2.0 23 " VT100 terminal emulation. Newton 2.0 allows users to view their PDA screen in landscape format, as if it were a terminal. In this way, the PDA can act as a front end to corporate databases or other in-house information resources.<br><br> Personal computer connectivity solutions Newton 2.0 provides Newton PDA users with access to their PC running either the Mac OS or Windows. A Universal In and Out Boxprovides a common access and control capability for most communications, including e-mail, faxing (send and receive), IR beaming, wireless messages, and printing. With Apple and third-party products, users can take advantage of the following functionality: " Serial connection.<br><br> Using a serial cable and Apple or third-party software products, users can connect directly to their PC to back up Newton PDA data, selectively restore it, import and export files, and synchronize information from their PDA to their PC applications (for example, name and address file synchronization, calendar synchronization). " Remote dial-in. Using a modem 4either a PC Card modem or an external modem 4 users can access files and data on their PC at up to 28,800 bits per second, no matter where they are.<br><br> For example, users can call in from the road and transfer an important memo from their office PC to their Newton PDA. " AppleTalk connection. Users can connect to an AppleTalk network by using an AppleTalk connector or wireless LAN technology.<br><br> This allows 230 kilobits-per-second access to any Mac OS system on an AppleTalk network. AppleTalk allows files to be transfer-red from a file server, applications to be installed on a Newton PDA, and data to be printed from a Newton PDA to a printer connected to an AppleTalk network. Wireless solutions are available from Dayna Communications, Inc.<br><br> (DaynaCOMM Roamer) and Digital Ocean (Grouper). Newton PDA Cellular phone, GSMdigital phone, or standard phone Server Newton PDAs enable users to access and share data with a wide variety of enterprise devices. Through wired and wireless means, and using optional software, Newton PDAs can connect to LANs to access PC and corporate data.<br><br> PC Messaging Newton 2.0 provides solutions for the different types of messaging that users are accustomed to 4and it 9s built to handle new messaging technologies in the future. " Public e-mail. By using a modem, Newton PDA users can stay on top of their electronic mail, because Newton 2.0 has a built-in eWorld mail client that links to all public e-mail systems 4even those on wireless networks.<br><br> The Newton PDA can send and receive mail to users connected to the Internet, including America Online, AppleLink, AT&T Mail, CompuServe, Delphi, EasyLink, eWorld, GEnie, MCI Mail, Microsoft Network, Prodigy, RadioMail, and WyndMail. " LAN-based e-mail. Newton PDA users can send and receive e-mail to and from people with LAN-based e-mail, using Internet gateways or directly using third-party client applications, such as cc:Mail, Microsoft Mail, or QuickMail.<br><br> " Paging. Through the Newton 2.0 communications architecture, mobile professionals can use a Newton PDA to send and receive wireless pages. Using a PCCard paging receiver, all messages are received into the Universal In and Out Box.<br><br> Through paging technology support, Newton 2.0 can accommodate automatic wireless updates to databases. " SMS. Short Messaging Services on GSMand PCS-1900 cellular networks allow the use of a Newton PDA to send and receive wireless messages .<br><br> " Infrared networking. Because Newton 2.0 has built-in infrared networking technology, Newton PDAs can exchange information with one another by cbeaming d data such as notes, name and address cards, and call records. Faxing Newton 2.0 provides significant enhancements in faxing capability.<br><br> " Send and receive capability. Newton PDA users can not only send faxes from their PDA, but can also receive faxes 4and annotate them before sending them back or forwarding them to someone else. " Dialing and integration with Names files.<br><br> It 9s never been easier to use name and fax number information stored in Names files when creating and sending faxes. Newton 2.0 now supports complex dialing codes and multiple phone numbers. 24 Communications solutions supported by Newton 2.0 Connectivity and communications protocols With technology advancing so quickly, there is no one connection standard that applies to all communications methods and solutions.<br><br> In order to provide the broadest possible range of solutions, the Newton 2.0 operating system has been designed to support a range of communications protocols and networks. Modem support Newton 2.0 allows Newton PDA users to connect a modem via the serial port or through a PCMCIA-standard PC Card modem, supporting data transfer at up to 28.8K bits per second 4the maximum industry standard. This gives Newton PDAusers the quickest possible connection to the information they need, no matter where they are.<br><br> Cellular and digital GSM support Because Newton 2.0 supports cellular modems, Newton PDA users can connect their cellular telephones to their PDA and access e-mail or other dial-in services. Newton 2.0 supports the GSM communications standard, which is widely used in Europe and will be used in the U.S. by many PCS providers.