National Aeronautics and Space Administration About the Satellite Images on the Front The satellite images shown on the front of this poster are all taken from separate NASA instruments and show the sun, Earth, Mars and other galaxies. They are not to scale. If the size and distance were accurate, the image of Earth would be a tiny dot next to the image of the sun.
Mars and the other galaxies would be invisible. Earth earth and space science explorers\xf Sun Mars Hubble Galaxy Cluster 1 EARTH This image of Earth highlights the Arc tic region on April 23, 2003, with sea ice bright ness temperature data from the AMSR-E instru ment shown in light blue and snow cover data from the MODIS instrument shown in white. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/ a003100/a003181 SUN The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) obtained this image of the sun on August 26, 1997.
A huge prominence 4an eruption of gas in the solar atmosphere 4can be seen near the top right of the image. The material in the prominence is at temperatures of 60,000 380,000 K, much cooler than the sur rounding corona, which is typically at tempera tures above 1 ... more. less.
million K. The prominence is over 350,000 km (216,000 miles) across, large enough to span 28 Earths.<br><br> Credit: The SOHO-EIT Consortium http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/gallery/ SolarCorona/eit023.html HUBBLE GALAXY CLUSTER The back ground photo used on the poster front is made from images taken by NASA 9s Hubble Space Telescope in January 2005 and February 2006. It shows the diverse collection of galaxies in a galaxy cluster called Abell S0740, located more than 450 million light-years away in the con stellation Centaurus. The giant elliptical ESO 325-G004 looms large at the cluster 9s center (visible here, but not on the poster front).<br><br> The galaxy is as mas sive as 100 billion of our suns. Globular clus ters 4compact groups of hundreds of thou sands of stars that are gravitationally bound together 4can be seen as pinpoints of light contained within the galaxy 9s diffuse halo. Other fuzzy elliptical galaxies dot the image.<br><br> Some have evidence of a disk or ring structure that gives them a bow-tie shape. Several spiral galaxies are also present. The starlight in these galaxies is mainly contained in a central bulge and follows along spiral arms in a disk.<br><br> Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/ releases/2007/08/image/a MARS Vast canyons, towering volcanoes, sprawling fields of ice, deep craters, and high clouds can all be seen in this image of the fourth planet from the sun: Mars. The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft took this mosaic of images as springtime dawned in northern Mars in May 2002. Sprawled across the image bot tom is Valles Marinaris, a canyon over five times the length and depth of Earth 9s Grand Canyon.<br><br> On the left are several volcanoes including Olympus Mons, a volcano three times higher than Earth 9s Mt. Everest. At the top is the North Polar Cap made of thawing water and carbon dioxide-based ice.<br><br> Swirling white clouds and circular impact craters are also visible. Credit: Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and NASA http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap030422. html ASTRONAUTS Astronauts remove the Wide Field and Planetary Camera to replace it with its more powerful successor, Wide Field and Pla netary Camera 2, during Hubble 9s first servicing mission in 1993.<br><br> The camera, shaped some thing like a grand piano, weighs 277 kg (610 pounds) on Earth, but nothing in space (though a significant push is still required to move the camera due to its inertia). It can detect stars a billion times fainter than the ones we can see with our eyes. Most of Hubble 9s most popular pictures have been taken with this 2nd camera.<br><br> Credit: NASA http://hubblesite.org/gallery/spacecraft/15 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Who Are NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers? The Earth and Space Science Explorers series feature NASA The complete collections of articles are available at: explorers, young and old, with many backgrounds and interests. EARTH EXPLORERS Most articles are written for three different reading levels: grades http://science.hq.nasa.gov/education/earth_explorers SPACE SCIENCE EXPLORERS K 34, grades 5 38, and grades 9 312 and up.<br><br> New articles are regu- http://science.hq.nasa.gov/education/space_explorers larly added and can be accessed through the cFor Educators d and Note: Full-length feature articles on many of the Explorers profiled here are cFor Students d sections of the NASA portal: www.nasa.gov/home. available online at the Web sites listed above. A few are slated for future articles.<br><br> earth and space science explorers\xf Robert Bindschadler Few people know cold and ice like Robert Bindschadler does. The longtime NASA scientist uses remote sensing to study glaciers and ice sheets. But sometimes an up-close-and-personal view is required.