Comparing the Effects of Two Types of Groin Dressing Securements on Skin Integrity, Hematoma Formation and Bleeding After Arterial Sheath Removal by Mary E. Singleton, RN, MSN 2 Background Impaired skin integrity is an adverse complication associated with the use of adhesive tape to secure the groin dressing after angiographic procedures. Purpose: The purpose of this project was to evaluate the impact of the tape used to secure the post-femoral artery sheath removal dressing on skin integrity, hematoma formation and bleeding, and to develop a tool that could be used for ongoing patient outcome analysis.
Method: In this Quality Improvement project, two groups of adult patients were observed following removal of their femoral artery sheaths. Using current hospital protocols, groin dressings were secured with either 3M " Medipore " H Soft Cloth Surgical Tape or Johnson & Johnson Elastikon ® Elastic Tape. If the sheath was removed in the cardiac catheter lab, Medipore H tape was used to secure the groin dressing.
If the sheath was removed on a nursing unit, Elastikon tape was used to secure the groin dressing. Measures: Skin integrity, hematoma formation and bleeding were assessed immediately after hemostasis was established (baseline), and 6 38 hours and 12 316 ... more. less.
hours post-hemostasis. Findings: There was no difference in hematoma formation between the groups ( p = .960); however, there was a statistically signiVcant difference in loss of skin integrity ( p < .001).<br><br> Patients with Medipore H tape securing the dressing had signiVcantly lower incidence of loss of skin integrity (6.7%) than patients with Elastikon tape securing the dressing (80%). Conclusion: The type of tape used to secure the groin dressing post-femoral artery sheath removal has a signiVcant effect of the quality of skin integrity, but for this sample, no difference in hematoma formation or bleeding. Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States.<br><br> Invasive procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of CVD include cardiac catheterization, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), rotoblator, athrectomy, laser and coronary artery stent. All of these procedures involve percutaneous access to the femoral artery. Promoting hemostasis after femoral artery sheath removal is an essential element of patient care.<br><br> Manual and mechanical compression devices along with collagen plugs are the initial methods to achieve hemostasis. Subsequent care generally includes a combination of visual monitoring, bed rest, sandbags and pressure dressings. Complications most commonly identiVed after removal of a femoral sheath include bleeding, hematoma formation, pseudoaneurysm and impaired perfusion to the extremity distal to the site of sheath removal (Lynn-McHale & Carlson, 2001).<br><br> The frequency of groin complications, including hematoma formation and bleeding, are difVcult to track and are highly variable depending upon procedure, population and measurement tool. Published rates range from .5 to 15% (Silkman, Kim, & Baim, 1988; Simon, Bumgarner, Clark, & Israel, 1998). Loss of skin integrity under the groin dressing was often considered a minor complication or not mentioned in studies; however, one study noted a 7.9% rate of skin injury related to the post-procedural dressing secural (Blankenship, Clegg, & Powell, 1991).<br><br> Guidelines for practice must be validated through scientiVcally based studies. Differences in dressing protocols require investigation of their impact on skin integrity, hematoma formation and bleeding. Although lacking in control and randomization, Quality Improvement projects in clinical practice provide a setting in which interventions may be evaluated for their impact on patient outcomes.<br><br> The Problem When nursing staff at a large Midwestern regional medical center identiVed signiVcant loss of skin integrity under groin dressings as an adverse outcome after cardiac catheterization, dressing application protocols were changed and a quality improvement project instituted. Forty percent of the patients (n = 4/10) had erythema and/or epithelial stripping after removal of the pressure dressing. The dressing protocol was revised by discontinuing use of the benzoin spray and adding a skin prep before the dressing was applied.