<br><br> Businesses are relying on cellular and GSM digital networks for mobile communications at an increasing rate; Newton 2.0 ensures that mobile professionals can take advantage of these networks with their PDAs, as well. Paging Using a Newton PDA and third-party software, users can originate messages to other pagers through a dial-up connection, as well as receive messages. Newton 2.0 also supports Short Message Service 4which is common in Europe 4through third-party software.<br><br> Paging is just another way in which mobile professionals can keep in touch with their offices and clients. Connectivity and communications protocols 25 TCP/IP and AppleTalk network connectivity Newton PDAs let users communicate over powerful networks. " Access to the Internet through a TCP/IP connection.<br><br> In the first half of 1996, Newton 2.0 will support data transmission over TCP/IP networks 4the standard network protocol for accessing the Internet and many corporate networks. Through TCP/IP, users can send and receive e-mail, and access files on the World Wide Web, using their Newton PDA and third-party software. " Access to corporate LANs.<br><br> Newton 2.0 provides an extended AppleTalk stack, so users can access a local AppleTalk network from any node just by connecting to that node 9s AppleTalk connector. Wireless LAN Some mobile professionals need to stay connected to a local-area network 4in a warehouse, for example, or on a large campus 4even though they must roam the area continually. Newton 2.0 lets mobile users stay connected to their LAN through wireless means using their Newton PDA 4while maintaining a high data-transmission rate.<br><br> This cwireless Ethernet d-type capability provides true mobility for many vertical uses. Packet radio Today, there are PC Card solutions that allow Newton 2.0 PDA users to take advantage of ARDIS and RAM two-way wireless packet radio services. These services provide nationwide wireless data transmission in the U.S.<br><br> In Europe, Mobitex networks (Ericsson) are available. And throughout Asia and the Pacific Rim, DataTAC networks (Motorola) are widely available. CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) This cellular technology allows digital data transmission over cellular channels.<br><br> CDPD allows high throughput of wireless data. So far it has mostly been adopted for vertical applications. PCS (Personal Communication Services) Newton 2.0 has the communications architecture to support the future PCS 1900, TDMA, and CDMA data systems.<br><br> These systems will be implemented in the U.S. over the next few years. They promise to bring lower-cost wireless communications and advanced services.<br><br> 26 Connectivity and communications protocols Section 1I1 Newton 2.0 and Personal Computer-PDA Integration A note to the reader: Throughout this paper, the term cPC d refers to personal computers 4both Windows-based computers and Mac OS computers. Newton 2.0: Integrating PDA and PC information The need for PC-to-PDAintegration Apple has spent significant research dollars and hours investigating what PDA users want in terms of integrating their Newton PDA with their PC. With mobile profession- als conducting more and more business away from the office, the ability to easily access, work with, and exchange data between PCs and PDAs is becoming especially critical.<br><br> Users have expressed considerable interest in three key capabilities for their PDAs: " Synchronization. The types of information these mobile professionals and corporate customers need, such as personal-contact files, meeting agendas, e-mail, price lists, data- base records, and project notes, often reside in more than one place 4most commonly, on a PC or server, and a PDA. To make sure they 9re working with the most current information, workers must have the ability to easily exchange and update information between their PC or network server and PDA 4whether in their office or from a remote location.<br><br> " Data security. Keeping data safe, and archiving it to free up space, are also priorities. " Information distribution.<br><br> PDAusers want to be able to access information on their PC, and use it in a format that is more appropriate for a PDA 4such as an electronic book. The advantage of Newton 2.0 To this end, the Newton 2.0 platform has been designed to provide the basis for a complete suite of solutions for integrating PDAs and PCs and enterprise environments, without changing the way people use their PCs. Built-in capabilities, along with add-on PC utilities and developer technologies from Apple and third parties, provide the functionality users require in Newton 2.0 4functionality for making their Newton PDA a powerful extension of their PC and enterprise environment, with the following advantages: " Windows and Mac OSconnectivity.