<br><br> As a leader of more than a dozen Antarctic field expeditions, Bindschadler has had to sleep in tents through bitter cold, endure blizzards, and avoid falling into hidden cracks in glacial ice. cBlizzards can come up suddenly, and we never venture from our base camp without taking survival gear 4shovel, small tent, sleeping bag, stove and food, d he says. Phil Christensen Two things have fascinated Phil Christensen since he was a kid 4Mars and rocks.<br><br> In the sixth grade, he talked his mom into letting him stay home and watch the first images of Mars coming back from a NASA spacecraft. Now a professor and planetary geologist, Christensen has helped build several NASA instruments launched into space to map the Martian surface and study the history of water on Mars. As for rocks, Christensen now has more than he could have ever imagined.<br><br> It was his idea to start the Rock Around the World program, which has collected more than 8,000 rocks sent in by students from all over the world. Scientists study the rocks and compare them with those found on Mars. cIt 9s gratifying to see kids get excited about Mars, d Christensen said.<br><br> cFor some of these students, this may be the beginning of a career in Earth sciences. d 2 Michele Cooke A day of observing fossilized dinosaur prints, petrified wood and volcanic rock would be a valuable learning experi ence for most any student, but espe cially for those who are deaf or hard- of-hearing. University of Massachusetts Amherst geologist Michele Cooke uses sign language to describe to high school students how tectonic forces deform rocks. One of the students 9 teachers, Mary Ellsworth, knows the importance of visual and hands-on methods in explaining science without benefit of the spoken word.<br><br> cSign lan guage makes use of three-dimensional space in a different way than verbal language does, d Ellsworth said. cDeaf students may be particularly adept at using this visual information. d National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers earth and space science explorers\xf Heidi Dierssen Satellites allow for constant monitor ing of the ocean 9s surface, but they have trouble seeing through to the ocean bottom. That 9s why NASA oceanographer Heidi Dierssen spends a good part of her research time col lecting data on or underneath the sea surface.<br><br> While the water she dives into is typically warm and only about 3 to 5 meters (10 to 15 feet) deep, it is not without its risks, which include strong currents and fish that can be way too friendly. cOne time when the water was so turbid I couldn 9t see beyond my knees, a remora (also known as a suckerfish) came flying at me from the left and tried to attach itself to my bottom lip, d Dierssen said. c 8Ouch! 9 I think I screamed underwater.<br><br> It appar ently mistook me for a shark. d Jared Dmello Located in a remote area of the Mojave Desert, the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope was once used by NASA to track and communicate with spacecraft. Now, students such as Jared Dmello are controlling the telescope via the Internet. The California eighth-grader and his class mates have used the telescope 9s 34 meter (112-foot) antenna to study Uranus and Jupiter.<br><br> Dmello has also worked with Hubble Space Telescope scientists on a science fair project involving the electromagnetic spec trum. cSince I was little, I always enjoyed looking at the stars, d Dmello said. cI think it is so amazing to actu ally get to study Uranus and Jupiter, because you never know what you 9ll discover. d Jamie Dyk Jamie Dyk came to NASA 9s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to help develop the Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity.<br><br> Not long after the young engineer arrived, she was faced with an unusu al choice when she tried out for the Laker Girls, one of the world 9s most prestigious cheerleading squads. She made it to final cuts, only to realize there wasn 9t enough time in her life for both NASA and cheerleading. Ultimately, Dyk chose science over cheerleading, and to this day doesn 9t regret her decision.<br><br> In fact, being an engineer has met and exceeded the expectations Dyk had when she first became interested in space and Mars as a middle school student. cI couldn 9t have imagined how cool it would be. There is nothing like sitting in the con trol room when the first images come back from Mars and you see your hardware sitting in the Martian dirt. d 3 National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers earth and space science explorers\xf Esther, William and Alexander Elementary schoolers Esther, William and Alexander helped to pilot Elementary GLOBE, a program designed to introduce K 34 students to the study of Earth sys tem science.<br><br> They worked with their teacher, Fran Bosi, and classmates at a New York City public school, to test an activity called Colors of the Seasons. Using a color chart, the students made observations outside during each of the four seasons, trying to find as many col ors as possible and record what they saw. Their class then made charts describing the colors they found in each season.<br><br> At the end of the school year, they compared their results for each season and developed conclusions about the variations in colors in nature both within and between seasons. cI like sci ence because...I get to learn new stuff I never knew before, d William said. Paul Jones Middle school science teacher Paul Jones says the key to getting kids inter ested in science is to expose them to a variety of science disciplines and activi ties.