<br><br> Elastikon tape, with bi-directional stretch, remained the securement device, but smaller pieces of tape were applied with less stretch of the tape during application and adhesive remover was used during removal. (See Dressing Protocols, Tables 1 & 2.) This change in practice resulted in an immediate reduction in incidents of patients 9 impaired skin integrity. During a follow-up, no patients exhibited stripping or blisters, and only one (n = 1/10) had erythema which was minimal.<br><br> The committee noted that use of the skin prep and adhesive remover were inconsistent and removed them from the dressing protocol. In the following year and a half, intermittent complaints of skin irritation and anecdotal reports of increased hematomas and bleeding were received Comparing the Effects of Two Types of Groin Dressing Securements on Skin Integrity, Hematoma Formation and Bleeding After Arterial Sheath Removal by Mary E. Singleton, RN, MSN Table 1.<br><br> Original Dressing Protocol After achieving hemostasis, apply pressure dressing: 1. Cut three 10 312 inch pieces of Elastikon tape 2. Apply 8 310 folded sterile 4x4 gauze sponges 3.<br><br> Abduct the patient 9s hip 4. Tightly stretch the tape over the gauze sponges 5. Return the hip to midline 6.<br><br> Apply 5 lb. sandbag 7. Remove dressing in 24 hours 3 by the cardiac catheterization lab staff.<br><br> This project was developed in response to staff requests for assistance in determining optimal care guidelines for patients after removal of femoral arterial sheaths. The staff of the cardiac catheterization lab selected an alternate adhesive tape, Medipore H tape, a non-woven, polyester csoft cloth d tape with cross and diagonal stretch, (See Dressing Protocols, Table 3) while the nursing care areas continued to use the standard tape (Elastikon tape) to secure the pressure dressings. This project evaluated the two clinical groups post-femoral artery sheath removal for the outcomes of skin integrity, hematoma formation and bleeding.<br><br> Methodology Project Design This prospective, repeated measure study compared the effects of two types of adhesive tape used to secure post- femoral artery sheath removal dressings on skin integrity, hematoma formation and bleeding in a convenience sample. The use of Medipore H tape or Elastikon tape was based on the standard protocol in the patient care area where the arterial sheath was removed. If the sheath was removed in the Cardiac Catheterization Lab, Medipore H tape was used to secure the groin dressing.<br><br> If the sheath was removed on a nursing unit, Elastikon tape was used to secure the groin dressing. The dressing protocols were very similar and the post-procedural care was identical except that patients in the Elastikon tape group returned to the nursing unit with the arterial sheath secured by Medipore H tape. The Medipore H tape was replaced with Elastikon tape when the sheath was pulled, so this group had one more cdressing d change.<br><br> To help control for this effect, patients with impaired skin integrity at baseline (after hemostasis has been obtained) were not included in the project. Skin integrity, hematoma formation and bleeding were measured at three points in time: (a) immediately after hemostasis had been obtained but before application of the groin dressing, (b) 6 38 hours and (c) 12 316 hours post-hemostasis. Instruments The outcome variables (skin integrity, hematoma formation and bleeding) were measured by physical assessment of the groin site.<br><br> Patients with impaired skin integrity or injury at baseline were excluded from the project. Skin Integrity Scale . Skin integrity was measured by visual inspection of the skin where the dressing was applied using the Skin Integrity Scale (Patrick & Maibach, 1991).