<br><br> Newton 2.0 provides full cross-platform connectivity, so Newton PDA devices can be easily integrated into both Windows and Integration of PDAs and PCs in Enterprise Environments. Newton PDAs have become more than devices for strictly cpersonal duse 4increas- ingly they 9re being adopted by mobile professionals and corporate users as a critical business tool. This trend will continue to strengthen as Newton 2.0 continues to provide powerful connectivity to the desktop environment.<br><br> The ways in which PDAs can be used in the enterprise environment are as varied as they are numerous: " Synchronizing contact files between a Newton PDAand a PC. " Accessing a corporate server from a remote location, to download software into a Newton PDA. " Backing up all PDAdata on a PC or server, for archiving purposes.<br><br> " Collecting inventory data on the warehouse floor, and later exporting it into a spreadsheet on a PC. " Updating a hospital calendar that resides on a department server, while on the road. " Using the Newton Keyboard to input data into a Newton PDA.<br><br> " Creating an electronic meeting agenda and notes while in an airplane, and distributing it electronically as a Newton Press book to a team of Newton PDA users. " Receiving a fax from management, annotating it, and faxing it back with comments written on it in electronic ink. " Conducting a site inspection, and printing the report by simply connecting a cable to the printer.<br><br> Newton 2.0: Integrating PDA and PC information 29 Mac OSenvironments 4including Windows 95. This capability was a key requirement of users and developers alike, especially those with the need to tap into the proliferation of mixed computing environments in companies, schools, and other organizations. " Connectivity to an enterprise.<br><br> Newton 2.0 has a sophisticated communications architecture that gives users easier access to their corporate computing environment, whether they 9re at a desk in their office building, or miles from headquarters. (For more information, please refer to Section II 4Newton 2.0 and Enterprisewide Communications. ) This architecture includes connectivity to a corporate network, as well as individual PCs or workstations.<br><br> " Data security. The Newton 2.0 platform, by providing seamless connectivity to PCs and a variety of backup and restore features, helps ensure the safekeeping of user informa- tion. This is especially useful for users working with information from remote locations.<br><br> " Productivity tools. The Newton 2.0 platform offers products and technologies that allow users to extend what they can do with information 4for example, synchronizing it between applications, publishing electronic books, and performing PC connectivity tasks from remote locations. To satisfy these needs, Apple and third parties are providing a range of solutions designed for Newton 2.0.<br><br> More details about these products and technologies follow. 30 Newton 2.0: Integrating PDA and PC information Direct synchronization of PC and PDA data Desktop Integration Libraries (DILs) 4 Integrating data from the PCend Newton 2.0 incorporates a rich set of tools for developers, enabling them to create direct links between applications on PDAs and PCs so users can synchronize PDA data directly with the PC applications they use every day. The key technology for such PDA- to-PC integration is Apple 9s Desktop Integration Libraries (DILs).<br><br> DILs make the Newton PDA an extension of the PC platform. Simply put, DILs are application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers have integrated into their PC applications, to let users access Newton PDA data from the PC. DILs help match the functionality of data used on a Newton PDA with the corresponding data in a specific application running on a PC, and they do so with such tight integration between applications that users needn 9t undertake intermediate steps 4such as using conversion utilities 4to get the data to match.<br><br> This is especially helpful when using personal information management (PIM) software, such as appointment-scheduling applications, because it allows users to keep the data in PDA PIMs current with data in a PC PIM. DILs also enable import and export of names and dates information. For some users, a Newton PDA is the primary information manager 4in which case, they might want to import a set of names and appointments from their PC to their Newton PDA.<br><br> Through DILs, developers can enable their applications to transfer that data. DILs are part of Apple 9s long-term strategy for the Newton platform. More and more applications are being created using DILs technology to provide direct integration between users 9 PC application of choice and their Newton PDA, without the need for an intermediary utility.<br><br> The flexibility and simplicity that DILs contributes to applications make Newton 2.0 an even more attractive platform in an enterprise environment. DILs Case Studies. DILs played a critical role in the development process for a variety of third-party applications for the Newton 2.0 platform.