<br><br> Jones does just that with his stu dents at the School of International Studies at Meadowbrook in Norfolk, VA. Jones and his students have been fea tured in a NASA video about a group of satellites that fly in close proximity to provide detailed observations of the Earth system. They have also participat ed in an international video teleconfer ence with students from France and sci entists from NASA and Colorado State University.<br><br> As a lead instructor at work shops focused on educational activities related to two NASA science missions 4 AIM and CALIPSO 4Jones helps other teachers learn how to more effectively teach Earth and space science. cI 9ve always had a fascination with space, technology and the environment, d Jones said. cScience allows for critical think ing, problem solving, discovery and the sharing of information. d Thompson Le Blanc How did Thompson Le Blanc become interested in astronomy?<br><br> Le Blanc went to college at Metropolitan University in San Juan. One day he found an old tele scope in a science lab there. He asked if he could use it, and before long he was hooked.<br><br> Both Hispanic and African American, Le Blanc went on to become one of the first students to participate in a NASA and National Science Foundation program to boost the number of minori ties pursuing advanced degrees and careers in space science. cI have had experiences where I have had people tell me that I could not [be a scientist], d he said. cI guess in part the reason why I am in it now is because I want to prove that I can do it. d 4 National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers earth and space science explorers\xf Laurie Leshin Laurie Leshin grew up enjoying the out doors, especially rocks and stars.<br><br> She has explored the universe as a student, a teacher and now a NASA scientist. Not even a failed mission to Mars 4Leshin was on the science team that helped develop the Mars Polar Lander, which crashed when it arrived at Mars in 1999 4has deterred her pursuit to find water and life in the solar system. Since then, Leshin has worked on a variety of NASA missions aimed at learn ing more about the solar system and uni verse.<br><br> cThe exploration you get to do every day as a scientist is one of the coolest things I can imagine being able to do, d she said. cIf you even think you want to be a scientist, make sure you take math and sci ence courses, visit science museums, and take advantage of activities in your area where you can actually meet scientists and talk to them about what they do. d Lou Mayo and Kristina Krozak For Lou Mayo, birthdays have never been the only reason to have a party. By second grade, the young sky watcher was having classmates over for cstar parties d in his backyard.<br><br> Taking a break from running around and yelling, Mayo and his friends would stop to look at the stars though his shiny new telescope. Now a NASA astro nomer, Mayo is still learning about stars and other objects in space. He studies the lower atmosphere of Titan, Saturn 9s largest moon.<br><br> Mayo enjoys nurturing a similar interest in up-and-coming scientists, such as middle school student and astronomy enthusiast Kristina Krozak, seen here with Mayo standing next to a solar telescope. cI want to help kids experience the same sense of wonder and excitement about the possibilities of space as I did, d Mayo said. Graeme Stephens A scientist looking at clouds may think about their influence on weather and cli mate.<br><br> An artist is more likely to view clouds as fluffy forms of white and gray that filter light and cast shadows. Graeme Stephens sees both the scientific and artistic sides of clouds. Stephens, the head scientist for CloudSat, a NASA satellite mission to observe clouds in greater detail than ever before, is also an artist.<br><br> He has painted a series of pictures showing a variety of cloud types. cArt and science have much in common. And much has been written about the common threads between both, d Stephens said.<br><br> cBoth, after all, are different expressions of the natural world around us. d 5 Steven Steven is blind, yet he was able to read the temperature with a thermometer and measure precipitation with a rain gauge at a summer science camp. His secret? Steven was using a talking thermometer and a rain gauge marked in Braille.<br><br> The blind-friendly tools allowed Steven and others at the camp put on by the National Federation of the Blind and sponsored by NASA to make observations of the soil, vegetation, weather and birds. For many of the kids it was the first time they had used observation instruments specifically geared toward the senses of sound and touch, rather than sight. cI didn 9t know they exist ed, d Steven said.<br><br> cIt was amazing to see the technology. d National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA 9s Science Mission Directorate NASA 9s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) engages the nation 9s science community, sponsors scientific research, and develops and deploys satellites and probes to answer funda mental questions about our planet and universe. SMD seeks to understand the origins, evolution and destiny of the universe, and to understand the phenomena that shape it. SMD also seeks to understand the nature of life in the universe; the solar system, both scientifically and in preparation for human exploration; and the sun and Earth, including the relationship between the two and the conse quences for life on Earth.