<br><br> The groin site was graded on an ordinal scale, 0 to 4, based on the following categories: 0. Negative, normal skin: no apparent cutaneous involvement 1. DeLnite erythema: faint but deLnite erythema, no eruptions or broken skin OR no erythema but deLnite dryness; may have epidermal Lssuring 2.<br><br> Erythema and induration: moderate erythema, may have a few papules or deep Lssures, moderate to severe erythema in cracks 3. Vesiculation: severe erythema (beet redness), may have generalized papules OR moderate to severe erythema with slight edema (edges well deLned by raising) 4. Bullous reaction: generalized vesicles or eschar formations OR moderate to severe erythema and/or edema extending beyond the area of the patch (p.<br><br> 210). Hematoma Formation and Bleeding Scale . The hemostasis scale for evaluating hematoma formation and bleeding was originally developed by Christenson, Staab, Burko, & Foster (1976).<br><br> In 1995, it was modiVed by Hogan-Miller, Rustad, Sendelbach, & Goldenberg by adding measurement of the hematoma in centimeters. Variations of this instrument have been used in several studies (Barkman & Lunse, 1994; Christenson et al., 1976; Eisenberg & Mani, 1977) although these researchers did not discuss the validity or reliability of the tool. Hematomas and bleeding were graded on an ordinal scale, 0 to 4, based on the following categories: 0.<br><br> Benign: no bleeding, no hematoma 1. Small hematoma, scant oozing: no intervention except application of 4x4 gauze 2. Moderate hematoma or bleeding: application of manual pressure for less than or equal to 15 minutes 3.<br><br> Large hematoma (> 5 cm) or bleeding: extended pressure application for more than 15 minutes 4. Surgical intervention, hematoma evacuation, pseudoaneurysm repair Loss of blood was deVned as application of additional manual pressure on the puncture site for > 15 minutes to alleviate bleeding. Hematoma was deVned as the presence Æ of a localized mass of blood under the skin.<br><br> Hematoma formation and bleeding were assessed by palpation, visual inspection and chart review. The RN palpated the femoral arterial puncture site for a hard accumulation of blood Table 2. Revised J & J Elastikon ® Elastic Tape Dressing Protocol After achieving hemostasis, apply pressure dressing: 1.<br><br> Cut 1 or 2 pieces, 8 310 inches long, of 3-inch-wide Elastikon tape 2. Apply cPrep-Site d protective wipe to the groin site* 3. Apply 8 310 folded sterile 4x4 gauze sponges 4.<br><br> Apply optimal pressure when securing tape without hip abduction 5. Apply 5 lb. sandbag 6.<br><br> Remove dressing in 12 316 hours using adhesive remover and a gentle pulling motion * 7. Apply a small adhesive bandage to puncture site for 24 hours * The protective wipe and adhesive remover were not used at the time of the study. Table 3.<br><br> 3M " Medipore " H Soft Cloth Surgical Tape Dressing Protocol After achieving hemostasis, apply pressure dressing: 1. Cut one 8 310 inch length of 3-inch-wide Medipore H tape 2. Apply 4 folded sterile 4x4 gauze sponges 3.<br><br> Apply optimal pressure when securing tape without hip abduction 4. Apply 5 lb. sandbag 5.<br><br> Remove dressing in 12 316 hours 6. Apply a small adhesive bandage to puncture site for 24 hours 4 Methodology (continued) under the skin. The edges of the hematoma were outlined with a marking pen and the widest dimension measured to the nearest centimeter.<br><br> The chart was also reviewed for documentation of bleeding from the site. Sample Groups The target population was adult patients undergoing diagnostic or interventional cardiac procedures performed via percutaneous transfemoral arterial approach at an urban Midwestern regional medical center. Following current practice, patients having sheaths removed immediately in the Cardiac Catheterization Recovery Room (following diagnostic procedures) had 3M " Medipore " H Soft Cloth Surgical Tape used to secure the groin dressing.