" Greek mythology: Daedalus and Icarus 3 Escape from Crete " 863 BC: Bladud ( King Lear ! s father) 3 9 th king of England 3 First tower-jumper 3 Wings of feathers 3 Died of a broken neck Early History of Aviation Robert Stengel, Aircraft Flight Dynamics, MAE 331, 2008 Copyright 2008 by Robert Stengel. All rights reserved.
For educational use only. http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/MAE331.html http://www. princeton .
edu/~stengel/FlightDynamics .html The Natural Philosophers " 350 BC: Aristotle 3 Continuum model 3 Suggests that a body moving through continuum would encounter resistance " 250 BC: Archimedes 3 Fluid set in motion by pressure differential " 1490: Da Vinci 3 Cross-sectional area times Velocity = constant (continuity) 3 Sketches of Mow patterns 3 Ornithopter and helicopter concepts Experimentalists and Theorists " 1732: Pitot tube ( Henri Pitot ) " 1669-87: Newton 3 Newton's Laws 3 Newtonian Mow, sin 2 ! force dependency " 1738: Bernoulli 3 Pressure-velocity relationship " 1752: Euler 3 Equations for Muid Mow " 1788: Lagrange 3 Velocity potential and stream function " 1742: Whirling arm "wind tunnel" ( Benjamin Robins ) Sir George Cayley " Sketches "modern" airplane conLguration (1799) " Hand-launched glider (1804) " Papers on applied aerodynamics (1809-1810) " ... more. less.
Triplane glider carrying 10- yr-old boy (1849) " Monoplane glider carrying coachman (1853) 3 Cayley's coachman had a steering oar with cruciform blades Visionaries " 1831: Thomas Walker 3 Various glider concepts 3 Tandem-wing design inMuenced Langley " 1843: William Henson & John Stringfellow 3 Aerial steam carriage concept 3 Vision of commercial air transportation (with Marriott and Columbine, The Aerial Transit Company ) Late 19 th Century Developments " 1860-1900: Theoretical aerodynamic contributions by Helmholtz, Kirchhoff, Lord Rayleigh, Reynolds, Lanchester, and others " 1866: Aeronautical Society of Great Britain founded ( Lord Baden-Powell secretary and later president) " 1874: Felix du Temple 's hot-air engine manned monoplane Mies down a ramp " 1884: Alexander Mozhaisky 's steam-powered manned airplane makes a brief hop off the ground; Mat-plate wings 19 th Century Flyers " 1868: Jean Marie Le Bris ! s Arti;cial Albatross glides a short distance " 1890: Clement Ader 's steam- powered Eole hops off ground " 1891-96: Otto Lilienthal 's hang- glider Mights, plus others ( Chanute, Pilcher, .<br><br> ..) " 1894: Sir Hiram Maxim 's steam- powered biplane hops off ground; vertical gyroscope/servo control of the elevator Stability vs . Control OR Stability and Control? " Prior to 1903, it was thought that an airplane should hold its course alone 3 Pilot could steer by deMecting the rudder " This suggested: 3 Aft-mounted tail 3 Wing dihedral or high wing 3 Proper center-of-mass location Early Aircraft Control " Lillienthal shifted center of mass in hang gliders " Langley 's plane had movable cruciform tail " Wright brothers used wing warping and movable rudder and elevator surfaces " Glenn Curtiss invented aileron surfaces Stability and Control Analysts " Frederick Lanchester (1868-1946) 3 Model gliders 3 Two books, Aerial Flight and Aerodynetics , 1907 3 IdentiLed the phugoid mode 3 Mechanical engineer, built innovative motor cars " George H.<br><br> Bryan (1864-1928) 3 Longitudinal equations of motion (with W.E. Williams, 1903) 3 Full equations of motion and linearized equations (1911) " Problems 3 No computers 3 DifLculty in determining forces and moments of real aircraft Samuel Pierpoint Langley " Astronomer supported by Smithsonian Institution " Whirling-arm experiments " 1896: Langley's steam- powered Aerodrome model Mies 3/4 mile " 1903: Manned aircraft Might ends in failure The Wright Brothers " Wilbur and Orville were bicycle mechanics from Dayton, OH " Careful self-taught, empirical approach to Might " Wind-tunnel, kite, and glider experiments " 1903: Powered, manned aircraft Might ends in success 3 http://www. thewrightbrothers .<br><br> org/ 1ve 1rst 2ights .html Wright Brothers 9 Technical Contributions " Wrights recognized importance of balance and steering 3 Bank to turn was preferable to a cskid turn d 3 Roll control induced yaw 3 Too much stability hinders control and increases response to gusts 3 Wings can stall " Two experimental gliders 3 Wing warp controlled roll and foreplanes controlled pitch 3 2 nd glider had moving vertical tail coupled to the wing warp to suppress adverse yaw The Early Wright Flyers " 1903 Wright Flyer was very unstable, almost unmanageable " In 1904-5: 3 Removed wing anhedral (negative dihedral) 3 Increased rudder and elevator area 3 Rudder controlled by separate lever 3 Center of mass moved forward After Kitty Hawk " 1906: 2 nd successful aviator: Alberto Santos- Dumont, standing! 3 High dihedral, forward control surface " Wrights secretive about results until 1908; few further technical contributions " 1908: Glenn Curtiss et al incorporate ailerons 3 Wright brothers sue for infringement of 1906 US patent (and win) " 1909: Louis Bleriot's Might across the English Channel Glenn Curtiss " 1908: Glenn Curtiss becomes dominant US aviation inventor " 1914: Langley ! s Aerodrome Lnally Mies 3 Curtiss et al modify and My Langley Aerodrome in unsuccessful effort to discredit Wright patent, with Alexander Graham Bell !