<br><br> This Hubble Space Telescope face-on image of the spiral galaxy Messier 101 (M101) is com posed of 51 individual Hubble exposures taken over nearly ten years, in addition to elements from images from ground-based photos. Credit: NASA and ESA SMD has an essential role in NASA 9s education mission cto inspire the next generation of explorers. d The discoveries and new knowledge from SMD missions and research programs consistently engage people 9s imagina tions, inform teachers, and excite stu dents about science and exploration. Learn more about NASA 9s SMD and its educational programs and resources by visiting the following Web sites.<br><br> NASA 9s Science Mission Directorate Web Site provides an overview of SMD and links to current news, mission Web sites, and educa tional programs and resources. http://science.hq.nasa.gov The Space Science Education Resource Directory is a convenient way to find NASA science educa tion products for use in classrooms, sci ence museums, planetariums and other settings. There are several ways to search this directory: by grade, subject or topic.<br><br> http://teachspacescience.org NASA JPL has developed Curriculum Standards Quilts, which organize NASA space and Earth science education materials by national standards 4science and mathematics 4as well as California state science education standards. http://quilt.jpl.nasa.gov Subscribe to the NASA Earth and Space Education Update, a monthly email newsletter featuring the latest Earth and space science programs and resources for all levels of formal and informal education. To subscribe, send an email to: firstname.lastname@example.org Back issues are available at: http://science.hq.nasa.gov/ education/edreports NASA 9s Earth Observatory is an interactive Web-based magazine where the public can obtain new satellite imagery and scientific infor mation about our home planet.<br><br> Visit the Earth Observatory to read feature articles on wide-ranging Earth system science topics, download datasets and images for analysis, read break ing news, learn about current and planned Earth missions, search an online library for reference materials, and track natural hazards around the world in near-real time. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov NASA 9s SMD Web site 4http://science.hq.nasa.gov NASA Earth and Space Science Education earth and space science explorers\xf 6 National Aeronautics and Space Administration FOR THE CLASSROOM earth and space science explorers\xf NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers articles focus on science as a human endeavor. With new articles added regularly, the series offers a glimpse into the lives of people of all ages and backgrounds who embody the spirit of discovery, and who use NASA science and technology to explore from planet Earth to the far reaches of the universe.<br><br> Most articles are written for three different levels: grades K 34, grades 5 38, and grades 9 312 and up. K 34 versions of articles are typically intend ed as cread to d stories for K 32 or cread alone d stories for grades 3 34. The full collection of articles are available at: EARTH EXPLORERS http://science.hq.nasa.gov/education/ earth_explorers SPACE SCIENCE EXPLORERS http://science.hq.nasa.gov/education/ space_explorers Following are some suggestions for using these articles with students: Introduce or Conclude a Topic Articles from the Explorers series can be used as an intro duction/gear-up activity or as a conclusion/extension of a related curriculum unit.<br><br> Younger students can read the arti cle, listen as the teacher reads the article or explore the arti cle on their own in a reading center. Older students can read an assigned article or go online to identify and read articles as a launching point for an independent project. Develop Communication Skills Students can use the articles to develop communication skills by doing one of the follo wing: Collect articles from newspapers or magazines that also show science as a human endeavor 4something that people do, not just an accumulation of facts.<br><br> Write a review of an Explorers article or articles, similar to a book or movie review. Interview scientists in their community and write their own Explorers article. Invite a local scientist into the classroom to discuss his/her background and career.<br><br> The students can then write an Explorers -type article featuring that scientist. Expand Knowledge of What Real Scientists Do After selecting and reading several of the articles, small groups of students can discuss the follo wing questions: What are some of the common characteristics shared by NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers? Possible answers include: curiosity/asking questions; abil ity to work well/collaborate with others; effective commu nication skills; someone who believed in and encouraged them (e.g., a parent, relative, teacher or mentor).