<br><br> Patients having sheaths removed either in the Interventional Cardiology Unit or Coronary Intensive Care Unit (following diagnostic or interventional procedures) had Elastikon tape used to secure the groin dressings. A convenience sample of 30 patients was in each group. Exclusion criteria included thrombolytic therapy within 48 hours of the time of procedure, known bleeding disorders, intra-aortic balloon placement, injury to the groin from prior invasive procedures, and tape allergy or hypersensitivity.<br><br> Procedure An initial assessment provided a baseline measurement for all participants and was documented on the data collection tool. The edges of the dressing were elevated to make the assessment at 6 38 hours. If no problems were identiVed, the edges of the dressing were resealed.<br><br> At 12 316 hours, the dressing was completely removed and the area reassessed. A csmall adhesive bandage d was then applied to the puncture site. Results Seventy-seven patients were initially assessed for this project.<br><br> Seventeen were eliminated due to incomplete data sets, early discharge from the hospital, use of a collagen plug resulting in different dressing/post-procedure protocol, patient confusion, groin bruising remaining from prior heart catheterization, extended catheter indwell time and hematoma formation. Sixty patients were included in the data analysis. Descriptive statistics, two-sample t-tests and Fisher exact tests revealed similarities and differences between the two groups.<br><br> The groups had similar demographic characteristics. The J & J Elastikon tape group had greater total co-morbidities, but hypertension was not statistically different between groups. As anticipated, the groups were dissimilar with regards to documented diagnosis of coronary artery disease (66.6% Medipore H tape group; 93.3% Elastikon tape group) and procedural characteristics (100% diagnostic heart catheterizations in the Medipore H tape group; more angioplasties, stents, and rotoblators in the Elastikon tape group).<br><br> However, the length of time pressure was applied to achieve hemostasis was similar despite the larger sizes of arterial sheaths, longer sheath dwell time and higher levels of heparinization in the Elastikon tape group (see Table 4). The Mann-Whitney U test and Backward Stepwise Multiple Regression were used to analyze the relationship between the variables and the patient outcomes. Statistical signiVcance was not achieved for any of the demographic characteristics or co-morbidities in relation to the outcomes of skin integrity, hematoma formation or bleeding.<br><br> Table 4. Comparison of Co-Morbidity and Procedural Factors by Group 3M " Medipore " H J & J Fisher Exact Test Soft Cloth Surgical Tape Elastikon ® Elastic Tape Level of SigniLcance Cath Lab Recovery Interventional/CICU ( p value) Co-Morbidity n (%) n (%) Coronary Artery Disease 21 (69.9%) 28 (93.3%) .042 Diabetes Mellitus 7 (23.3%) 13 (43.3%) .170 (ns) Peripheral Vascular Disease 3 (9.9%) 3 (9.9%) .237 (ns) Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 5 (16.6%) 9 (29.9%) .360 (ns) Congestive Heart Failure 27 22 .472 (ns) Obesity 9 (29%) 7 (23.3%) .771 (ns) Hypertension 22 (73.3%) 20 (66.6%) .779 (ns) Procedural Factors Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Two-sample t-test ( p value) Sheath size (fr) 7.0 ± .9 8.0 ± .5 < .001 Indwell time (min) 29.7 ± 14.5 769.3 ± 525.3 < .001 Maximum Systolic Pressure recorded (mm Hg) 151 ± 19.7 141 ± 14.9 .048 Maximum Diastolic Pressure recorded (mm Hg) 85 ± 9.3 78 ± 9.7 .007 Amount of heparin administered (units) 1400 ± 1522 7016 ± 4706 < .001 Length of time femoral artery compressed to achieve hemostasis (min) 22.6 ± 7.5 27.7 ± 19.4 .180 (ns) Age, height and weight were not signiLcantly different between groups. 5 3M " Medipore " H Soft Cloth Surgical Tape Cath Lab Recovery J & J Elastikon ® Elastic Tape Interventional/CICU 3M " Medipore " H Soft Cloth Surgical Tape Cath Lab Recovery J & J Elastikon ® Elastic Tape Interventional/CICU 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% 100% 43.3% 50% 6.7% 6.7% 93.3% 43.3% 20% 30% 6.7% Figure 1.