Volume 2, Issue 1 Dr. Jeanne Mather, Editor September 1999 Thanksgiving and Other Harvest Holidays Hispanic & Native American Resources September 15th - October 15th is designated as Hispanic Month, while the month of November is designated Native American Month. If you are interested in finding resources to help you incorporate information about these groups into your lessons the following may be of assistance.
Resources with a Hispanic flavor include: Mexico: A Literature-Based Multicultural Unit (Grade 1-3) by Betsy Franco (Evan-Moor Pub.), ISBN 1-55799-256-8 which includes cross-curriculum activities; Fiesta! Mexico 9s Great Celebrations by Elizabeth Silverthorne (Millbrook Press), ISBN 1- 56294-836-9 with historical information and related activities; Kids Explore America 9s Hispanic Heritage by Westridge Young Writers Workshop (John Muir Pub.), ISBN 1-56261-034-1 written by kids for kids with wonderful information, recipes, & activities; and The Hispanic Question Collection, by Linda Schwartz (Learning Works), ISBN 0-88160-263-9, a collection of over 200 questions about Hispanic history, geography, culture, etc. There are so many Native American resources, you may not be familiar with the following.
One of my favorites is More Than Moccasins: A Kid 9s Activity Guide to Traditional North (Continued on page 4) As fall approaches thoughts of football, autumn, Halloween, and ... more. less.
Thanksgiving arise. This gives teachers a great opportunity to share the history of fall festivals, not only Thanksgiving, but Chung Ch 9ui, the Festival of Thesmosphoria , Sulloth, Deepavali, Cerelia , a n d R o s h Hashanah. Take a few moments and learn about fall festivals around the world.<br><br> Thanksgiving was first celebrated in October of 1621 to celebrate the alliance of the Pilgrims and the Native Americans which enabled the Pilgrims to survive their first year in the New World. A national day of thanksgiving following the harvest was suggested in the late 1770 9s by the Continental Congress, and was officially proclaimed by Abraham Lincoln in 1863. Canada celebrates Thanksgiving similarly to the United States of America, but on the second Monday in October.<br><br> Related to this is the National Day of Mourning. The first such day was in 1970 and was a response to the actions of The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. At that time the Commonwealth asked Frank James, Wampanoag leader, to deliver a speech.<br><br> When it became known that his speech was an angry statement regarding the h i s t o r i c a l oppression of Native Americans, t h e Commonwealth cuninvited d him. Many looked upon this action to silence a voicing of historical wrongs done to the Native American people as shameful. Thus, the National Day of Mourning was born.<br><br> It is recognized each year by supporters who stand atop Coles Hill overlooking Plymouth Rock. The ancient Greeks honored their goddess of corn at The Festival of Thesmosphoria . In autumn the married women would build leafy shelters furnished with couches made of plants.<br><br> This was followed by a day of fasting and then a feast in hopes of the goddess granting them a good harvest. The Romans similarly honored their grain goddess in an October festival called Cerelia , with music, parades, games, sports and a thanksgiving feast. Chung Ch 9ui, is an ancient Chinese harvest festival.<br><br> The 15th day of the 8th month was recognized as the moon 9s birthday. Special moon cakes were baked and while Americans speak of cthe man in the moon d the Chinese speak of cthe rabbit in the moon, d thus their moon cakes had a picture of a rabbit stamped on them. During this three day celebration there was also a thanksgiving feast.<br><br> But this celebration was not only to celebrate the Moon 9s birthday, but also to remember the victory the Chinese had over an invading army. The Chinese used messages baked in moon cakes to plan an attack against the invaders. Sukkoth is a Jewish (Continued on page 3) Table of Contents Thanksgiving & Other Harvest Holidays, Hispanic / Native American Resources 1 Famous Hispanics and Native Americans 2 The Literature Connection, Halloween History 3 Harvest Festivals Classroom Spice DID YOU KNOW : One of our Astronauts is Native American?<br><br> Lt. John B. Herrington, born in Wetumka, OK, is America 9s first Native American Astronaut.<br><br> Many English words are borrowed from Native American Languages? Most borrowed words are from the Algonguin language. Borrowed words include chipmunk, raccoon, skunk, moose, opossum, hickory, and pecan.<br><br> Tinker Air Force Base is named in honor of an Osage pilot? Clarence Tinker was placed in charge of the remnants of the Air Corps in Hawaii following Pearl Harbor 9s attack. He reorganized & trained these forces, along with those which would later win the Battle of Midway .<br><br> He attained the rank of Major General, and was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal. Other than Ricky Martin, Jennifer Lopez, and Enrique Iglesias how informed are you and/ or your students about successful Hispanic and Native Americans? This is a great conversation starter and research motivator.