<br><br> Did any of the Explorers have barriers that they had to overcome? If yes, what were the barriers and how did they overcome them? Answers will depend on the articles chosen, and might include expectations (of themselves or by others) because of gender, ethnicity or physical disabilities; being the first person in their family to go to college; etc.<br><br> How did the Explorers in the articles become interested in their project or career? After reading the article, did you learn something new or surprising about the Explorers? What did you find interesting about the Explorers in the article(s)?<br><br> What questions do you have about these Explorers or their careers? How could you find the answers to ques tions about these careers? OTE: Not all articles will include information needed to nswer all of these questions.<br><br> N a 7 National Aeronautics and Space Administration FOR THE CLASSROOM Further Suggestions for Elementary/Middle School Students Students can brainstorm and create a chart showing what they know about the work done by scientists. Have them explain how they know that information. After reading an article(s), the students can create another chart showing what they now know about scientists and their work.<br><br> Compare the charts. Entry from 2004 IGES art contest for grades 2 34. Students can pick an Explorer on whom they will report.<br><br> This report can be done as an individual or group assign ment; the presen tation could be oral or written. Additionally, after reading Explorer articles, students can project themselves into the role of a scientist and write an article about themselves and their discoveries. Younger students could draw a picture of themselves as a scientist.<br><br> Credit: Elizabeth City State University Further Suggestions for High School Students Students can read an article and pick a related field that they find interesting (e.g., astronomy, meteorology, oceanography). Students can research the requirements for a job in that field (e.g., what type of degrees and preparation are required, what skills are necessary) and prepare a report. A group/class project might be to develop a resource center (online or hard copy) on science careers.<br><br> A marvelous panoramic view of Saturn was created by combining 165 images taken by the Cassini wide-angle camera on Sept. 15, 2006. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute Topic Index Following is a list of selected topics related to Earth and Space Science Explorers feature articles.<br><br> A com plete, updated index of article topics is available at http://www.strategies.org/NASAExplorers. African American Air Quality Animal Habitats Asteroids Astronomy Atmosphere Big Bang Theory Biology Black Holes Brown Dwarfs Clouds Coastal Areas Comets Dark Energy Einstein Engineers/Engineering Forests/Forest Fires Galaxies Geospatial Technologies Hispanic American Hurricanes Infrared Mars Meteorites Meteorology Moon Oceans/Oceanography Ozone Polar Regions Saturn/Titan Space Weather Spitzer Space Telescope Stars and Constellations Tree Rings/Climate Records Urban Growth Weather Women in Science earth and space science explorers\xf 8 National Aeronautics and Space Administration earth and space science explorers The Earth and Space Science Explorers Series support the follow ing science content standards (Na tional Science Education Standards, National Research Council, 1995): Content Standard G: History and Nature of Science All students should develop under standing of science as a human endeavor. GRADES K 34 Men and women have made a variety of contributions through out the history of science and technology.<br><br> Although men and women using scientific inquiry have learned much about the objects, events and phenomena in nature, much more remains to be understood. Science will never be finished. Many people choose science as a career and devote their entire lives to studying it.<br><br> Many people derive great pleasure from doing science. GRADES 5 38 Women and men of various social and ethnic backgrounds 4and with diverse interests, talents, qualities and motivations 4 engage in the activities of science, engineering and related fields. Some scien tists work in teams, and some work alone, but all communicate extensively with others.<br><br> Science requires different abil ities and qualities, depending on such factors as the field of study and type of inquiry. GRADES 9 312 Individuals and teams have con tributed and will continue to con tribute to the scientific enterprise. Pursuing science as a career or as a hobby can be both fascinat ing and intellectually rewarding.<br><br> Scientists are influenced by soci etal, cultural and personal beliefs and ways of viewing the world. Connecting to the National Science Education Standards Acknowledgments Dan Stillman and Theresa Schwerin, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, and Susie Duckworth, Duckworth Design Studio. Special thanks to Elizabeth Burck, 2006 32007 NASA Einstein Fellow; Teresa Hislop, Utah 9s Electronic High School; Constance Roth, Bay Waveland Middle School, Bay St.<br><br> Louis, MS; and Linda Webb, retired Maryland elementary school teacher, for contributing to and reviewing the cFor the Classroom d section of this poster. Download this poster as a PDF file at: http://www.strategies. org/NASAExplorers 9<br><br>