<br><br> Impact of Dressing Secural on Incidence of Impaired Skin Integrity After Femoral Sheath Removal Erythema with Generalized Papules Erythema and Induration Erythema without Breaks in Skin Skin Intact Skin Integrity Although groin skin was intact for all subjects at baseline (immediately after the sheath was pulled and hemostasis achieved), differences in skin integrity became apparent by 6 38 hours (see Figure 1). " At 6 38 hours post-hemostasis 100% of the patients in the Medipore H tape group had normal skin, while 56% of those in the Elastikon tape group began to show signs of skin problems; 13 (43.3%) had normal skin; 15 (50%) had deVnite erythema but no breaks in the skin and 2 (6.7%) had erythema plus induration ( p < .001). " At 12 316 hours post-hemostasis 93.3% of the patients in the Medipore H tape group had skin that remained intact.<br><br> Two Medipore H tape patients (6.7%) developed erythema but no broken skin. 20% of the Elastikon tape patients 9 skin remained intact; 13 (43.3%) had deVnite erythema without broken skin; 9 (30%) displayed erythema and induration and 2 (6.7%) developed erythema with generalized papules ( p < .001). Thus, there was a statistically signiVcant difference in loss of skin integrity between the groups.<br><br> Patients who had groin dressings secured with Medipore H tape had signiVcantly lower incidence of loss of skin integrity (6.7%) than patients who had dressings secured with Elastikon tape (80%). Hematoma Formation and Bleeding There was no difference in hematoma formation between the groups. At baseline, 86% of the patients who would enter the Medipore H tape group and 79.9% of patients who would enter the J & J Elastikon tape group had no or benign (rated 0) hematomas.<br><br> At 6 38 hours, 86.6% of patients in both groups were rated 0 ( p = .96). At 12 316 hours, 89% of patients in both groups were rated 0 ( p = .989). Of the hematomas/bleeding noted at the Vnal assessment, one patient in the Medipore H tape group had a hematoma that was rated a 1 (small) and two were rated 3 (large); one patient in the Elastikon tape group had a hematoma that was rated a 1 (small), one was rated a 3 (large), one was rated a 4 and subsequently had surgical repair of a pseudoaneurysm.<br><br> 6 38 Hours Post-Hemostasis 12 316 Hours Post-Hemostasis 6 Discussion Studies examining care of patients after femoral artery sheath removal have frequently described the lack of scientiVcally tested patient care guidelines. This project provided objective data on the outcomes of skin integrity, hematoma formation and bleeding. Skin Integrity In this project, loss of skin integrity was identiVed at 12 316 hours in 80% of the Elastikon tape group and 6.7% of the 3M Medipore " H Soft Cloth Surgical Tape.<br><br> A statistically signiVcant difference ( p < .001) was noted at both assessments 2 and 3. A Backward Stepwise Logistical Regression identiVed taping procedure as the only variable implicated in the outcome of skin integrity loss. Loss of skin integrity had been cited in several studies (Blankenship et al., 1991; Blaylock et al., 1995; Bogart, 1995; Bogart et al., 1995; Christenson et al., 1976; Faller, Kantorski, Morgan, & Keller, 1995; Haygood et al., 1993; Wikblad & Anderson, 1995).<br><br> The common variable implicated in all of the studies was tape. Data from this project support the results of previous research Vndings. Hematoma Formation and Bleeding Dressings secured with Medipore H tape and Elastikon tape had similar incidents of hematoma formation; 3 from each group ( p = .960), an incident rate of 10%, with one surgical intervention.<br><br> No single variable was related to hematoma formation. The Vndings were in contrast to several studies which implicated several factors associated with hematoma formation: higher blood pressure (Christenson et al., 1976; Waksman et al., 1995), larger sheath size (Vignola et al., 1981; Silkman et al., 1988), degree of heparinization (Bowden, Matsco & Worrey, 1998; Waksman et al., 1995), female gender (Blankenship et al., 1991; Hogan-Miller et al., 1995; Waksman et al., 1995; Wikblad & Anderson, 1995), increased age (Blaylock et al., 1995, Waksman et al., 1995) and dressing type (Blankenship et al., 1991; Christenson, 1976; Eisenberg & Mani, 1977). Limitations Some limitations of this project were related to sample, environment and project design.