<br><br> Take a few minutes and see how well you do. Information for these questions came primarily from Extraordinary American Indians , by Susan Avery & Linda Skinner, Children 9s Press; ISBN 0-516-00583-9 ; The Biographical Dictionary of Hispanic Americans , by Nicholas Meyer, Facts on File, ISBN 0-8160-3280-7; Native American Scientists and Hispanic Scientists by Jetty St. John, Capstone Press, ISBN 1-56065-35-0 & 1-56065-360-4; and Hispanic, September 1996.<br><br> (Answers are provided on page 4.) WHO AM I? Clue Identity 1_____In 1889 she became the first Native American A. Will Rogers woman physician B.<br><br> Luis Alvarez 2_____ 1964 world record setting, Olympic athlete C. Carlos Ramirez 3_____In 1986 became the first Hispanic American astronaut in space D. Eloy Rodriguez 4_____First woman chief of the Cherokee Nation E.<br><br> Susan La Flesche 5_____Pima soldier & World War II Hero, immortalized F. Jim Thorpe as one of six who raised the flag over Iwo Jima G. Wilma Mankiller 6_____One of the most sought-after composers in Hollywood H.<br><br> Billy Mills 7_____Navajo marine biologist whose lab was featured in Free Willy 2 I. Sequoyah 8_____Inventor of the Cherokee writing system J. Ira Hayes 9_____Nobel winning Hispanic physicist, & leader K.<br><br> Carlos Finlay in the asteroid theory of dinosaur extinction M. Scottie Henderson 10____Cherokee cowboy humorist, writer, & actor N. Frank Chang-Diaz 11____Established a new area of research involving the study of plants & other natural products used O.<br><br> Te Ata cby d animals as medicines (zoopharmacognosy) P. Lalo Schifrin 12____Tishomingo born Chickasaw storyteller, declared an Oklahoma State Treasure in the 1990 9s 13____Olympic athlete who later played professional football cand d baseball 14____Biomedical engineer working on an artificial pancreas to help diabetics, as well as skin implants 15___Hispanic physician whose work on Yellow Fever enabled the completion of the Panama Canal Famous Hispanics and Native Americans Famous Hispanics and Native Americans 2 Classroom Spice The Literature Connection (Harvest Festivals 4cont 9d from page 1) harvest festival which has been celebrated over 3000 years. This festival lasts eight days and is a recognition of the huts (s uccots ) Moses and the Israelites lived in during their 40 years in the desert.<br><br> During Sukkoth the Jewish people build small temporary huts of branches in which they eat their evening meals comprised of fruits and vegetables. The ancient Egyptian harvest festival featured a parade, music, dancing and sports. Out of fear that their god of vegetation and fertility would become angry the farmers would weep and pretend to be grief- stricken when harvesting their crops.<br><br> Note also that in Egypt harvest occurs in Spring, so the harvest festival was actually a Spring event. In Malaysia, the Festival of Lights, Deepavali, is a day celebrated around October and November. It is the day when good forces overcome evil and involves decorating with tiny lights, prayers, incense, and food.<br><br> So you see, fall festivals and giving thanks are a worldwide tradition. Help your students become global citizens. Try and share similarities and differences in traditions and celebrations found around the world.<br><br> when Christians would walk from village to village, on All Saints Day, begging for soul cakes 4not candy. In exchange for the soul cakes they would promise to say prayers for the donor 9s dead relatives in hopes of accelerating their ascent into heaven. The official term ctrick-or-treat d didn 9t start until the 1930 9s.<br><br> Pranks are also often associated with Halloween. In fact in northern Britain it is referred to as cMischief Night. d These are just a few of the Halloween roots.<br><br> Hope you enjoyed the holiday trivia! 3 Introducing the reader to books which help promote multicultural education is a regular feature of Classroom Spice. A prime example of that is Under Our Skin: Kids Talk About Race , by Debbie Holsclaw Birdseye and Tom Birdseye (Holiday House), ISBN 0-8234-1325-X which relates the stories of six twelve and thirteen year olds of varying ethnicities and their perceptions on race.<br><br> A wonderful treatment of a very important topic. Since the fall includes Hispanic Month and Native American Month the rest of this issue 9s reviews will concentrate on children 9s Hispanic or Native American literature. See what great books are available with a possible tie-in to your content/grade level.<br><br> An excellent secondary level or reference text is Indian Chiefs by Russell Freedman ISBN 0-590-45357-2 . It relates the story of the decline of the American Indian from the perspective of six great Indian Chiefs: Red Cloud, Satanta, Quanah Parker, Washakie, Joseph, and Sitting Bull. It tells of the historical events, and the lives of those who waged war, of those who waged peace, and of those who lost so much 4fascinating.<br><br> An elementary level book Buffalo Days by Diane Hoyt-Godlsmith (Holiday House), ISBN 0-8234-1327-6, tells the story of a Crow family whose responsibilities include care of the tribe 9s buffalo herd and follows them as they celebrate the Buffalo Days and Crow Fair and Rodeo. It provides a look at how people today are trying to maintain their cultural roots. Tundra Books publishes a series on Native dwellings, which is very informative.