<br><br> " Now Up " to " Date and Now Contact Schedule and contact data kept in these popular Mac OS-based information- management applications can now be synchronized with information kept in a Newton PDA. " ON Technology MeetingMaker PCusers 4on both Mac OSand Windows- based systems 4needed a way to synch- ronize the personal schedule they keep in MeetingMaker, with the schedule they keep on their Newton PDAs. Now Newton PDA users can be sure they aren 9t missing any meetings or appointments when they leave the office.<br><br> " LandWare Sync + for Microsoft Schedule + LandWare, Inc. saw a need for Windows PC users to synchronize their Microsoft Schedule+ files with the personal schedule they keep on their PC. This software allows users to do so without losing any data, so they can have the most accurate, up-to-date daily schedule with them at all times.<br><br> Direct synchronization of PC and PDA data 31 Newton 2.0 integration solutions from Apple Integration from the PDA side Apple Computer, Inc. and third parties supply software that enables people to get the most out of using a Newton PDA in conjunction with a PC, whether it 9s running Windows or the Mac OS. Some of these software products enable data exchange functions; others make the PDA more powerful by letting users tap into PC services.<br><br> Apple has introduced new products for the Newton 2.0 platform 4products designed to enable PC integration, and integration with a server 4including Newton Press and Newton Backup Utility. Electronic publishing on Newton PDAs:Newton Press Newton 2.0 software gives users an easy way to combine different types of information into an electronic document and distribute it on PDAs. Through Newton Press software, mobile professionals and corporate customers can use the combined power of PCs, enterprise information, and Newton PDAs to publish and distribute electronic books.<br><br> Newton Press lets users cdrag and drop d text blocks, word processing files, e-mail messages, and graphics onto the Newton Press icon on their PC screen to compose an electronic book for personal use 4or to publish it for an entire group of Newton PDA users. On an enterprisewide level, this is especially useful, since documents can be easily and quickly distributed to whole teams 4documents such as manual updates, price lists, approval forms, and the like. Say, for example, a Newton PDA user is traveling to Chicago on a business trip and wishes to combine all the information about that trip into one document 4e-mail containing flight itineraries, a weather report downloaded off the Internet, a top-ten list of restaurants in the area, and the electronic fax that contains directions to the hotel.<br><br> The user simply drags each of these items onto the Newton Press icon on the PC 4 and Newton Press will create a personalized electronic Chicago booklet. When users are publishing an electronic book for a group of Newton PDA users, certain features make it easy for readers to navigate through the document. They can make links between paragraphs (for example, they can designate that when readers click in a paragraph containing the word cChicago, d the application will automatically turn to the page in the book containing a map of the city).<br><br> They can format text with 32 Newton 2.0 integration solutions from Apple Newton Backup Utility running on the Mac OS Say a Newton PDAuser is in a rush to catch a plane, and wants to back up important names and dates data before leaving. Using NBU, users simply tap the cBackup d button on the Newton PDA screen, and choose where on the PC they want to store the information. To retrieve data that 9s been backed up, users simply click the cRestore d button onthe Newton PDA screen.<br><br> NBU also allows users to selectively restore any part of that infor- mation from a backup file 4saving significant time. Or they can install software packages from their PC. *A number of XTND translators are included with Newton Press.<br><br> Newton Press running on Windows 95 Newton 2.0 integration solutions from Apple 33 standard character and paragraph formatting, create borders, even invert text. And they can highlight phrases or key words and create a table of contents. Newton Press is a flexible tool.<br><br> It can integrate any imported word processing, text, or graphic document supported by Claris XTND technology* (for the Mac OS). It supports all of the most popular word processing and graphics applications on the Windows platform, including the following: " Microsoft Word v1.x, 2.0, and 6.0 " Interleaf Publisher v1.1, 5.2, and 6.0 " PCPaintbrush " Windows Bitmap " WPGI(Word Perfect vector) " ASCII Users can also download packages to a Newton PDA directly from Newton Press by posting them on a World Wide Web site, or sending them over e-mail. Users can even beam books from one Newton PDA to another, using infrared communications technology.<br><br> Newton PDAusers can view, fax, forward, and even annotate the documents 4and then fax them to someone with those annotations, if they wish. This is especially helpful for people dealing with meeting agendas, prototyped presentation drafts, and other information that needs to be reviewed by a group. Data backup and restoration Research shows that data security is a key concern for PDA users.<br><br> The Newton 2.0 platform offers a simple solution for backing up