<br><br> The sample was predominately Caucasian. The two groups differed in procedures much more than expected. Except for the length of time pressure was held to attain hemostasis, differences in all of the procedural characteristics were statistically signiVcant, which made the Vndings less generalizable.<br><br> The project design also had limitations. With a sample size of 30, the project had an acceptable power of 0.91, but the lack of randomization for group assignment led to an increased risk of sampling bias. The risk of committing a Type II error with nonparametric tests was recognized, however they were used due to the distribution free assumptions of these tests.<br><br> Additional limitation was that the instruments lacked demonstrated validity and reliability. Content validity was conVrmed by experts. All of the expert clinicians who evaluated the Hematoma Scale suggested the addition of cbruising d to clarify the Hematoma Scale in future studies.<br><br> Finally, the variation in arterial sheath insertion technique between physicians and arterial sheath removal technique and taping technique among practitioners could not be controlled. Conclusion Post-procedural care is delivered by nursing staff. Guidelines for care must be revised according to science-based evaluation of patient outcomes.<br><br> Nursing staff identiVed and reported the issue of loss of skin integrity with an elastic pressure dressing. Comparisons of an elastic tape and a soft cloth tape provided objective data on the effectiveness and complication rates of each type of dressing secural. Using Medipore H tape to secure the groin dressings resulted in signiVcantly better skin integrity than using Elastikon tape with no increase in incidence of hematoma formation.<br><br> Potential beneVts may also include cost savings since fewer gauze sponges were used in the Medipore H tape protocol. Clinical staff were in a position to identify issues that impacted patient outcomes and were excited to participate in a meaningful quality improvement project. Optimal guidelines for the care of patients post-arterial sheath removal were developed and implemented resulting in enhanced patient outcomes and a tool for ongoing measurements of patient outcomes upon post-arterial sheath removal.<br><br> 7 Figure 2. Data Collection Tool: Post-Femoral Sheath Removal This project was submitted to the School of Nursing and the faculty of the Graduate School of Wichita State University in parti al fulDllment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Nursing, Spring 1997. Data Collection T ool Procedure:___________________Date:___________Unit:________Hospital #:___________________ Data Collection: Enter available data Demographic Data Procedure Data 1.<br><br> Age: _________ 1. Femoral sheath size: _____ fr 2. Gender: F or M 2.<br><br> Time sheath in dwelling: _____ hr 3. Height: ______ ft ______ in 3. PTT at removal time: _____ sec 4.<br><br> Weight: ______ kg 4. Time pressure held: _____ min 5. ASA: Yes or No 5.<br><br> BP max post line removal: _____ Sys _____ Dia 6. Chronic steroid use: Yes or No 6. Amount of heparin during heart cath: _____ U 7.<br><br> Hormonal therapy: Yes or No 8. Ethnic origin: 9. Co-Morbidities: Clinical Intervention: Circle One J & J ElastikonTape or 3M " Medipore " H Soft Cloth Tape Clinical Outcomes: Enter the score for each scale at the indicated time intervals below.<br><br> Skin Integrity Scale Hematoma Scale 0. Negative, normal skin: no apparent cutaneous involvement 1. DeDnite erythema: faint but deDnite erythema, no eruptions or broken skin OR no erythema but deDnite dryness, may have epidermal Dssuring 2.<br><br> Erythema and induration: moderate erythema; may have a few papules or deep Dssures, moderate to severe erythema in cracks 3. Vesiculation: severe erythema (beet redness), may have generalized papules OR moderate to severe erythema with slight edema (edges well deDned by raising) 4. Bullous reaction: generalized vesicles or eschar formations OR moderate to severe erythema and/or edema extending beyond the area of the patch 0.