<br><br> For example in Houses of Adobe by Bonnie Shemie ISBN 0-516-08173-X we learn about the architecture and building techniques of the Southwestern Native Americans including pueblos, cliff dwellings, and kivas, plus information about how Native Americans were able to live in such arid regions. Bill Wallace 9s The Final Freedom is a great middle school and up book about a young boy who meets Geronimo while the latter is imprisoned at Ft. Sill.<br><br> It tells of friendship in an Oklahoma setting. For a more current day story, and higher reading level, try The Owl 9s Son by Janet Campbell Hale. This tells the story of a Native American high school student 9s (Continued on page 4) Is Halloween an American holiday?<br><br> Actually Halloween is a combination of several worldwide traditions and beliefs. For example it comes in part from early Christian 9s All Saints Day, November 1st. On that day Catholics would celebrate a mass called Allhallowmas (the mass for all Hallows or saintly people who did not have a special day of their own).<br><br> Another belief about Halloween says that it originated as the Celtic New Year 9s Eve, October 31st. That was the day when the disembodied spirits of those who had died within the preceding year would go in search of new bodies to inhabit . To ward off being taken over, people would dress up to scare the spirits away.<br><br> scare the spirits away. Related to Halloween, is the Day of the Dead, Día de Muertos , celebrated by Mexican-Americans on the first and second day of November to honor family and friends who have died during the year. Many Mexican and Latin Americans believe that the souls of their departed relatives return to share a feast with the living.<br><br> The celebration includes small altars in each home surrounded by pictures and other mementos of the recently dead, lots of food, clean up and placement of flowers in the cemetery, papier-mâché skeleton masks worn during processions and plays, prayers, and a mass. What about the tradition of c trick or treating? d It began in the ninth century Answers to Quiz 1 - E 6 - P 11 - D 2 - H 7 - M 12 - O 3 - N 8 - I 13 - F 4 - G 9 - B 14 - C 5 - J 10 - A 15 - K some of the English translations.<br><br> The translations may be true to the text, but not to the beauty of words. A great book for ESL students or students studying Spanish which even nonspanish speaking students can enjoy. (If you are curious Arroz con Leche, means rice and milk, is a song based on a dish.<br><br> The author provides the recipe on the back cover.) Remember books can be seen and checked out from the MRC at USAO. (Resources 4Cont 9d from page 1) American Indian Life by Laurie Carlson (Chicago Review), ISBN 1-55652- 213-4 packed with cultural notes, fast facts, and all kinds of activities and crafts geared for ages 3-9, but selected items will interest even older students. Another great resource is Read & Respond: Native American Literature by Karen Brown & Holly Engel (Edupress), ISBN 1- 56472-029-2, for grades 3-6 and is reproducible.<br><br> It includes 8.5" x 11" color posters, book summaries, related activities and blackline masters. Another source A Unit about Woodland Indians by Elaine Cleary (Evan-Moor) is one in a series including Native American history, culture, games, and critical thinking skill activities. USAO Multicultural Resource Center 1727 W.<br><br> Alabama Chickasha, OK 73018 Phone (405) 574-1291 Email: Facmatherj@usao.edu In This Issue... In This Issue... Fall Celebrations, Hispanic Month and Native American Month Information communion and his parent 9s application for amnesty.<br><br> An excellent, up close look at one immigrant family 9s life. Everyone knows what a Piñata looks like. But there is a lot more to being a piñata maker than just knowing your way around papier mâché.<br><br> This bilingual book is appropriate for elementary through junior high and can easily be used to talk about culture and/or art. Arroz con Leche: Popular Songs and Rhymes from Latin America by Lulu Deacre shares the children 9s songs and rhymes from her childhood. The lovely illustrations and Spanish/English text is a must for any library.<br><br> Hopefully readers will attempt to read orally the cSpanish d rhymes and songs as the beauty of the rhythm and rhyme are lost when read silently or through (Literature 4Cont 9d from page 3) move from an Idaho reservation to a California city and the problems he encounters. The author, himself Coeur d 9Alene, artfully addresses racism, social isolation, and many of the problems of today 9s youth. Gaucho , by Gloria Gonzalez, is similar in that it tells the story of a young Hispanic who is living in New York and hating every minute of it.<br><br> It shows many aspects of the Hispanic culture, as well as inner city culture. This book is aimed at middle school and up. Hector Lives in the United States Now: The Story of a Mexican-American Child by Joan Hewett, photographs by Richard Hewett, is also about a young Hispanic boy who lives in America, but Hector likes it.<br><br> This elementary through middle school book follows some of his family 9s major events such as his brother 9s first 4