<br><br> s support. Pilot Inputs to Control: the Wright Approach " 1903 Wright Flyer 3 Prone pilot 3 Stick for pitch control 3 Hip cradle for wing-warping roll control 3 Aileron-rudder interconnect (ARI) " 1905 Wright Flyer 3 Upright pilot 3 Left lever for pitch 3 Right lever for roll and yaw with ARI 3 Right lever modiLed to separate roll (left-right) and yaw (fore-aft) control) w/o ARI 3 Feet not used for control Control Linkages " Louis Bleriot introduced: 3 Rudder bar controlled by feet 3 Center stick for pitch and roll control Bleriot XI Those Magni9cent Men in Their Flying Machines " Aircraft Design 3 Biplanes and monoplanes 3 Thin, cambered wings 3 Fore and aft horizontal tails 3 Aft vertical tails 3 Wooden frames and struts, wire bracing, canvas covering 3 Gasoline engines, improved efLciency 3 Invention of rotary engine Aviation in The Great War " 1914-18: World War I changes the complexion of Mying: reconnaissance, air superiority (dog Lghts), bombing, and personal transport " Wrights ! US monopoly broken by licensing for war effort " Aircraft Design 3 Biplanes, a few mono- and triplanes 3 Design to serve practical functions 3 Multiple engines for larger aircraft 3 Aft tails 3 Increased maneuverability, speed, g-loads, altitude 3 Improved piston engines, tractor propellers SPAD S.VII Maneuvering World War I Aircraft " Maneuverable aircraft with idiosyncrasies 3 Rotary engine 3 Small tail surfaces 3 Reliability issues " Maneuvering to stalls and spins " S nap roll : rudder and elevator " Barrel roll : aileron " Cross-control (e.g., right rudder, left stick) 3 glide path control during landing 3 good view of landing point " Unintended snap rolls led to spins and accidents during takeoff or landing Barrel Roll Snap Roll Sopwith Camel " Rotary engine induced gyroscopic coupling " Highly maneuverable " Aft fuel tank; when full, center of mass was too far aft for stability " Vertical tail too small, spin recovery not automatic with centering of controls Fokker Dr.<br><br> 1 Triplane : a response to the Sopwith Triplane " Red Baron ! s airplane " Rotary engine " Good rate of climb " Poor high-altitude performance " Superseded by Fokker D.VII after one year of service S.E.-5 Comparison to Fokker D.VII " RAF S.E.-5 : theoretical approach to design 3 cBest WWI design from the Royal Aircraft Factory d 3 Stationary engine 3 High dihedral 3 Stable spiral mode 3 High control forces 3 Poor maneuverability 3 Aircraft was relatively safe and effective " Fokker D.VII : empirical approach to design 3 Horn balances to reduce control forces 3 Stationary engine 3 Neutral-to-negative stability 3 Good maneuverability 3 Aircraft was relatively dangerous The stationary motor and the marked dihedral robbed the S.E. of much of the Camel's power of rapid manoeuvre, and it was, in fact, disliked by pilots skilled in the handling of rotary types.<br><br> On the other hand, supporters claimed that the stability provided a steady gun-platform and that the extra speed, combined with the remarkable diving and zooming qualities, more than compensated for the inferior agility. The Correct Answer: Stability AND Control " Need for better understanding of Flying (or Handling) Qualities (Stability and controllability characteristics as perceived by the pilot) " Desired attributes: Stability of the S.E.-5 and controllability of the D.VII Aviation Between the Wars " 1918-38: 3 Birth of airlines 3 Trophy races 3 Aviation Lrsts ( Lindbergh crosses the Atlantic, 1927) 3 Flying boats 3 Sport aviation 3 Paved runways 3 Many small builders Curtiss R3C-2 Gee-Bee R-1 Ryan NYP Barnstorming " Surplus WWI aircraft " Curtiss JN-4 Jenny " Wing-walkers Air Commerce Act of 1926 " Airlines formed to carry mail and passengers: 3 Northwest (1926) 3 Eastern (1927) 3 Pan Am (1927) 3 Boeing Air Transport (1927) , became United (1931) 3 Delta (1928) 3 American (1930) 3 TWA (1930) Boeing 40 Ford Tri-Motor Lockheed Vega Air Express Douglas Dolphin 1 Air Racers Presage Fighters of World War II " Aircraft Design 3 Transition to monoplanes 3 Metal skins and structure 3 Semi-monocoque design 3 Systematic airfoil design 3 Streamlining and improved aerodynamic efLciency 3 Improved in-line, V, and radial engines 3 Radiators vs. Lnned cylinders 3 Increased maneuverability, speed, altitude 3 Seaplane faster than landplanes (why?) Supermarine S.6B Hughes H-1 (replica) Macchi MC72 V = 566 km/hr V = 709 km/hr V = 547 km/hr Technology of World War II Aviation " 1938-45: Analytical and experimental approach to design 3 Many conLgurations designed and Might-tested 3 Increased specialization; radar, navigation, and communication 3 Approaching the "sonic barrier d " Aircraft Design 3 Large, powerful, high-Mying aircraft 3 Turbocharged engines 3 Oxygen and Pressurization Spit;re P-51D B-17 Next Time: Con 5guration Aerodynamics<br><br>