<br><br> Benign: no bleeding, no hematoma. 1. Small hematoma, scant oozing: no intervention except application of 4x4 gauze.<br><br> 2. Moderate hematoma or bleeding: application of manual pressure for less than or equal to 15 minutes 3. Large hematoma (> 5 cm) or bleeding: extended pressure application for more than 15 minutes 4.<br><br> Surgical intervention, hematoma evacuation, pseudoaneurysm repair Immediately:Skin Integrity : _____Immediately: Hematoma: _______ 6 38 hours:Skin Integrity: _____6 38 hours: Hematoma: _ ______ 12 316 hours:Skin Integrity : _____12 316 hours: Hematoma: _______ Comments: Singleton, 1997 Barkman, A., & Lunse, C.P. (1994). The effect of early ambulation on patient comfort and delayed bleeding after cardiac angiogram: A pilot study.<br><br> Heart & Lung, 23, 112 3117. Blankenship, R.D., Clegg, L.A., & Powell, D.T. (1991).<br><br> Postarteriographic pressure dressings: Two types. Critical Care Nurse, 11, 92 396. Blaylock, B., Murray, M., O 9Connell, K., & Rex, J.<br><br> (1995). Tape injury in the patient with total hip replacement. Orthopedic Nursing, 14(3), 25 328.<br><br> Bogart, M.A. (1995). Time to hemostasis: A comparison of manual verses mechanical compression of the femoral artery.<br><br> American Journal of Critical Care, 4, 149 3156. Bogart, D.B., Bogart, M.A., Miller, J.T., Farrar, M.W., Barr, W.K., & Montgomery, M.A. (1995).<br><br> Femoral artery catheterization complications: A study of 503 consecutive patients. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis, 34(1), 8 313. Bowden, S.M., Matsco, M., & Worrey, J.A.<br><br> (1998). Time of removal of femoral sheaths after interventional procedures: complications of hemoglobin and hematocrit values. American Journal of Critical Care, 7, 197 3199.<br><br> Christensen, B.V., Manion, R.V., Lacarella, C.L., Meyer, S.M., Cartland, J.L., Bruhn-Ding, B.J., & Wilson, R.F. (1998). Vascular complications after angiography with and without the use of sandbags.<br><br> Nursing Research, 47(1), 51 353. Christenson, R., Staab, E.V., Burko, H., & Foster, J. 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(1995).<br><br> Effects of three methods of femoral site immobilization on bleeding and comfort after coronary angiogram. American Journal of Critical Care, 4, 143 3148. Lynn-McHale, D.J.<br><br> & Carlson, K.K. (ed.) (2001). AACN Procedure Manual for Critical Care.<br><br> (4th Ed.) St. Louis: W.B. Saunders.<br><br> Patrick, E., & Maibach, H.I. (1991). Human tests for predicting irritation.<br><br> In F.N. Marzulli, & H.I. Maibach (Eds.), Dermatotoxicology (pp.<br><br> 209 3219). New York: Hemisphere Publishing. Silkman, J.J., Kim, D., & Baim, D.S.<br><br> (1988). Vascular complications of percutaneous femoral cardiac interventions. Archives of Surgery, 123, 1207 31212.<br><br> Simon, A., Bumgarner, B., Clark, K., & Israel, S. (1998). Manual versus mechanical compression for femoral artery hemostasis after cardiac catheterization.<br><br> American Journal of Critical Care, 7(4): 308 3313. Vignola, P.A., Swaye, P.S., & Gosselin, A.J., (1981). Guidelines for effective and safe percutaneous intraaortic balloon pump insertion and removal.<br><br> The American Journal of Cardiology, 48, 660 3664. Waksman, R., Spencer, B.K., Douglas, J.S., Shen, Y., Ewing, H., Mueller, L., Ghazzal, Z.M., & Weintraub, W.S. (1995).<br><br> Predictors of groin complications after balloon and new device coronary intervention. The American Journal of Cardiology, 75, 886 3889. Wikblad, K.<br><br> & Anderson, B. (1995). A comparison of three wound dressings in patients undergoing heart surgery.<br><br> Nursing Research, 44(5), 312 3316. References 3 Health Care 3M Center, Building 275-4W-02 St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 USA 1800 228-3957 healthcare@3M.com www.3M.com/healthcare 3M Canada Post OfVce Box 5757 London, Ontario N6A 4T1 Canada 1800 563-2921 Minimum 10% Post-Consumer Fiber Elastikon is a registered trademark of Johnson & Johnson Company.<br><br> H.I. 4509 Printed in U.S.A. © 3M 2003 All Rights Reserved 70-2009-4553-6<br><br>